Presenting Aspect As Tense


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A different view of aspect (student-oriented version of another presentation)

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Presenting Aspect As Tense

  1. 1. Presenting Aspect as Tense: A Case of the Verbs of Motion Made Simple Dominik Luke š dlukes
  2. 2. Aspect Quiz <ul><li>How many tenses does Czech have? And English? </li></ul><ul><li>How many aspects does Czech have? And English? </li></ul><ul><li>The _____________ aspect cannot express things happening right now, because … . </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs of motion are a special group because _________________ . </li></ul><ul><li>There are ___ verbs of motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete the sentence to make its tense or aspect obvious: _____________ Honza odchází ______________. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The New Aspect /Tense <ul><li>Czech has three aspects: perfective (focuses on event as a completed whole with no time span), imperfective (focuses on the event in progress without reference to beginning or end but definite time span) and repetitive (focuses whole events repeated). </li></ul><ul><li>Only verbs of motion have special forms for all three aspects. Most other verbs use the same form for imperfective and repetitive aspect. </li></ul><ul><li>Aspect mostly occurs with a tense (with the exception of nouns formed from verbs – boření vs. zboření, infinitives, etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>If the three aspects are combined with the three tenses, Czech can be said to have 8 tenses (3×3‑2 - perfective cannot combine with the present tense). </li></ul><ul><li>Each of these new tenses has specific functions which do not necessarily compute from when definitions of the aspect and the tense are combined together. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all perfective – imperfective pairings of verbs have the same meaning (e.g. stát – přistát [stand – land] , jít –najít [go – find] ) but most imperfective – repetitive pairs do. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a special form (infix –va–) to mark extra repetitiveness which isn’t part of the aspect-tense continuum. (e.g. d ělat – dělávat, číst – čítávat, etc.). It can be formed even from repetitive verbs of motion (e.g. chodit – chodívat) and has the same meaning in the past, present and future. In the past it is roughly equivalent to the English ‘used to’. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Summary of Tense/Aspect future repeated, habitual actions budu + infinitive of impf. verbs FUTURE repetitive future continuous actions budu + infinitive of impf. verbs FUTURE imperfective future completed, unrepeated actions conjugated form of perfective verbs FUTURE perfective repeated, habitual actions in the present conjugated form of impf verbs, or repetitive form with verbs of motion PRESENT repetitive actions happening now conjugated form of imperfective verbs PRESENT imperfective habitual, repeated past actions -l form of imperfective verbs PAST repetitive actions happening for a certain time/in parallel in the past -l form of imperfective verbs PAST imperfective actions completed in the past (often only happening once) -l form of perfective verbs PAST perfective Meaning Form Tense / aspect
  5. 5. Pros and Cons <ul><li>Students do not need to learn a new concept of aspect (until more advanced levels)! </li></ul><ul><li>Students are probably familiar with the notion of tense (and Czech can still be said to have 5 fewer tenses than English). </li></ul><ul><li>Students can learn specific functions and their form rather than having to combine two abstract notions to guess the meaning of a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs of motion are no longer the exception but verbs that fit the system best. </li></ul><ul><li>Aspect still needs to be introduced later to explain formation of deverbative nouns and adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Aspect is used by all current textbooks and grammars as the only explanation. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Functions
  7. 7. Aspect/Tense Timelines Future Rpt. Future Ipf. Future Perf. Present Rpt. Present Ipf. Past Repetitive Past Imperfective Past Perfective Event types
