3. 4. He got up at six o’clock.5. I‘ve been teaching for a longtime.
4. 6. We’ll travel byplane.7. We were out walking when itstarted to rain.
5. 8. It’s six o clock now, Ishall have finished byeight o’clock. .............. x
6. THE TENSEAND ASPECT SYSTEM
7. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TENSE ANDASPECTTENSE- it relates to time (past, present, future)ASPECT- it does with the internal structure of the action occurring at anytime ( simple, perfect, progressive, perfect progressive)TENSE-ASPECT- combination of tense and aspect
8. TENSE PAST, PRESENT and FUTURE past present futureyesterday today/ now tomorrow
9. TENSE AND ASPECT SIMPLE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE Ø Have+-en Be+-ing Have+-en be+-ingPresent Write/writes Has/have written Am/is/are writing Has/have been writing Walk/walks Has/have walked Am/is/are walking Has/have been walkingPast Wrote Had written Was/were writing Had been writing walked Had walked Was/were walking Had been walkingFuture Will write Will have written Will be writing Will have been writing Will walk Will have walked Will be walking Will have been walking
10. ASPECT SIMPLE ASPECT- refers to events that are conceptualized as complete wholes. The events are not presented as allowing for further development (Hirtle 1967) PROGRESSIVE ASPECT- is imperfective, meaning that it portrays an event in a way that allows for it to be incomplete, or somehow limited.
11.  ASPECT PERFECT ASPECT- the core meaning is “prior” and it is used in relation to some other point in time. For instance, present perfect is used retrospectively to refer to a time prior to now. PERFECT PROGRESSIVE ASPECT- combines the sense of “prior” of the perfect with the meaning of “incompleteness” inherent in the progressive aspect.
12. SIMPLE PRESENTFORM Remains in its base form (write, walk) and the third person singular is made by adding an –s to the verb (writes, walks)MEANING Conveys immediate factuality (Lewis 1986) The earth rotates around the sun. Habitual action in the present He walks to school every day.
13. SIMPLE PRESENT General timeless truths, such as physical laws or customsWater freezes at 0 degrees centigrade. Expresses future (when a schedules eventis involved, usually with a future-timeadverbial)I have a meeting next Wednesday at that time.
14. SIMPLE PRESENT Present event/action (usually in sporting events or demonstrations/procedures of some sort)Now I add three eggs to the mixture.
15. Time expressions always, usually, often, frequently, normally, sometimes, occasionally, seldom, rarely, hardly ever, almost, never all the time, most of the time, in general, generally, every, once a week, from time to time, now and then, off and on, once in a while
16. PRESENTPROGRESSIVE/CONTINUOUS FORM  Combines a form of be verb (am, is, are) with the present participle an “ing” form  = am/is/are + present participle (V-ing) MEANING  Activity in progress  He is attending the meeting now.
17. PRESENTPROGRESSIVE/CONTINUOUS  A temporary situation Phyllis is living with her parents.  Repetition or iteration in a series of similar ongoing actions. Henry is kicking the soccer ball around the backyard.  Expresses future (when event is planned; usually with a future-time adverbial) She is coming tomorrow.
18. PRESENTPROGRESSIVE/CONTINUOUS  Emotional comment on present habit (usually co-occurring with frequency adverbs always or forever) He is always delivering in a clutch situation. (approving) He is forever acting up at these affairs. ( disapproving)  A change in progress She is becoming more and more like her mother.
19. Time expressions now, right now, today, this year (month, week), at this moment, these days, nowadays, currently, at present, presently.
20. COMPARISON OF THE USESIMPLE PRESENT PRESENT PROGRESSIVEa. A habit a. Action happening at the moment of speaking Why do you wear  Why are you wearing glasses? (habitual) glasses? ( moment of speech)b. Permanent situation b. Temporary event Linda lives with her  Linda is living with her parents. (permanent- parents. (temporary-until she gets a better job) because it costs her too c. Specific event much to live alone)  What are you doing forc. General situation Thanksgiving? (one specific Thanksgiving What do you do for holiday- the forthcoming Thanksgiving? (the one) holiday each year)
21. COMPARISON OF THE USE NOW SIMPLE PAST FUTURE PRESENT NOW PAST FUTURE PRESENTPROGRESSIVE
22. ACTIVITY Use either the simple present or the present progressive to complete the dialogue between Corky and Borgy.Example: Corky and Borgy __________ (prepare) for their Christmas Party tomorrow.
