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Development Of Call Simplified
 

Development Of Call Simplified

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    Development Of Call Simplified Development Of Call Simplified Presentation Transcript

    • DEVELOPMENT OF CALL TSL 641: Computer Assisted Language Learning Faculty of Education, UiTM
    • History of CALL – 3 Phases
      • CALL has developed gradually over the past 40 years and can be categorized into three phases:
        • Behavioristic CALL
        • Communicative CALL
        • Integrative CALL
        • By Mark Warschauer
    • Behavioristic CALL
      • Based on the behaviourist/structural theories of learning (conceived in the 50’s and implemented in the 1960’s).
        • Learning is broken into chunks and the learner is drilled to mastery before moving on to the next level
        • Example – Simple Present – Simple Past etc
        • Such programs were called Programmed Instructions
      • CALL programs entailed repetitive (mindless) drills - drill and practice ( drill and kill )
        • The continued drilling would often kill any enthusiasm for learning
    • Behavioristic CALL
      • The theoretical basis of Programmed Instruction was provided by Skinner:
        • Operant conditioning
        • The use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior
        • Reinforcement is a consequence that causes a behavior to occur with greater frequency.
        • Punishment is a consequence that causes a behavior to occur with less frequency.
    • Behavioristic CALL
      • There were objections to Skinner’s operant conditioning, thus Behavioristic CALL became less popular
        • Chomsky ‘s Theory
        • Another critique on behaviouristic CALL contends that all CALL courseware and activities should build on intrinsic motivation and should foster interactivity – both learner-computer and learner-learner (Stevens, 1989)
    • Behavioristic CALL
      • But the rationale behind these programs has been not rejected completely due to a number of advantages
      • Repetition is beneficial and even essential to learning (computer is an ideal tool).
      • Immediate non-judgmental feedback.
      • Students can work at their own pace and acquire these skills outside class to free up class time for communicative activities.
      • Efficient record keeping.
      • Motivation.
    • Behavioristic CALL
      • Example of Behavioristic CALL:
        • Plato : http://www.plato.com/aboutus/company_history.asp
        • Randal’s Listening Lab
      • Late 70’s and early 80s behavioristic CALL was undermined by:
        • Behavioristic approaches has been rejected theoretically and pedagogically
        • Introduction of microcomputers accorded more possibilities
    • Communicative CALL
      • Communicative CALL is based on the communicative approach to teaching which became prominent in the 1970’s and 1980’s.
      • An approach to the teaching of second and foreign languages that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language
      • Places great emphasis on helping students use the target language in a variety of contexts and places great emphasis on learning language functions
    • Communicative CALL
        • It focuses more on using forms (content) rather than on the forms themselves.
        • It teaches grammar implicitly rather than explicitly.
        • It allows and encourages students to generate utterances rather than just manipulate prefabricated language.
        • It does not judge and evaluate everything nor reward them with congratulatory messages, lights, or bells.
        • It is flexible to a variety of student responses.
        • It will never try to do anything that a book can do just as well.
    • Communicative CALL
      • Three roles of the computer in Communicative CALL:
        • The Computer as a Tutor
          • As a teacher
        • The Computer as Stimulus
          • To stimulate discussion, critical thinking etc
        • The Computer as Tool
          • Tool to use and understand language
    • Communicative CALL
      • The computer as a TUTOR
      • Skill practice, but also in non-drill format: paced reading, text reconstruction , and language games
      • The computer is the “knower-of-the-right” answer
      • As opposed to drill and practice, the right answer involves a fair amount of student choice, control, and interaction
    • Communicative CALL
      • The computer as a TUTOR – Examples
      • Grammar
        • Drill and practice on a single topic or on variety of topics
        • Games
        • Intelligent Language Tutoring Systems-grammar units included in comprehensive multimedia packages
        • The available courseware available in CD format
      • Listening and Speaking
        • Listening multimedia programs (Rosetta Stone, etc.)
        • The latter programs generally allow students to record and playback their own voice and compare it to a model ( Pronunciation Tutor , VisiPitch, etc.)
        • Linguistics applications, for example, teaching the IPA, sound analysis ( Signalyze, etc.)
    • Communicative CALL
      • Reading or Text Reconstruction
        • These programs allow students to manipulate letters, words, sentences, or paragraphs in order to put texts together (Spanish Now, Storyboard, etc.)
      • Vocabulary
        • Includes drill and practice programs, multimedia tutorials, and games (La Casa, Treefrog, etc.)
        • http://eslbears.homestead.com/Contact_Info.html
    • Communicative CALL
      • The computer as STIMULUS
      • The purpose of the computer is not so much to have students discover the right answer, but rather to stimulate students’ discussion, writing, or critical thinking
        • A simulation is a representation or model of an event, an object, or a phenomenon
          • Where the World is Carmen Sandiego, A La Rencontre de Philippe, etc.
        • Generally a simplified model that contains the essential elements of the thing simulated
        • Example : Sim City , Sleuth
      • Problem solving software
        • Similar to simulation software in that students are placed in situations where they can manipulate variables and then receive feedback on the results of these manipulations