  8. 8. PAST Perfective Přečetl tu knihu třikrát. (He read the book twice. ) Několikrát vylezl na Sněžku. ( He climbed Sněžka several times. ) Enumerated accomplishment in the past Když jsem se nasnídal, šel jsem do školy. (When I[’d] had my breakfast, I went to school.) Departure for further activity (often beginning with když ) Díval jsem se na televizi [ipf.] , když zazvonil telefon. (I was watching TV, when the phone rang.) Interruption to an ongoing activity (expressed by past imperfective) Jestli to udělal, bude mít hodně peněz. (If he has done it, he will have lots of money.) Completed condition for future or action or state (with jestli or pokud ) Ten dopis jsem už napsal. (I’ve already written the letter.) Domácí úkol už jsem udělal. (I’ve already done my homework.) Accomplished activity in the past (with už [ already])
  9. 9. PAST Imperfective Kdo ti šil ten svetr? ( Who sowed the sweater for you? ) Kdo ti to říkal? ( Who told you that? ) Emphatic questions about the source/producer (optional) [ADV] Přišel a viděl. (He came and he saw.) Najednou cítil, že ho někdo sleduje. (Suddenly, he felt that someone is watching him.) Sudden perception or realization [ADV] Četl jsi tu knihu? (Did you read the book?) Díval jsem se na to dvakrát. (I watched it twice.) Recent and/or remembered experience (can be enumerated, often in questions) Včera jsem se díval na televizi od osmi do desíti. (Yesterday, I was watching TV from 8 to 10.) Action continuing for a period of time in the past Včera večer Petr vařil večeři a zpíval si. (Last night Peter was cooking dinner, and singing.) Díval jsem se na televizi, když zazvonil telefon [pf] . (I was watching TV, when the phone rang.) Parallel continuous actions in the past (Narrative) (often with zatímco [while]) Ongoing actions in the past interrupted by a perfective action (often with když [when])
  10. 10. PAST Repetitive Petr to už dělal. ( Petr has done it before.) Do školy jsem chodil. (I’ve attended school.) Už jsem řídil auto. (I’ve driven a car before.) Life experience (with už ) Chodil jsem do školy každý den po tři roky. (For three years, I went to school every day.) Domácí úkoly jsem si dělal každý den. (I did my homework every day.) Už tenkrát si děti pravidelně čistily zuby. (Even then, children brushed their teeth regularly.) Repeated action in the past
  11. 11. PRESENT Imperfective Karel IV. zakládá univerzitu v roce 1348. ( Karel IV. founds the university in 1348.) Historical narrative [ADV] Autobus odjíždí zítra v jednu hodinu odpoledne. (The bus leaves tomorrow at one pm.) Future timetable Olda právě vchází do domu. ( Olda is entering the building.) Novák střílí a dává gól. ( Novák shoots, and he scores!) Narrative of present action (Commentary)
  12. 12. PRESENT Repetitive Ať si sem nesedá. (Let him not sit here.) Nezpívej tady. (Don’t sing here.) Tady se chodí pomalu. (One walks slowly here.) Prohibitions and negative imperatives [ADV] Ptáci odlétají na podzim. (Birds fly away in the fall.) Voda se vaří při 100 stupních. (Water boils at 100 degrees.) Statement of (scientific) fact [ADV] Rád chodím do divadla, ale nerad hraju fotbal. (I like going to the theater, but I don’t like playing football.) Likes and dislikes (with rád, ráda, rádi ) Hrajete na piáno? (Do/Can you play the piano?) Ability to do something Bydlíme v Praze už pět let. (We’ve been living in Prague for 5 years now.) Present result of continuing past action Ruce si myji vždy před jídlem. (I always wash my hands before meals.) Personal habit
  13. 13. FUTURE Perfective Rád přijdu zítra na večeři. (I will be happy to come to dinner tomorrow.) Polite acceptance / expression of willingness (with rád ) [ADV] Příští rok půjdu do kina alespoň jednou týdně. (Next year, I will go see a movie at least once a week.) Emphatic plan for enumerated future action [ADV] On si sem klidně každé ráno přijde a sedne si na židli. He will come here every morning without so much as by your leave and sit on the chair.) Repeated action with (often negative) emphasis [ADV] A pak mu Pepa jednu vrazí a spadnou na zem, a … (And then Pepa smacks him, they fall on the ground and …) Emphatic historical narrative (combined with imperfective) [ADV] Ať si na to nikdo nesedne. (Let nobody sit on this.) Emphatic prohibitions/warnings with ať [ADV] Nejdřív uvaříme rýži a potom nakrájíme zeleninu. (First, we cook the rice and then we dice the vegetables.) Instructions Až to udělá, bude mít volno. (When he does this, he’ll have time off.) Condition for future action/prediction of result of completion with až (when) Zítra ráno vstanu a uvařím si kávu. (Tomorrow morning, I’ll get up and make some coffee.) Statement of plan
