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Handover jct


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Position paper on issues with handovers and collaboration.

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Handover jct

  1. 1. Handover: Collaboration for Continuity of Work ECSCW’07 Workshop, Tuesday 25th September 2007 Towards a Pattern Language for Effective Handovers. John C. Thomas IBM T. J. Watson Research Center
  2. 2. A Pattern Language <ul><li>Initiated by Christopher Alexander </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural “Patterns” that capture named recurring problems and solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Organized into a “Pattern Language” – a lattice of inter-related Patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eccentric Town Center encourages commuter traffic to stop at Town Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European Pub </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradient of Privacy in homes: porch, entry, living room, dinning room, kitchen, bedroom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Since applied to other domains: Object-oriented programming(e.g.,Coplien, Vlissides, Gamma), management (e.g., Coplien & Harrison), learning ( http:// / ), HCI (e.g., Borchers, Tidwell, Van Weile) and the socio-technical domain (e.g., Schummer, Schuler). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Focus and Context: An Assembly Line vs. A Garden <ul><li>A baton is dropped: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The moment is dramatic! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our attention is focused on the moment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our culture is bent on blame. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Another approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine the context; e.g., </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the current physical & psychological state of individuals? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the game-theoretic context? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the physical context; e.g., distracting stimuli? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the larger social sharing context wrt knowledge, rewards, etc.? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine the history: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How were people trained? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How were expectations managed? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. A Handover Story <ul><li>D.H., psychiatric patient, 11 years old, had severe diabetes. </li></ul><ul><li>After a blood test, and before lunch, given a high dose of insulin. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of lunch, had an energy-consuming battle with staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Taken to an isolation room. </li></ul><ul><li>I told attending nurse to pay close attention to him for the reasons above. </li></ul>
  5. 5. A Handover Story (Cont.) <ul><li>A few minutes later, I left lunchroom to check on D.H. (Why? After all, I had “handed over” responsibility to the Nurse). </li></ul><ul><li>Nurse said, “He’s doing fine. He went right to sleep.” </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks to “instant glucose” D.H. was OK. </li></ul><ul><li>Nurse, it turned out, was almost totally deaf! </li></ul><ul><li>But generated social cues to indicate she “understood” what was said. Hence, no-one knew! </li></ul><ul><li>What was my critical (wrong) assumption here? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Another Handover Story <ul><li>Thames Water Company </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers and Dispatchers </li></ul><ul><li>Dispatchers measured on how many calls/hour </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers measured on problems fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Older dispatcher given warnings; 1/3 average calls/hour; ready to let go for incompetence </li></ul>
  7. 7. Rest of the Story… <ul><li>Married to an engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Highly experienced </li></ul><ul><li>Average calls resulted in dispatching an engineer 1/10 calls </li></ul><ul><li>Her calls resulted in dispatching engineer 1/1000 calls </li></ul><ul><li>Fallacy of Composition </li></ul><ul><li>In medical setting, unrelenting tests and indefinite drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: novel drug interactions; drug/human systems interactions; physicians seldom trained in systems thinking </li></ul>
  8. 8. A Totally Different Handover Story <ul><li>The Walking People by Paula Underwood is the English transcription of the oral history of her branch of the Iroquois. </li></ul><ul><li>Oral transmission of knowledge was crucial to the existence of the tribe. </li></ul><ul><li>The telephone game “shows” the unreliability of oral transmission. Guess again. </li></ul><ul><li>How did oral transmission of knowledge work? </li></ul><ul><li>How did they “handover” experience from one generation to the next? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Some Patterns from the Iroquois <ul><li>“Who Speaks for Wolf?” </li></ul><ul><li>The Rule of Six. </li></ul><ul><li>All Learn but one is Arbitrator. </li></ul><ul><li>An Ordered Council. </li></ul><ul><li>Reality Check. </li></ul><ul><li>Small Successes Early. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Iroquois Patterns <ul><li>Not so much focused on the BATON PASSING, per se . </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on setting the conditions for which effective baton passing takes place. </li></ul>
  11. 11. References: <ul><li>Alexander, C. A timeless way of building. New York: Oxford, 1979. </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander, C. A., Ishikawa, S., Silverstein, M., Jacobson, M. Fiksdahl-King, I., and Angel, S. A Pattern Language. New York: Oxford Press, 1977. </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander, C. The Nature of Order. New York: Oxford Press, In Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Coplien, J. O., and Schmidt, D. C. Pattern Languages of Program Design. Reading, MA: Addison-Weslye, 1995. </li></ul><ul><li>Crabtree, A., Hemmings,T., Rodden, T.,.Pattern-based Support for Interactive Design in Domestic Settings. Proceedings DIS 2002, 265-275. </li></ul><ul><li>Gamma, E., Helm, R., Johnson, R., and Vlissides, J. Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object Oriented Software. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1995. </li></ul><ul><li>Johansen, B. E. Forgotten founders: How the American Indian helped shape democracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Common Press, 1987. </li></ul><ul><li>Johansen, B. E. Debating democracy: Native American legacy of freedom. Sante Fe: Clear Light, 1998. </li></ul><ul><li>Liberating Voices: A Pattern Language for Social Change. pattern s </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas, J. C. (2001). An HCI Agenda for the Next Millennium: Emergent Global Intelligence. In R. Earnshaw, R. Guedj, A. van Dam, and J. Vince (Eds.), Frontiers of human-centered computing, online communities, and virtual environments . London: Springer-Verlag. </li></ul>
  12. 12. References: <ul><li>Thomas, J. C., Kellogg, W.A., and Erickson, T. (2001) The Knowledge Management puzzle: Human and social factors in knowledge management. IBM Systems Journal, 40 (4), 863-884. Available on-line at </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas, J. C. (2001). An HCI Agenda for the Next Millennium: Emergent Global Intelligence. In R. Earnshaw, R. Guedj, A. van Dam, and J. Vince (Eds.), Frontiers of human-centered computing, online communities, and virtual environments . London: Springer-Verlag. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas, J.C. (1980). The computer as an active communication medium. Invited paper, Association for Computational Linguistics, Philadelphia, June 1980. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics. , pp. 83-86. </li></ul><ul><li>Malhotra, A., Thomas, J.C. and Miller, L. (1980). Cognitive processes in design. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies , 12 , pp. 119-140. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas, J.C. (1978). A design-interpretation analysis of natural English. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies , 10 , pp. 651-668. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas, J.C. and Carroll, J. (1978). The psychological study of design. Design Studies, 1 (1) , pp. 5-11. </li></ul><ul><li>Underwood, P. Who speaks for Wolf: A Native American learning story. San Anselmo, CA: Tribe of Two Press, 1983. </li></ul><ul><li>Underwood, P. Three strands in the braid: A guide for learning enablers. San Anselmo, CA: Tribe of Two Press, 1994. </li></ul><ul><li>Underwood, P. The walking people. San Anselmo, Ca: Tribe of Two Press, 1993. </li></ul>