Development Of Call SimplifiedPresentation Transcript
DEVELOPMENT OF CALL TSL 641: Computer Assisted Language Learning Faculty of Education, UiTM
History of CALL – 3 Phases
CALL has developed gradually over the past 40 years and can be categorized into three phases:
By Mark Warschauer
Based on the behaviourist/structural theories of learning (conceived in the 50’s and implemented in the 1960’s).
Learning is broken into chunks and the learner is drilled to mastery before moving on to the next level
Example – Simple Present – Simple Past etc
Such programs were called Programmed Instructions
CALL programs entailed repetitive (mindless) drills - drill and practice ( drill and kill )
The continued drilling would often kill any enthusiasm for learning
The theoretical basis of Programmed Instruction was provided by Skinner:
The use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior
Reinforcement is a consequence that causes a behavior to occur with greater frequency.
Punishment is a consequence that causes a behavior to occur with less frequency.
There were objections to Skinner’s operant conditioning, thus Behavioristic CALL became less popular
Chomsky ‘s Theory
Another critique on behaviouristic CALL contends that all CALL courseware and activities should build on intrinsic motivation and should foster interactivity – both learner-computer and learner-learner (Stevens, 1989)
But the rationale behind these programs has been not rejected completely due to a number of advantages
Repetition is beneficial and even essential to learning (computer is an ideal tool).
Immediate non-judgmental feedback.
Students can work at their own pace and acquire these skills outside class to free up class time for communicative activities.
The latter programs generally allow students to record and playback their own voice and compare it to a model ( Pronunciation Tutor , VisiPitch, etc.)
Linguistics applications, for example, teaching the IPA, sound analysis ( Signalyze, etc.)
Reading or Text Reconstruction
These programs allow students to manipulate letters, words, sentences, or paragraphs in order to put texts together (Spanish Now, Storyboard, etc.)
Includes drill and practice programs, multimedia tutorials, and games (La Casa, Treefrog, etc.)
The computer as STIMULUS
The purpose of the computer is not so much to have students discover the right answer, but rather to stimulate students’ discussion, writing, or critical thinking
A simulation is a representation or model of an event, an object, or a phenomenon
Where the World is Carmen Sandiego, A La Rencontre de Philippe, etc.
Generally a simplified model that contains the essential elements of the thing simulated
Example : Sim City , Sleuth
Problem solving software
Similar to simulation software in that students are placed in situations where they can manipulate variables and then receive feedback on the results of these manipulations
Simulations, however, are attempts to model real-life situations and objects, whereas problem-solving is a more general category that includes all software designed for teaching problem-solving skills (i.e. adventure games: Myst, etc.)
The computer as STIMULUS – Advantages
Simulations give students an opportunity to apply their learning to a “real-life” situation, these programs tend to address higher-order educational objectives.
Students become an active part of the educational environment (decision makers) and can usually see the immediate results of the decisions they make in the environment.
Usually, a simulation will require the students to perform application-, analysis-, and synthesis-level activities.
The computer as a TOOL (a “workhorse”)
The programs do not necessarily provide any language material at all, but rather empower the learner to use or understand language.
Word Processors, Spreadsheets, Graphic Programs
WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, Simple Text, BBedit, Excel, Corel Draw, etc.
Spelling and Grammar Checkers
Hugo, Bilingual Writing Centre, etc.
Desktop Publishing Program
Dictionaries and encyclopedias i.e. Le Petit Robert, Encarta.
Electronic Grade Books
They search through large files of texts - corpora - in order to find all the uses of a particular word or collocation i.e. Oxford’s MicroConcord with a total 1,000,000 words
A number of tools assist students to work on their writing collaboratively on computers linked in a local area network (LAN) i.e. Aspects, Daedalus, MacCollaborator
Allows teachers to tailor software programs either by inserting new text or by modifying the activities. Authoring runs on a spectrum from set programs which allow slight modification to programs where the designer has more control with respect to GUI, exercise types, etc.
Dasher, HyperCard, SuperCard, Toolbook, Micromedia Director
The Computer as a TOOL - ADVANTAGES
Teaches students to manage information
Tool software is cost-effective
Wide application of a word processing program
Students learn how to use tool software
Emphasises active student involvement (user manipulate information and are controlling the computers as opposed to just being put through their paces)
Criticism of Communicative CALL
The computer was being used in an ad hoc and disconnected fashion.
Scholars were no longer satisfied with teaching compartmentalised skills or structures (even if taught in communicative manner)
Educators were seeking ways to teach in a more integrative manner.
Steps Toward Integrative CALL
Integrative approaches to CALL are based on two important technological developments of the last decade.
CD-ROM which allows a variety of media (text, graphics, sound, animation, and video) to be accessed on a single machine.
Multimedia entails hypermedia .
Multimedia resources are linked together and learners can navigate their own paths simply by pointing and clicking a mouse.
Multimedia and Hypermedia in Language Learning – Advantages
More authentic learning environments – listening is combined with seeing.
Students have great control over learning – not only at their own pace, but also on their own individual path.
Skills are integrated.
Reading + Writing + Speaking + Listening
It facilitates a principle focus on the content, without sacrificing a secondary focus on language form or learning strategies.
Multimedia and Hypermedia in Language Learning -DISADVANTAGES
Quality of available programs
The field is predominantly left to commercial developers who often fail to base their programs on sound pedagogical principles.
Computer programs are not yet intelligent enough to be truly interactive
They cannot understand a user’s spoken input nor evaluate the appropriateness of an utterance (even the mere correctness presents problems at a more advanced level).
It seldom involves a more important type of integration
Integrating meaningful and authentic communication into all aspects of the language learning curriculum.
While Intelligent CALL (Underwood, 1989) may be the next and ultimate usage of computers for language learning, that phase is clearly a long way down the road.
Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC)
Asynchronous (Not Simultaneous)
Writing environment Aspects
MUD’s ( multi-user domains)
MOO’s ( the above + object-oriented)
Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC)
CMC allows users to share not only brief but also lengthy documents, graphics, sounds, and video.
It facilitates collaborative writing.
Using the WWW, students can search endlessly through files around the world to locate and access authentic materials exactly tailored to their own personal interests. For example: newspapers, magazine articles, radio broadcasts, short videos, movie reviews, book excerpts, even karaoke!
Students can use the Web to publish their texts or multimedia materials to share with partner classes or with the general public.
While the WWW to date is still predominantly a text-based medium, this will undoubtedly change in the near future; not only due to the transmission of audio-visual material (video clips, sound files), but also due to the growing use of the WWW to carry out real-time audio and audio-visual chatting.