  14. 14. FUTURE Imperfective Když bude psát úkol, bude mu hrát hudba. (While he[’ll be] is doing the homework, the music will be playing.) Až bude psát úkol, nebude s nikým mluvit. (When he’s writing his homework, he won’t speak to anybody.) Background of future action with když and až , zatímco Zítra se budu učit od jedné do dvou. (Tomorrow, I’ll study from one to two.) Příští rok budeme celé léto cestovat. (Next year, we’ll spend the whole summer traveling.) Plan for a block of time Vy budete vařit polévku a my budeme připravovat salát. (You’ll be cooking the soup and we’ll be preparing the salad.) Future parallel or interrupted action
  15. 15. FUTURE Repetitive Snad příští rok nebude tolik pršet. (Hopefully, next year, it won’t rain so much.) Příští týden budu více cvičit. (I’ll exercise more next week.) Time non-specific future wish [ADV] Příští rok budu každý týden chodit do kina. (Next year, I will go to the movies every week.) Future repeated action (Condition)
  16. 16. How is it in English Including “going to” future, there are 14 tenses in English. These can all be active or passive doubling the number of separate forms to 28. will + have + been + Ving He will have been swim m ing . to have + been + Ving He has been swim m ing . had + been + Ving He had been swim m ing . Continuous will + have + V 3rd He will have sw u m . to have + V 3rd He has sw u m . had + V 3rd He had sw u m . Perfect Simple will + be + Ving He will be swim m ing . to be + Ving He is swimm ing . to be 2nd + Ving He was swim m ing . Continuous will + V 1st He will swim . V 1st He swim s ./I swim . V 2nd He sw a m . Simple Future Present Past AspectTense
  17. 17. Czech  English correspondence future timetable (pr. smp.) future time-specific plan ( future timetable present narrative ( commentary (pr. smp.) present narrative (pr. i.) see below for 1-1 function – function past simple (cont.) present perfect simple past perfect past perfective present continuous present simple present imperfective tense – tense English Czech
  18. 18. English  Czech correspondence fact (pr. ipf.) emphatic fact ( scientific fact (pr.simp) interrupting action (pf.) interrupting act. (simp.) parallel actions (ipf.) parallel actions (progr.) experience (past ipf.) experience ( pres. pf. ) function – function past perfective past imperfective past repetitive past simple present imperfective present continuous tense – tense Czech English
  19. 19. Verbs of Motion <ul><li>Verbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full: go, fly, crawl, run, carry, lead, chase, pull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partial: swim, skip, grow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grammatical specifics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Future formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefixation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two roots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>on foot vs. by vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>Presence in many lexical entries 15 * 20 = 300 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Verbs of Motion to crawl lézt polezu lézt to pull, drag tahat potáhnu táhnout to chase honit poženu hnát to carry (in a vehicle) vozit povezu vézt to carry (in arms/on foot) nosit ponesu nést to lead vodit povedu vést to fly létat poletím letět to run běhat poběžím běžet to go (by vehicle) jezdit pojedu jet to go (on foot) chodit půjdu jít Translation Repetitive Future Imperfective
  21. 21. The Prefix Hub
  22. 22. Verbs of motion futures
  23. 23. Verbs of motion in aspect
  24. 24. Putting it into practice <ul><li>Match adverbials with verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Guess tense/aspect and function of these sentences (draw a timeline when in doubt): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ráno snídám v 7 hodin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Už jsi viděl film Muži v černém II? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Když mi včera volal Milan, zrovna jsem večeřel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zítra půjdeme nakupovat a koupíme si počítač. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Až napíšu dopis, budu asi hodinu cvičit. </li></ul></ul>e. přijel jsem 5. až d. nacházím 4. už c. přijdu 3. občas b. odcházím 2. zítra a. najdu 1. právě teď