23. PRESENT PERFECTFORM Is formed with the verb has(3rd person singular)/have and the past participle. “en” for irregular verb (written) “ed” for regular verb (walked) = Has/ have + past participle
24. PRESENT PERFECTMEANING A situation that began at a prior point in time and continues into the present. I have been a teacher since 2007.
25. PRESENT PERFECT A very recently completed action (often with JUST, RECENTLY, JUST RECENTLY) Mort has just finished his homework. Indicates an action that happened at an UNSPECIFIED TIME in the past that has CURRENT RELEVANCE (usually with ALREADY)DOH has already warned the people about dengue fever.Dengue has already infected millions of people. Dengue __________ (infect) many Filipino children in 2004.
26. PRESENT PERFECTMEANING Indicates an action that happened in the past, and got completed immediately before or at the time of speaking (usually with FOR and SINCE.For many decades, dengue fever HAS BEEN one of the most life threatening diseases of the warmest climates.
27. PRESENT PERFECTMEANING Indicates a repetitive action BEFORE NOW (usually with SEVERAL TIMES, MANY TIMES and REPEATEDLY).Dengue HAS ATTACKED our community SEVERAL TIMES.I HAVE repeatedly CALLED the attention of our leaders about the dengue epidemic.
28. Time expressions already, just, just recently, yet, never, still, ever, so, far, up to now, repeatedly, many times, several times, twice, for (+period of time), since, (+beginning time)
29. PRESENT PERFECTFORM PROGRESSIVE Can be seen to be a combination of the perfect form with have + -en and the progressive form with be + -ing. In this case the be verb of the progressive carries the –en perfect ending, it is in the past participle form been. = has/have been + present participle (-ing)
30. PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVEMEANING A situation or habit that began in the past (recent or distant) and that continues up to the present ( and possibly into the future) Burt has been going out with Alice. An action in progress that is not yet completedI have been reading that book.
31. PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE A state that changes over time The students have been getting better and better. Indicates that an action happened in a specific duration or time in the past and continues to occur up to the future time. Up to now, the Health Department HAS BEEN TRYING to discover a vaccine for the disease.
32. Time expressions recently, so, far, up to now, to date, all day long, all my life, for (+period of time), since, (+beginning time), how long (for questioning)
33. COMPARISON OF THE USE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVEPRESENT PERFECTa. Prior event a. Specific and possibly still I have visited my great- ongoing activity  I have been visiting my grandmother. (prior event) great-grandmother. (possibly still ongoing)b. Continuation being only b. Strong implication of a possibility continuation I have taught for 25  I have been teaching for 25 years. (so now, it’s time years. (and I can’t imagine to think about doing doing anything else) something else c. Single accomplishment,c. Completed action incomplete. Gail has remodelled her  Gail has been remodelling home. (complete) her home. (incomplete)
35. COMPARISON OF THE USE NOW SIMPLE PAST FUTURE PRESENT NOW PAST FUTURE PRESENTPROGRESSIVE
36. COMPARISON OF THE USE NOW PRESENT PAST FUTURE PERFECT NOW PAST FUTURE PRESENT PERFECTPROGRESSIVE
37. ACTIVITY: Complete the following text by putting the verbs in the parentheses in either the present perfect or present perfect progressive.
38. SIMPLE PAST TENSEFORM Is formed by using its past form; infliction of -d/ -ed for regular verbs and definite for irregular verbs or 0 inflection. Remains invariant for all persons and number, except for past linking verbs, was and were. Walk-walked= regular verb Write-wrote= irregular verb
39. SIMPLE PAST TENSEMEANING Notions of completeness and remoteness in timea. A definite single completed event/ action in the past I attended the meeting of that committee last week.b. Habitual or repeated action/ event in the past It rained almost every weekend last July.
40. SIMPLE PAST TENSEc. An event with duration that applied in the past with the implication that it no longer applies in the present Professor Nelson taught at this university for 30 years.d. With states in the past He owed me a lot of money.e. Indicates that the past even has no room for change Lowla closed the door.f. Social distancing Did you want to sit down and stay a while?
