PRESENT PERFECT versus PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
PRESENT PERFECT We use the Present Perfect Simple mainly to express that an action is completed or to emphasize the result or to indicate that action has not changedI HAVE READ A BOOKTODAY I HAVE READ TEN BOOKSHE HAS GONE TO CANADAResult (what / how much / how often)I have written 5 letters. I have been to London twice.
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUS We use the Present Perfect Continuous to emphasize the duration or continuous course of an action.I HAVE BEEN READING A BOOK To indicate the duration of an action that started in the pastI HAVE BEEN PLAYING TENNIS FOR TWO HOURS If we use this tense it means that the duration of the action is long Duration (how long)I have been writing for an hour.
COMPARISON BETWEEN PRESENT PERFECT AND PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS Emphasis on completionSHE HAS DONE HER HOMEWORK (Meaning: Her homework is completed now.) Emphasis on durationSHE HAS BEEN DOING HER HOMEWORK Meaning: Thats how she has spent her time. It does not matter whether the homework is completed now.)
COMPARISON BETWEEN PRESENT PERFECT AND PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS desired resultI have washed the car.(Result: The car is clean now). unwanted side effectWhy are you so wet? - I have been washing the car. (side effect: I became wet when I was washing the car. It does not matter whether the car is clean now.)
COMPARISON BETWEEN PRESENT PERFECT AND PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS*to express how much time has past since the last time theaction took place since the last time I havent played that game for years. (Meaning: Its years ago that I last played that game.)* To express how much time has past since the beginning ofthe action I havent been playing that game for an hour, only for 10 minutes. (Meaning: Its not even an hour ago that I started to play that game.)
CHOOSE :PRESENT PERFECT ORPRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS1) This evening I ________ two letters to my parents (to write)2) My daughter ________ letters to her friends for hours (to write)3) Today Lucy ________ her boyfriend three times (to phone)4) My friends ________ around Italy for five months (to travel)5) I ________ to music all evening (to listen)6) I ________ English since I was a child (to learn)
1) Why are you so dirty? I ________ in the garden (to work)2) I ________ to Malaga for three days with my in-laws (to be)3) I ________ my homework. Now I am going to rest (to finish)4) My brother ________ TV for three hours (to watch)5) John ________ since 3 oclock (to study)6) The fatal accident just ________. The police havent arrived yet (to happen)
1) ________ you my watch? I have just lost it (to see) 2) Emma is very tired; she ________ all day (to work) 3)What weather! It ________ since yesterday (to rain) 4) This week my team ________ one match (to win) 5) The police ________ the murderer (to arrest)