Tense – the form that a verb
takes to indicate the time of its
• Simple – tenses are more
• Progressive (Continuous) – tenses
are used to describe an action or state
that is in progress at the present time.
• Perfect – refer merely to an action or state
that has been completed at the present time.
• Perfect progressive (perfect
continuous)- tenses combine the concepts
of progressive and perfect, referring to an action
or event that is/was/will be in progress at a
Verb can be formed in four ways
• Base form – The root word
• Past form – formed for regular verb by adding ed to the
base form, or just d if the base form ends in e.
• Present participle – formed by adding ing to the base
• Past participle – the same as the past form for regular
and irregular verbs that more often differs ending in en.
Nature of a verb
Dynamic verbs (normal) – involve actions or
Jump write whisper
Stative verbs (non-continuous)- involve
perceptions or emotions.
Want like believe need think
Auxiliary Verb – play a supporting role.
Mood – of a verb deals with the concept of
whether a statement is expressing a
fact, possibility, command or request.
The present tense is a grammatical tense
whose principal function is to locate a situation or
event in present time.
formed by using just the base form of
the action verb.
• Used to describe habitual
action, circumstances, trait or routine.
I go for an ear candling therapy session every
We go to church every Sunday.
The queen likes corgis.
• used to describe something happening right
The goods are in the market. (right now)
The juice tastes sour. (at this moment)
• use in statements referring to the future.
I’ll pay you as soon as he pays me.
When the timer goes off, please turn the heat
down under the haggis.
• used to tell action or state of being in the past
as though it were occurring in the present.
The doctor picks up the key and goes the safe
while masked stranger watches anxiously.
formed by combining the simple present of
the auxiliary verb be (I am, you are, etc.) with
the present participle of the action verb.
• Use to refer to an action or event that is occurring
right and has not yet finished.
Sorry, she can’t come to the phone right now – she is
playing her kettle drum.
He is finishing his coffee – he’ll be with you in a sec.
• can be use to refer to a scheduled future event.
Their train is leaving in an hour.
It’s not on my calendar, but I’m positive we are
having tea with the duchess next Saturday.
Has + past participle (singular)
Have + past participle (plural)
• It indicates continuous time from a vague past to
present. The emphasis is on the present meaning.
They have parted ways.
How my lovely daughter has grown!
• It may indicate continuous action from same past
time to the present. The emphasis is on the length
I have not seen her for a year now.
These poor kids have not eaten since last night.
• It expresses recent events.
The speaker has just arrived.
Have you seen the professor recently?
Present perfect progressive
Formed by combiningthe simple present
of the auxiliary verb have (I have, he
has, etc.), the auxiliary verb been and the
present participle of the action verb.
AV have + AV been + Present participle
• use to indicate ongoing action.
I have been watching the pot, and it hasn’t
My husband has been following the Extreme
Ironing competition all week.
Formed by combining the simple present of the
auxiliary verb do (I, you, are, do, he, she, does) with the
base form of the action verb.
I’m afraid when she doesn’t like me. Nonsense, she does
I like her voice. Yes, she does sings beautifully.
Why did you bother buying that exercise bike, when you
never use it? I do use it.
Allam, A.S. Basic grammar to communicate
in english. Rizmarc, 2011. SJDM City.
Stilman, A. Grammatically correct 2nd
edition: revised and updated, the essential
spelling, style, usage, grammar, and
punctuation. Writer’s digest books, 2010.