41. TIMEEXPRESSIONS last year, last week, yesterday, last night, a week (month, year) ago, in 1750 (any year that had passed)
42. PAST PROGRESSIVEFORM Combines the past form of the be verb, here in two forms- first and third person singular form was and all the other persons and numbers with were- followed by the present participle. = was/were + present participle
43. PAST PROGRESSIVEMEANINGa. An action in progress at a specific point of time in the past. He was walking to school at 8:30 this morning.b. Past action simultaneous with some other event that is usually stated in the simple past. Karen was washing her hair when the phone rang. While Alex was travelling in Europe, he ran into an old friend.
44. PAST PROGRESSIVEc. Repetition or iteration of some ongoing past action. Jake was coughing all night long.d. Social distancing ( which comes from the past tense and the tentativeness of the progressive aspect) I was hoping you could lend me P10.
45. TIMEEXPRESSIONS all day (morning, week), in (during, by), the summer, just a minute ago, at that time, during that time, at this this time, last month (week, year)
46. COMPARISON OF THE USESIMPLE PAST PAST PROGRESSIVEa. Complete action a. Incomplete action  He was drowning in the He drowned in the lake. lake, so the lifeguard racedb. Sees the event as a into the water. (incomplete) totality with no room for b. Indicates that an event has change. already begun and extends He left when I came. the event in time and thus allows for a change or its interruption  He was leaving when I came in. (and so may have changed his mind and stayed)
47. COMPARISON OF THE USESIMPLE PAST PAST PROGRESSIVEc. Permanent state c. Temporary state They lived in Baltimore  They were living in all their lives. (past Baltimore during the permanent) seventies. (past temporary)
49. COMPARISON OF THE USE NOW SIMPLE PAST FUTURE PRESENT NOW PAST FUTURESIMPLE PAST
50. COMPARISON OF THE USE NOW PAST FUTURE PRESENTPROGRESSIVE NOW PAST FUTURE PASTPROGRESSIVE
51. COMPARISON OF THE USE NOW PAST FUTURESIMPLE PAST NOW PAST FUTURE PASTPROGRESSIVE
52. Activity Read the following text about a real life embarrassing experience of some teenagers. Use the verb in the parentheses in either the simple past or past progressive. Show Off Pole Position Puberty Patrol
53. I (1. surf) ______________ at the beach with my friends,and we (2. have) ______________ a contest to see who couldcatch the biggest wave in order to show off in front of thisgorgeous girl lifeguard. I (3. see) ______________a gigantic wavecoming my way so I (4. call) ______________ it, and (5. paddleout) ______________ for some fun. I didn’t paddle fast enoughand the wave (6. crash down) ______________ on me andpushed me under. The next thing I (7. know) ______________,the hot life guard (8. grab) ______________ me from under thewater and (9. pull) ______________ me to shore. All my friends(10. laugh) ______________ at that time, and I (11. feel)______________ like an idiot. I (12. thank) ______________ herfor saving me, but then she (13. begin) ______________ to giveme a lecture on being safe at the beach. That was the last time I(14. risk) ______________ my life for a girl. For my humiliation, I(15. dont even get) ______________ a mouth-to-mouthresuscitation.
54. I (1. have) ______________ a huge crush on agirl who was completely out of my league. As luckwould have it, I (2. be pair up) ______________with her for a class project, and we (3. become)______________ pretty good friends. One day, she(4. ask) ______________ me to hang out with herduring lunch. I (5. make) ______________ my wayacross the quad with her and I (6. notice)______________ that her friends (7. check)______________ me out. I (8. try) ______________to be so cool and nonchalant, I (9. walk)______________ straight into a pole. Everyone (10.laugh) ______________ at me including the girl of
55. When I (1. be) ______________ 15, I (2. work)______________ in a grocery store and (3. have)______________to help with all stock – relatedquestions. One day, I (4. respond) ______________to a cashier’s price check over the P.A. system whenpuberty suddenly (5. kick in) ______________. As I(6. answer) ______________ on the store speakers,my voice fluctuated from low to high - it (7. sound)______________ like I (8. yodel) ______________.Everyone in the store, including my co – workers (9.laugh) ______________! I just (10. bolt)___________to the parking lot to retrieve shoppingcarts for the rest of the day.
