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Position paper on issues with handovers and collaboration.

Position paper on issues with handovers and collaboration.

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Handover jct Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Handover: Collaboration for Continuity of Work ECSCW’07 Workshop, Tuesday 25th September 2007 Towards a Pattern Language for Effective Handovers. John C. Thomas IBM T. J. Watson Research Center
  • 2. A Pattern Language
    • Initiated by Christopher Alexander
    • Architectural “Patterns” that capture named recurring problems and solutions
    • Organized into a “Pattern Language” – a lattice of inter-related Patterns.
    • Examples:
      • Eccentric Town Center encourages commuter traffic to stop at Town Center
      • European Pub
      • Gradient of Privacy in homes: porch, entry, living room, dinning room, kitchen, bedroom
    • Since applied to other domains: Object-oriented programming(e.g.,Coplien, Vlissides, Gamma), management (e.g., Coplien & Harrison), learning ( http:// www.pedagogicalpatterns.org / ), HCI (e.g., Borchers, Tidwell, Van Weile) and the socio-technical domain (e.g., Schummer, Schuler).
  • 3. Focus and Context: An Assembly Line vs. A Garden
    • A baton is dropped:
      • The moment is dramatic!
      • Our attention is focused on the moment.
      • Our culture is bent on blame.
    • Another approach:
      • Examine the context; e.g.,
        • What is the current physical & psychological state of individuals?
        • What is the game-theoretic context?
        • What is the physical context; e.g., distracting stimuli?
        • What is the larger social sharing context wrt knowledge, rewards, etc.?
      • Examine the history:
        • How were people trained?
        • How were expectations managed?
  • 4. A Handover Story
    • D.H., psychiatric patient, 11 years old, had severe diabetes.
    • After a blood test, and before lunch, given a high dose of insulin.
    • Instead of lunch, had an energy-consuming battle with staff.
    • Taken to an isolation room.
    • I told attending nurse to pay close attention to him for the reasons above.
  • 5. A Handover Story (Cont.)
    • A few minutes later, I left lunchroom to check on D.H. (Why? After all, I had “handed over” responsibility to the Nurse).
    • Nurse said, “He’s doing fine. He went right to sleep.”
    • Thanks to “instant glucose” D.H. was OK.
    • Nurse, it turned out, was almost totally deaf!
    • But generated social cues to indicate she “understood” what was said. Hence, no-one knew!
    • What was my critical (wrong) assumption here?
  • 6. Another Handover Story
    • Thames Water Company
    • Engineers and Dispatchers
    • Dispatchers measured on how many calls/hour
    • Engineers measured on problems fixed
    • Older dispatcher given warnings; 1/3 average calls/hour; ready to let go for incompetence
  • 7. Rest of the Story…
    • Married to an engineer
    • Highly experienced
    • Average calls resulted in dispatching an engineer 1/10 calls
    • Her calls resulted in dispatching engineer 1/1000 calls
    • Fallacy of Composition
    • In medical setting, unrelenting tests and indefinite drugs
    • Problems: novel drug interactions; drug/human systems interactions; physicians seldom trained in systems thinking
  • 8. A Totally Different Handover Story
    • The Walking People by Paula Underwood is the English transcription of the oral history of her branch of the Iroquois.
    • Oral transmission of knowledge was crucial to the existence of the tribe.
    • The telephone game “shows” the unreliability of oral transmission. Guess again.
    • How did oral transmission of knowledge work?
    • How did they “handover” experience from one generation to the next?
  • 9. Some Patterns from the Iroquois
    • “Who Speaks for Wolf?”
    • The Rule of Six.
    • All Learn but one is Arbitrator.
    • An Ordered Council.
    • Reality Check.
    • Small Successes Early.
  • 10. Iroquois Patterns
    • Not so much focused on the BATON PASSING, per se .
    • Focused on setting the conditions for which effective baton passing takes place.
  • 11. References:
    • Alexander, C. A timeless way of building. New York: Oxford, 1979.
    • Alexander, C. A., Ishikawa, S., Silverstein, M., Jacobson, M. Fiksdahl-King, I., and Angel, S. A Pattern Language. New York: Oxford Press, 1977.
    • Alexander, C. The Nature of Order. New York: Oxford Press, In Press.
    • Coplien, J. O., and Schmidt, D. C. Pattern Languages of Program Design. Reading, MA: Addison-Weslye, 1995.
    • Crabtree, A., Hemmings,T., Rodden, T.,.Pattern-based Support for Interactive Design in Domestic Settings. Proceedings DIS 2002, 265-275.
    • Gamma, E., Helm, R., Johnson, R., and Vlissides, J. Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object Oriented Software. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1995.
    • Johansen, B. E. Forgotten founders: How the American Indian helped shape democracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Common Press, 1987.
    • Johansen, B. E. Debating democracy: Native American legacy of freedom. Sante Fe: Clear Light, 1998.
    • Liberating Voices: A Pattern Language for Social Change. www.cpsr.org/program/sphere/ pattern s
    • Thomas, J. C. (2001). An HCI Agenda for the Next Millennium: Emergent Global Intelligence. In R. Earnshaw, R. Guedj, A. van Dam, and J. Vince (Eds.), Frontiers of human-centered computing, online communities, and virtual environments . London: Springer-Verlag.
  • 12. References:
    • Thomas, J. C., Kellogg, W.A., and Erickson, T. (2001) The Knowledge Management puzzle: Human and social factors in knowledge management. IBM Systems Journal, 40 (4), 863-884. Available on-line at http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj40-4.html
    • Thomas, J. C. (2001). An HCI Agenda for the Next Millennium: Emergent Global Intelligence. In R. Earnshaw, R. Guedj, A. van Dam, and J. Vince (Eds.), Frontiers of human-centered computing, online communities, and virtual environments . London: Springer-Verlag.
    • Thomas, J.C. (1980). The computer as an active communication medium. Invited paper, Association for Computational Linguistics, Philadelphia, June 1980. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics. , pp. 83-86.
    • Malhotra, A., Thomas, J.C. and Miller, L. (1980). Cognitive processes in design. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies , 12 , pp. 119-140.
    • Thomas, J.C. (1978). A design-interpretation analysis of natural English. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies , 10 , pp. 651-668.
    • Thomas, J.C. and Carroll, J. (1978). The psychological study of design. Design Studies, 1 (1) , pp. 5-11.
    • Underwood, P. Who speaks for Wolf: A Native American learning story. San Anselmo, CA: Tribe of Two Press, 1983.
    • Underwood, P. Three strands in the braid: A guide for learning enablers. San Anselmo, CA: Tribe of Two Press, 1994.
    • Underwood, P. The walking people. San Anselmo, Ca: Tribe of Two Press, 1993.