        • Simulations, however, are attempts to model real-life situations and objects, whereas problem-solving is a more general category that includes all software designed for teaching problem-solving skills (i.e. adventure games: Myst, etc.)
        • http://www.theproblemsite.com/treasure_hunt/
    • Communicative CALL
      • The computer as STIMULUS – Advantages
      • Simulations give students an opportunity to apply their learning to a “real-life” situation, these programs tend to address higher-order educational objectives.
      • Students become an active part of the educational environment (decision makers) and can usually see the immediate results of the decisions they make in the environment.
      • Usually, a simulation will require the students to perform application-, analysis-, and synthesis-level activities.
    • Communicative CALL
      • The computer as a TOOL (a “workhorse”)
      • The programs do not necessarily provide any language material at all, but rather empower the learner to use or understand language.
        • Word Processors, Spreadsheets, Graphic Programs
          • WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, Simple Text, BBedit, Excel, Corel Draw, etc.
        • Spelling and Grammar Checkers
          • Hugo, Bilingual Writing Centre, etc.
        • Desktop Publishing Program
          • PageMaker, etc.
        • Reference
          • Dictionaries and encyclopedias i.e. Le Petit Robert, Encarta.
    • Communicative CALL
      • Electronic Grade Books
      • Concordancers
        • They search through large files of texts - corpora - in order to find all the uses of a particular word or collocation i.e. Oxford’s MicroConcord with a total 1,000,000 words
      • Collaborative Writing
        • A number of tools assist students to work on their writing collaboratively on computers linked in a local area network (LAN) i.e. Aspects, Daedalus, MacCollaborator
      • Authoring
        • Allows teachers to tailor software programs either by inserting new text or by modifying the activities. Authoring runs on a spectrum from set programs which allow slight modification to programs where the designer has more control with respect to GUI, exercise types, etc.
        • Dasher, HyperCard, SuperCard, Toolbook, Micromedia Director
    • Communicative CALL
      • The Computer as a TOOL - ADVANTAGES
      • Teaches students to manage information
      • Tool software is cost-effective
        • Wide application of a word processing program
      • Students learn how to use tool software
      • Emphasises active student involvement (user manipulate information and are controlling the computers as opposed to just being put through their paces)
    • Communicative CALL
      • Criticism of Communicative CALL
      • The computer was being used in an ad hoc and disconnected fashion.
      • Scholars were no longer satisfied with teaching compartmentalised skills or structures (even if taught in communicative manner)
      • Educators were seeking ways to teach in a more integrative manner.
    • Steps Toward Integrative CALL
      • Integrative approaches to CALL are based on two important technological developments of the last decade.
        • Multimedia
        • Electronic communication
    • Integrative CALL
      • Multimedia
        • CD-ROM which allows a variety of media (text, graphics, sound, animation, and video) to be accessed on a single machine.
        • Multimedia entails hypermedia .
            • Multimedia resources are linked together and learners can navigate their own paths simply by pointing and clicking a mouse.
    • Integrative CALL
      • Multimedia and Hypermedia in Language Learning – Advantages
      • More authentic learning environments – listening is combined with seeing.
      • Students have great control over learning – not only at their own pace, but also on their own individual path.
      • Skills are integrated.
        • Reading + Writing + Speaking + Listening
      • It facilitates a principle focus on the content, without sacrificing a secondary focus on language form or learning strategies.
    • Integrative CALL
      • Multimedia and Hypermedia in Language Learning -DISADVANTAGES
      • Quality of available programs
        • The field is predominantly left to commercial developers who often fail to base their programs on sound pedagogical principles.
      • Computer programs are not yet intelligent enough to be truly interactive
        • They cannot understand a user’s spoken input nor evaluate the appropriateness of an utterance (even the mere correctness presents problems at a more advanced level).
      • It seldom involves a more important type of integration
        • Integrating meaningful and authentic communication into all aspects of the language learning curriculum.
        • While Intelligent CALL (Underwood, 1989) may be the next and ultimate usage of computers for language learning, that phase is clearly a long way down the road.
    • Integrative CALL
      • Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC)
      • Asynchronous (Not Simultaneous)
        • E-mail
      • Synchronous (Simultaneous)
        • Writing environment Aspects
        • MUD’s ( multi-user domains)
        • MOO’s ( the above + object-oriented)
        • schMOOze University
        • http://schmooze.hunter.cuny.edu/
    • Integrative CALL
      • Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC)
      • CMC allows users to share not only brief but also lengthy documents, graphics, sounds, and video.
      • It facilitates collaborative writing.
      • Using the WWW, students can search endlessly through files around the world to locate and access authentic materials exactly tailored to their own personal interests. For example: newspapers, magazine articles, radio broadcasts, short videos, movie reviews, book excerpts, even karaoke!
      • Students can use the Web to publish their texts or multimedia materials to share with partner classes or with the general public.
      • While the WWW to date is still predominantly a text-based medium, this will undoubtedly change in the near future; not only due to the transmission of audio-visual material (video clips, sound files), but also due to the growing use of the WWW to carry out real-time audio and audio-visual chatting.