56. PRESENT PERFECT A very recently completed action (often with JUST, RECENTLY, JUST RECENTLY) Mort has just finished his homework. Indicates an action that happened at an UNSPECIFIED TIME in the past that has CURRENT RELEVANCE (usually with ALREADY)DOH has already warned the people about dengue fever.Dengue has already infected millions of people. Dengue __________ (infect) many Filipino children in 2004.
57. PRESENT PERFECT VS.SIMPLE PASTPast with PRESENT RELEVANCE/Past involving the PRESENT.
58. COMPARISON OF THE USEPRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE PASTTEMPORAL SPECIFIC PAST ADVERBIALS TIME (since, yet, for ADVERBIALS already, just) (yesterday, last I HAVE JOINED year) the Olympics  I JOINED the since 1992. Olympics last year.
59. COMPARISON OF THE USE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE PASTINDEFINITE DEFINITE QUESTION HAVE you JOINED QUESTION the Olympics?  DID you JOIN the The asker has no Olympics? idea if the person You said you she/he is talking to competed in an has competed in an international sports international competition. sports competition
60. COMPARISON OF THE USE: 1. continuation up to the present time PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE PASTState-up-to-the Indefinite past PRESENT meaningHabit-up-to-the meaning present meaning  His sister was an His sister has been invalid all her an invalid all her life. life. (She is still alive) She is now dead.
61. Comparison on the useSIMPLE T.E. PRESENT T.E.PAST PERFECTI graduated In (year) I have Not specifiedfrom DLSU in graduated in2009. DLSU.I submitted Yesterday I have already Alreadymy submitted myapplication applicationletter letteryesterday I have not Yet submitted my letter yet.
62. COMPARISON OF THE USE NOW PAST FUTURESIMPLE PAST NOWPRESENT PAST FUTUREPERFECT
63. Activity Read the following article about Dr. Martina Romero, then underline the correct form of the verb in the parentheses.
64. PAST PERFECTFORM Is made with the past form of have which is had followed by past participle of the main verb. = had+ past participle (-en/ -ed)
65. PAST PERFECTMEANING (completed)a. An action completed in the past prior to some other past event or time/ Indicates that two past actions happened SEQUENTIALLY He had already left before I could offer him a ride. She had worked at the post office before 1962.b. Indicates an action that was expected to occur in the pastMike had expected her to come to the party.
66. PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVEFORM Is formed with the past form of the have verb (had) followed by the past participle of the be verb (been) and the present participle of the main verb. = had been+ present participle (-ing)
67. PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVEMEANING (continuous)a. An action or habit taking place over a period of time in the past prior to some other past event or time. Carol had been working hard, so her doctor told her to take a vacation. She had been trying to finish her degree that year.
68. PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVEb. A past action in progress that was interrupted Generally, for the perfect by a more recent past action. We had been planning to go in Makati, butaspect, HAD is used on the changed our minds after receiving the call action that from Mr. Dela Cruz.c. Indicates that an action or habit was taking occurred first. place over a period of time. He had been longing to be loved by Lea ever since he met her.
69. THE USE OF PAST PERFECTPROGRESSIVE To say that something had been happening for a period of time before something else happened ( Raymond Murphy, 2004)
71. COMPARISON OF THE USE NOW SIMPLE PAST FUTURE PRESENT NOW PAST FUTURESIMPLE PAST
72. COMPARISON OF THE USE NOW PAST FUTURE PRESENTPROGRESSIVE NOW PAST FUTURE PASTPROGRESSIVE
73. COMPARISON OF THE USE NOW PAST FUTURE PASTPERFECT NOWPRESENT PAST FUTUREPERFECT
74. COMPARISON OF THE USE PAST PAST NOW FUTURE PERFECTPROGRESSIVE NOW PRESENT PAST FUTURE PERFECTPROGRESSIVE
75. Activity Directions: Read the following article about Diana. Then give the correct form of the verb in the parentheses using the simple past, past perfect, or past perfect progressive.
76. SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE : WillFORM Uses the modal will with the base form of the verb to indicate that the action takes place in the future. =will + base form of the verb
77. SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE:WILLMEANINGa. An action to take place at some definite future time Joel will take the bar exam next month.b. In a formal situation, expressing a future event that will not happen immediately Well, Mr. Secretary, the senate will approve it next week.
78. SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE WILLc. Expressing strong predictions You will definitely pass your exam. You will surely reap the fruit of your labor eventually.d. Expressing future plans or intentions (decisions was made at the time of speaking) I will decide on it then and there. The phone is ringing. I will answer it.
79. TIMEEXPRESSIONS Tomorrow, next week (day, month, year), in the future, from now on, tonight, next time, next semester, in a minute.
80. SIMPLE FUTURETENSE : BE GOING TOFORM Uses the PHRASAL modal BE GOING TO with the base form of the verb to indicate that the action takes place in the future. =BE GOING TO + base form of the verb
81. SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE:BE GOING TOMEANINGa. Expressing future plans or intentions (decision was made before speaking) In March, I am going to visit my hometown.b. Predicting and expressing expectations about the future Our team is going to win the game.
82. SIMPLE FUTURETENSE: BE GOING TOc. Expressing an action that will happen very soon / immediately Be careful! That building is going to collapse.d. Expressing expectations that are NOT 100 PERCENT SURE (with probably) They are probably going to visit us next week.
83. TIMEEXPRESSIONS This afternoon (weekend, evening), later tomorrow, tonight, soon, now, in a few minutes, next month
84. SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE : SIMPLE PRESENTFORM Uses the PHRASAL modal BE GOING TO with the base form of the verb to indicate that the action takes place in the future. =BE GOING TO + base form of the verb
85. SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE:BE GOING TOMEANINGa. Expressing future plans or intentions (decision was made before speaking) In March, I am going to visit my hometown.b. Predicting and expressing expectations about the future Our team is going to win the game.
86. SIMPLE FUTURETENSE: BE GOING TOc. Expressing an action that will happen very soon / immediately Be careful! That building is going to collapse.d. Expressing expectations that are NOT 100 PERCENT SURE (with probably) They are probably going to visit us next week.
87. TIMEEXPRESSIONS This afternoon (weekend, evening), later, tomorrow, tonight, soon, now, in a few minutes, next month
88. FUTURE TENSE:SIMPLE PRESENTFORM Remains in its base form (write, walk) and the third person singular is made by adding an –s to the verb (writes, walks)MEANING Expresses future (when a schedules event is involved, usually with a future-time adverbial) I have a meeting next Wednesday at that time.
89. SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE: SIMPLE PRESENTExpressing a future habitual action or state My father goes to office at 9 am everyday. (the statement was made before the actual action happens, maybe at 7
90. TIMEEXPRESSIONS Tomorrow, next week (day, month, year), in the future, from now on, tonight, next time, next semester, in a minute
91. SIMPLE FUTURE:PRESENT PROGRESSIVE/CONTINUOUS FORM  Combines a form of be verb (am, is, are) with the present participle an “ing” form  = am/is/are + present participle (V-ing) MEANING  Expresses future (when event is planned; usually with a future-time adverbial) She is coming tomorrow..
92. SIMPLE FUTURE:PRESENT PROGRESSIVE/CONTINUOUS MEANING  Expresses future MEANING with verbs of MOVEMENT OR TRANSPORTATION such as come, go, leave, drive and fly. I am leaving in a few minutes. How about Jacky?
93. SIMPLE FUTURE:PRESENT PROGRESSIVE/CONTINUOUS MEANING  Expresses future plans that are not 100 percent sure. (usually with PROBABLY) My parents are PROBABLY attending the PTA. How about you? Mother is PROBABLY not coming.
94. SIMPLE FUTURE:PRESENT PROGRESSIVE/CONTINUOUS Note: Sometimes the present progressive and BE GOING TO hava a similar meaning. However, you have to use BE GOING TO (not present progressive) for predictions or guesses about the future.  Correct: Mother is going to win the lottery next week  Wrong: Mother is winning the lottery next week.
