Development Of Call


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Development Of Call

  2. 2. History of CALL – 3 Phases <ul><li>CALL has developed gradually over the past thirty years and can be categorised into three phases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioristic CALL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicative CALL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrative CALL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By Mark Warschauer </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Behavioristic CALL <ul><li>It is based on the behaviourist/structural theories of learning (conceived in the 50’s and implemented in the 1960’s). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning is broken into chunks and the learner is drilled to mastery before moving on to the next level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In their original design (programmed instruction), programs entailed repetitive (mindless) drills, commonly referred to as drill and practice ( drill and kill ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The continued drilling would often kill any enthusiasm for learning </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Behavioristic CALL <ul><li>The theoretical basis of Programmed Instruction was provided by Skinner: </li></ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>There were objections to Skinner’s operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objection arose from the developments in thinking on the nature of language learning which rejected Skinner’s behaviouristic model with its roots in animal behaviour. The impetus to this fundamental change came from the work of Chomsky, in particular his review (1975) of Skinner’s Verbal Behaviour. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another critique on behaviouristic CALL contends that all CALL courseware and activities should build on intrinsic motivation and should foster interactivity – both learner-computer and learner-learner (Stevens, 1989) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Behavioristic CALL <ul><li>But the rationale behind these programs has been not rejected completely due to a number of advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition is beneficial and even essential to learning (computer is an ideal tool). </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate non-judgmental feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Students can work at their own pace and acquire these skills outside class to free up class time for communicative activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient record keeping. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Behavioristic CALL <ul><li>Example of Behavioristic CALL: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plato : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Randal’s Listening Lab </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Late 70’s and early 80s behavioristic CALL was undermined by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioristic approaches has been rejected theoretically and pedagogically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of microcomputers accorded more possibilities </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Communicative CALL <ul><li>Communicative CALL is based on the communicative approach to teaching which became prominent in the 1970’s and 1980’s. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It focuses more on using forms (content) rather than on the forms themselves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It teaches grammar implicitly rather than explicitly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It allows and encourages students to generate utterances rather than just manipulate prefabricated language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It does not judge and evaluate everything nor reward them with congratulatory messages, lights, or bells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is flexible to a variety of student responses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It will never try to do anything that a book can do just as well. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Communicative CALL <ul><li>Three roles of the computer in Communicative CALL: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Computer as a Tutor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As a teacher </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Computer as Stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To stimulate discussion, critical thinking etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Computer as Tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tool to use and understand language </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Communicative CALL <ul><li>The computer as a TUTOR </li></ul><ul><li>Skill practice, but also in non-drill format: paced reading, text reconstruction , and language games </li></ul><ul><li>The computer is the “ knower-of-the-right” answer </li></ul><ul><li>As opposed to drill and practice, the right answer involves a fair amount of student choice, control, and interaction (the rationale reflects explicit learning approaches i.e. cognitive method) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Communicative CALL <ul><li>The computer as a TUTOR - Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Active participation in the learning process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exercises are beyond multiple-choice and fill-in questions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Review </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Address individual skill deficiencies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Branching programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ITS’s which are based on AI techniques (Expert Module, Teaching Module, Student Model) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some of the research suggests that quality Tutor programs (use of graphics and sound) can hold students’ attention much longer than traditional methods. (Simonson and Thompson, 1997: 96) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Communicative CALL <ul><li>The computer as a TUTOR – Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drill and practice on a single topic (irregular verbs, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drills on variety of topics (French Grammar Computerised, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>games (Spanish now, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent Language Tutoring Systems-grammar units included in comprehensive multimedia packages (Spanish Now) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Listening and Speaking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the former programs are specifically designed to promote second language listening multimedia programs (Rosetta Stone, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the latter programs generally allow students to record and playback their own voice and compare it to a model ( Pronunciation Tutor , VisiPitch, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>linguistics applications, for example, teaching the IPA, sound analysis ( Signalyze, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Communicative CALL <ul><li>Reading or Text Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These programs allow students to manipulate letters, words, sentences, or paragraphs in order to put texts together (Spanish Now, Storyboard, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes drill and practice programs, multimedia tutorials, and games (La Casa, Treefrog, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Communicative CALL <ul><li>The computer as STIMULUS </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of the computer is not so much to have students discover the right answer, but rather to stimulate students’ discussion, writing, or critical thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A simulation is a representation or model of an event, an object, or a phenomenon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where the World is Carmen Sandiego, A La Rencontre de Philippe, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally a simplified model that contains the essential elements of the thing simulated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example : Sim City , Sleuth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem solving software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to simulation software in that students are placed in situations where they can manipulate variables and then receive feedback on the results of these manipulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations, however, are attempts to model real-life situations and objects, whereas problem-solving is a more general category that includes all software designed for teaching problem-solving skills (i.e. adventure games: Myst, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Communicative CALL <ul><li>The computer as STIMULUS – Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>They give the student the power to manipulate various aspects of the model. </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations give students an opportunity to apply their learning to a “real-life” situation, these programs tend to address higher-order educational objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Students become an active part of the educational environment (decision makers) and can usually see the immediate results of the decisions they make in the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually, a simulation will require the students to perform application-, analysis-, and synthesis-level activities. