Present Perfect POSITIVEI/you/we/they + have + past participle: They have studied hard for the exam.He/she/it + has + past participle: She has written many books. NEGATIVEI/you/we/they + have+not (havent) + past participle: They havent studied hardfor the exam.He/she/it + has+not (hasnt) + past participle: She hasnt written many books. QUESTIONHave + I/you/we/they + (ever) + past participle + ...:Have you ever been to a rock festival? Yes, I have./No, I haventHas + He/she/it + (ever) + past participle + ...:Has she ever seen U2 in concert? Yes, she has./No, she hasnt.
Present Perfect Tense Remember! There are 3 reasons to use the Present Perfect Tense. Reason 1 To talk about a completed past action at a non-specific time. The action is finished. You don‟t know, care or remember when it happened. For example: I’ve read that book before. She’s already done her homework. Reason 2With the words “for” and “since” to talk about something that began in the past and continues to now.For example: I’ve studied at this school since last June. She’s lived in West Palm Beach for 2 months.
When we use the Present Perfect with “for” or “since” it gives the idea that something began in the past and continues into the present (and may continue into the future.) SINCE + POINT IN TIME/TIME CLAUSE Use the present perfect with “since” + point in time/time clause (since 5:00, since Monday, since1994/ since I was born, since I went to Paris...) to show when something started. He‟s lived in Florida since March. They‟ve been married since last year. Ive lived in Tortosa since I was a baby.
FOR + LENGTH OF TIMEUse the Present perfect with “for” + length of time (forten minutes, for two weeks, for years, for a long time) to show how long a present condition has lasted. I‟ve worked at this job for one year. He‟s lived in Florida for 9 months. They‟ve been married for a long time.
Reason 3 To talk about a completed past action that has a consequence in the present. For example: It has rained(It is not raining now. It rained in the past. But there is a consequence in the present = everything is wet). She’s broken her leg(The action of breaking her leg was in the past. But there is a consequence in the present = she cannot do sport).
So……How do we ask questions using this tense? When we want to know the length of time something has taken place we use the question words “HOW LONG.” How long have you lived in Tortosa? I‟ve lived here for 2 years. How long has she studied English at the EOI? She‟s studied at the EOI since 2005.
We often use the Present Perfect with already to talk about things that have happened before now. I’ve already eaten breakfast. She’s already read that book. You’re too late. He’s already left for school. He’s left for school already.Already usually comes between have andthe past participle. However, it can also come at the end of the clause.
Use the present perfect with not yet to talk about things that have not happened before now.We’re hungry. We haven’t eaten lunch yet.Sure I’ll go with you. I haven’t seen that movie yet.We’ve waited for an hour, but they haven’t arrivedyet. They haven‟t yet arrived. (Thisis OK.) Notice that yet usually comes at the end of the clause. However, it can also come between the „have not‟ and the past participle.
We usually use yet in questions to find out if something has happened before now. Have you bought your mother a present yet? Has she seen that movie yet? Have they left for school? yet? Sometimes we use already in a question to express surprise that something happened sooner than expected.Have you already bought your mother a present?I didn’t know you had a chance to go shopping!Have they already left for school? It’s so early!
SUMMARISING...BEFORE PAST PARTICIPLE: JUST + ALREADY + END: YET ? -