95. FUTURE PROGRESSIVEFORM Forms by the modal will followed by present progressive = will + be + present participle (-ing).
96. FUTURE PROGRESSIVEMEANINGa. An action that will be in progress at a specific time in the future. He will be taking the test at 8 A.M tomorrowb. Duration of some specific future action Mavis will be working on her thesis for the next three years.
97. TIMEEXPRESSIONS At 5 pm, at this tomorrow, at that time, the day after tomorrow, a week (month, year) from today, this weekend, for the next two (three, etc) years
98. FUTUREFORM PERFECT Forms by the modal will and followed by the present perfect (have + past participle) = will + have + past participle (-en)
99. FUTUREMEANING PERFECTa. A future action that will be completed prior to a specific future time I will have finished all this word processing by 5 P.M.
100. FUTUREMEANING PERFECTb. A state or accomplishment that will be competed in the future prior to some other future time or event At the end of the summer the Blakes will have been married for 10 years. By the end of the year, you will have accomplished a major project that will prove them wrong.
101. TIMEEXPRESSIONS By next week (month, year, etc), when time comes, when someone arrives or comes, when I reach 60 (any age)
102. FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVEFORM Forms by the modal will followed by present perfect progressive. = will + have + been + present participle (-ing)
103. FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVEMEANING Durative or habitual action that is taking place in the present and that will continue into the future up until or through a specific future time. On Christmas Eve we will have been living in the same house for 20 years. He will have been keeping a journal for 10 years next month.
104. FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVEMEANING Indicates that a future action is INTERCEPTED by another future action. As she will teach me the vocal techniques, I will have been singing my favorite song.
106. COMPARISON OF THE USE NOW SIMPLE PAST FUTURE FUTURE NOW PAST FUTURESIMPLE PAST
107. COMPARISON OF THE USE NOW PAST FUTURE FUTUREPROGRESSIVE NOW PAST FUTURE PASTPROGRESSIVE
108. COMPARISON OF THE USE NOW PAST FUTUREFUTUREPERFECT NOW PAST FUTURE PASTPERFECT
109. COMPARISON OF THE USE FUTURE PAST NOW FUTURE PERFECTPROGRESSIVE NOW PAST PAST FUTURE PERFECTPROGRESSIVE
110. SIMPLE FUTURE (WILL) VERSUS OTHER WAYS OF INDICATING FUTURITYa. Will is used for the following:1. Future predictions Belinda will be 40 next year.2. Spontaneous decision when the person has control over the action: I will get the phone.
111. SIMPLE FUTURE (WILL) VERSUS OTHER WAYS OF INDICATING FUTURITYb. Be going to is used for the following:1. Future predictions (more informal than will); Belinda is going to be 40 next year.2. Future intensions (based on prior decisions) Randy and Joyce are going to get married in October.3. Future certainty based on current condition or present evidences; Pauline is going to have a baby. It is going to rain today.
112. SIMPLE FUTURE (WILL) VERSUS OTHERWAYS OF INDICATING FUTURITYc. Present progressive is used for the future plans that have already been made. I am marching the parade next week.d. Simple present is used for:1. Fixed scheduled events: We get paid next Friday.2. Subordinate clauses of time (i.e., those beginning with when, after, before, etc.) or condition (i.e., provided that, if as long as, etc.) If the train arrives on time, we will beat rush hour getting home.
113. DISTINCTIONS IN SIMPLE FUTURESIMPLE PRESENT PRESENT PROGRESSIVE Scheduled events and future plansFormal and impersonal Less formalFor travel arrangements and fixed For arrangementstimetablesAunt Jeanne arrives today. Aunt Jeanne is arriving today.BE GOING TO PRESENT PROGRESSIVEFocuses more on the speaker’s Emphasizes that the arrangementsplans or intensions have already been madeI am going to stay at the Marriott. I am staying at the Marriott.BE GOING TO WILLExpresses the speaker’s certainty Used to make strong predictionEspecially when there is evidence Not necessarilyin the present to support theprediction.Mark is going to be tall like his dad. Mark will be tall like his dad. (?)