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Communicative CALL <ul><li>The computer as a TOOL (a “workhorse”) </li></ul><ul><li>The programs do not necessarily provide any language material at all, but rather empower the learner to use or understand language. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word Processors, Spreadsheets, Graphic Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, Simple Text, BBedit, Excel, Corel Draw, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spelling and Grammar Checkers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hugo, Bilingual Writing Centre, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop Publishing Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PageMaker, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dictionaries and encyclopedias i.e. Le Petit Robert, Encarta. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Communicative CALL <ul><li>Electronic Grade Books </li></ul><ul><li>Concordancers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They search through large files of texts - corpora - in order to find all the uses of a particular word or collocation i.e. Oxford’s MicroConcord with a total 1,000,000 words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaborative Writing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A number of tools assist students to work on their writing collaboratively on computers linked in a local area network (LAN) i.e. Aspects, Daedalus, MacCollaborator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows teachers to tailor software programs either by inserting new text or by modifying the activities. Authoring runs on a spectrum from set programs which allow slight modification to programs where the designer has more control with respect to GUI, exercise types, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dasher, HyperCard, SuperCard, Toolbook, Micromedia Director </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Communicative CALL <ul><li>The Computer as a TOOL - ADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><li>Teaches students to manage information </li></ul><ul><li>Tool software is cost-effective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(wide application of a word processing program) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Students learn how to use tool software </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasises active student involvement (user manipulate information and are controlling the computers as opposed to just being put through their paces) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Communicative CALL <ul><li>Communicative CALL seems like a significant advance over its predecessor, however, critiques pointed out that: </li></ul><ul><li>The computer was being used in an ad hoc and disconnected fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the broader reassessments of the communicative approach to language teaching scholars were no longer satisfied with teaching compartmentalised skills or structures (even if taught in communicative manner). </li></ul><ul><li>Educators were seeking ways to teach in a more integrative manner. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Steps Toward Integrative CALL <ul><li>Integrative approaches to CALL are based on two important technological developments of the last decade. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic communication </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Integrative CALL <ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROM which allows a variety of media (text, graphics, sound, animation, and video) to be accessed on a single machine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia entails hypermedia . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia resources are linked together and learners can navigate their own paths simply by pointing and clicking a mouse. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Integrative CALL <ul><li>Multimedia and Hypermedia in Language Learning – Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>More authentic learning environments – listening is combined with seeing. </li></ul><ul><li>Students have great control over learning – not only at their own pace, but also on their own individual path. </li></ul><ul><li>Skills are integrated. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading + Writing + Speaking + Listening </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It facilitates a principle focus on the content, without sacrificing a secondary focus on language form or learning strategies. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Integrative CALL <ul><li>Multimedia and Hypermedia in Language Learning -DISADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of available programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The field is predominantly left to commercial developers who often fail to base their programs on sound pedagogical principles. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer programs are not yet intelligent enough to be truly interactive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They cannot understand a user’s spoken input nor evaluate the appropriateness of an utterance (even the mere correctness presents problems at a more advanced level). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It seldom involves a more important type of integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrating meaningful and authentic communication into all aspects of the language learning curriculum. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While Intelligent CALL (Underwood, 1989) may be the next and ultimate usage of computers for language learning, that phase is clearly a long way down the road. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Integrative CALL <ul><li>Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) </li></ul><ul><li>Asynchronous (Not Simultaneous) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synchronous (Simultaneous) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing environment Aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MUD’s ( multi-user domains) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MOO’s ( the above + object-oriented) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>schMOOze University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Integrative CALL <ul><li>Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) </li></ul><ul><li>CMC allows users to share not only brief but also lengthy documents, graphics, sounds, and video. </li></ul><ul><li>It facilitates collaborative writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Using the WWW, students can search endlessly through files around the world to locate and access authentic materials exactly tailored to their own personal interests. For example: newspapers, magazine articles, radio broadcasts, short videos, movie reviews, book excerpts, even karaoke! </li></ul><ul><li>Students can use the Web to publish their texts or multimedia materials to share with partner classes or with the general public. </li></ul><ul><li>While the WWW to date is still predominantly a text-based medium, this will undoubtedly change in the near future; not only due to the transmission of audio-visual material (video clips, sound files), but also due to the growing use of the WWW to carry out real-time audio and audio-visual chatting. </li></ul>