114. DISTINCTIONS IN SIMPLE FUTUREBE GOING TO WILLExpresses the speaker’s certainty Used to make strong predictionEspecially when there is evidence Not necessarilyin the present to support theprediction.Mark is going to be tall like his dad. ?Mark will be tall like his dad.Used with more premeditated ones Used for quick, “on –the-spot” decisions What can I give Jill for her birthday?Oh! I know. ? I am going to get her Oh! I know. I will get her that newthat new novel. novel.
115. DISTINCTIONS IN SIMPLE FUTURE Finally, when they occur together, the be going to tends to come first, to introduce the event, with details supplied with will. Tomorrow night we are going to have a cookout. Our guests will bring something to grill, and we will supply the rest.
116. USE OF THE FUTURE PROGRESSIVEAllows for the possibility of change with regard to some future event. We will be offering that class next semester. (more tentative in that it allows to change) We will offer hat class next semester. (more definite)To say you will be in the middle of doing it in the future. (R. Murphy, 2004) This time next week I’ll be on holiday. I will be lying on the beach or swimming in the sea.
117. TENSE – ASPECT SYSTEM Prior past perfectPast incomplete past progressive - (event is subject to change) Complete simple past (event is conceived of as a whole) remoteness Prior present perfectPresent incomplete present progressive Complete; simple present immediate factuality Prior future perfectFuture incomplete future progressive Complete; simple future strong prediction
118. THE LEXICAL ASPECT OF VERBS FOUR CATEGORIES OF VERBS BASED ON INHERENT LEXICAL ASPECT ACTIVITY ACCOMPLISHMENT ACHIEVEMENT STATE (PUNCTUAL)Run Paint (a picture) Recognize Have (something)Walk Make (a chair) Realize Contain (something)Swim Build (a house) Lose (something) Seemlive Write (a novel) Find (something) Wantstudy Grow up Win the race like
119. THE LEXICAL ASPECT OF VERBSACTIVITY VERBS Are durative and describe an ongoing action Have an undefined beginning and end pointACCOMPLISHMENT VERBS Share with activity verbs their durativity but each as well-defined end point, when the particular action described in the verb phrase is – or is not-completed.
120. THE LEXICAL ASPECT OF VERBSACHIEVEMENTS VERBS Have a well defined end point; no duration; and punctual.STATIVE VERBS Do not involve change; depict a stable situation that is assumed to last more or less definite.
121. SUBCATEGORIES OF STATIVE VERBSSENSORY MENTAL POSSESS- EMOTIONS, MEASURE- RELATION- DESCRIPT-PERCEPT- PERCEPT- ION ATTITUDES MENTS SHIP IONION ION AND OPINIONSSmell Know Possess Like Equal Contain BeSee Believe Have Love Measure Entail ResembleHear Think Own Hate Weight Consist of SoundTaste understand Belong Dislike cost Appearfeel Mean Want Seem doubt Desire look Need Prefer Appreciate wish
122. INTERACTION OF FOUR MAIN CATEGORIESOF VERBS WITH THE ASPECT It has been said that stative verbs do not normally take the progressive because of a fundamental semantic conflict between a grammatical aspect that denotes a limited duration and lexical aspect that expresses a stable state. (Murcia 2008) I am knowing the answer. I know the answer.
123. INTERACTION OF FOUR MAIN CATEGORIESOF VERBS WITH THE ASPECTHowever, such an unqualified generalization discounts the frequently observation that the progressive can occur with stative verbs to achieve certain effects (Kesner Bland 1988).a. Intensify the emotion expressed by the verb: I am hating this assignment. I hate this assignment.b. Indicate current behavior as opposed to general description: He is being rude. (cf) He is rude.
124. INTERACTION OF FOUR MAIN CATEGORIESOF VERBS WITH THE ASPECTc. introduce change in states by focusing on differences in degree across time: I am understanding less and less about life, the older I get.Other uses of progressive statives found by Gavis (1997)d. show limited duration Are you understanding this?e. Emphasize conscious involvement: What we are seeing is a red dwarf star.
125. INTERACTION OF FOUR MAIN CATEGORIESOF VERBS WITH THE ASPECTf. Show vividness One night in the middle of the night, I am hearing dripping.g. Express politeness Are you liking it?h. Mitigate criticism I like the first piano notes, I am not liking it where the strings come in.