Doing Global Research on Crisis Management
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Doing Global Research on Crisis Management



Presented at the ISCRAM Doctoral Colloquium by Tung Bui

Presented at the ISCRAM Doctoral Colloquium by Tung Bui



Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



1 Embed 1 1



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Diversity of participants, by country, by background, by interested topics
  • Cross-cultural collaboration / timeliness / view of data quality / eg. Asian vs. western view of sharing data
  • VIC / us navy officer visiting russian university
  • Emergent behavior different / helper behavior in a well organized place– call 911. / helping behavior in a remote place to fully engage in rescue / HCI interface design
  • (e.g., US-originated sub-prime loan; Iceland volcano ash)

Doing Global Research on Crisis Management Doing Global Research on Crisis Management Presentation Transcript

  • Doing global research on crisis management: Opportunities and challenges Tung Bui [email_address] ISCRAM Doctoral Consortium Seattle, 5-2010 © T. Bui, 2010
  • Vérité au deçà des Pyrénées, erreur au delà Blaise Pascal, 17th Century © T. Bui, 2010
  • ISCRAM2010 Doctoral Consortium Participants An attempt to extend current research proposals to a global context (order based from zip file received) © T. Bui, 2010
  • Babajide Osatuyi
    • Subject : Collaborative Information Behavior under conditions of time constraints and level of crisis severity
    • Global context : How would cross-border DMs seek and handle information?
    • Issues at hand: Language, cultural bias, information sharing attitudes
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Burack Cavdaroglu
    • Subject : Restoring Infrastructure Systems - A multi-network Interdependent Critical Infrastructure Program for the Analysis of Lifelines (MUNICIPAL)
    • Global context: Global ICT and social political contexts and supra-nationality
    • Issues at hand: Cross-border data quality, trust interoperability, nationalism-related conflicts of interest
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Cindy Nikolai
    • Subject : Designing a Net-centric emergency operations simulator for emergency managers – ENSAYO
    • Global context: Understanding and adoption of a international approach to crisis management
    • Issues at hand: Digital divide, trust and mistrust, resource allocation, training scope
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Fredrik Bergstrand
    • Subject : ICT requirements to improve sense-making, situation awareness and decision making in crisis situation
    • Global context: cultural and national impacts on cognition
    • Issues at hand: Interoperability, cross-border HCI, information sharing and use, centralization vs. decentralization
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Gyu Hyun Kwon
    • Subject : Identify dimensions of communication interoperability in public safety work domain
    • Global context: Organizational and institutional structures, power and politics, presence of supra-national entities
    • Issues at hand: Difference is org. structures (flat vs. hierarchical), power influence and relationship ties, communications protocols and local legal constraints, languages, perceptions of security
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Joaquin Lopez-Silva
    • Subject : Using scenario analysis to analyze cross-impact risks related to complex and possibly unknown emergency responses
    • Global context: Global responses are typically uncoordinated, and unspoken sense of competition; assessment of impacts is influenced by national interests
    • Issues at hand: cross impacts more convoluted, cross-border meta-analysis
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Marcus Vogt
    • Subject : Requirements analysis, task-technology fit, value creation, adoption for ICT alignment in emergency management
    • Global context: Global strategy, multiple stakeholders, wide spectrum of ICT literacy
    • Issues at hand: Multiple and conflicting objective analysis, role of leaders and followers in IT governance, inter-organizational mega collaboration, scalability
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Robert Baska
    • Subject : Continuous auditing to help track the effectiveness of decisions to help improve decision making process
    • Global context: Diversity in core values (political vs. financial), conflicting prioritization influenced by national interests
    • Issues at hand: Buy-ins, meta-modeling, data quality
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Thomas Heverin
    • Subject : Micro-blogging for crisis information sharing
    • Global context: nationalism, national attitude w/ regard to crises, privacy
    • Issues at hand: local vs. global space, physical vs. virtual space, privacy and security, national differences in emerging behavior
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Yasir Javed
    • Subject : Emergency Decision Making for Mass Evacuation
    • Global context: National differences in decision making process
    • Issues at hand: National characteristics that impact decision-making process – intelligence, design, choice, implementation and monitoring, emotion and social responsibilities
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Opportunities for global research
    • Crises w/ global impacts have become more regular
    • IS-centric research on crisis management, HA/DR is young, and has lots of unresolved/untapped issues
    • Much research is needed to fill missing pieces in the global puzzle
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Examples of global research phenomena
    • Haiti/Chile: Two major earthquakes to governmental attitudes. Why did one government asked for help and the other one did not? Nationalism?
    • Haiti and Facebook discussion groups : Why emergent behaviors expressed in French seemed more compassionate than those expressed in English? Ethnocentrism? Local behaviors vs. global behaviors?
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Examples of global research questions
    • Iceland volcano ash: Why did the Swiss decided to fly low below the ash clouds and the Germans to fly above them? What drove their decision-making processes?
    • Hawaii tsunami warning on 2/27/10. Known by the world to be a perfect textbook drill. What would be the critical success factors for an International Early Warning Program (IEWP)?
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Some research framework that you could use for crisis management studies © T. Bui, 2010
  • Self-organizing systems (Steel)
    • Connectivity
    • Diversity
    • Rate of information flow
    • Lack of inhibitors
    • Good boundaries
    • Intentionality
    • Watchful anticipation
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Culture (Hofstede)
    • Five dimensions of national culture
      • Small vs. large power distance
      • Individualism vs. Collectivism
      • Masculinity vs. femininity (quantity vs. quality of life)
      • Weak vs. strong uncertainty avoidance
      • Long vs. short-term orientation
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Social political system
    • Cultural multipolarity: Homogenization of global culture vs. robust local cultures (Ballentine, 96)
    • Infrastructure trends
    • Inter-connected world
    • Rising mobility
    • Value trends
    • Transparency
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Some research design considerations © T. Bui, 2010
  • Country-Of-Origin
    • COO stereotyping (Colyer, 2005) (Swiss dog must be good) / Russia-US: cold war heritage
    • COO debate (Usumier, 2006), people pay little importance to the country (exploiter behavior can be found anywhere)
    • How does COO impact the design and effectiveness of ERS?
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Cross-cultural negotiations
    • Nations in darkness phenomenon (Stoesinger, 1971): pervasive misperceptions affecting information processing
    • Relax internal consistency in favor of creative exploration of alternative explanations
    • Convert confusion into predictable irrationality
    • E.g., national rescue teams competed in Indian tsunami
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Negotiation and national characters
    • National self-images and images of the other party (e.g., French locked in history of imperialism; America’s self proclamation of world police)
    • Difference in ethics: (e.g., Americans tend to be dogmatic; Japanese practice situation ethics)
    • How to design an argumentation system for int’l ERS
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Cultural Cognition
    • Differences in reasoning process
      • US: base on hard facts; France: known for Cartesian logic; Mexico/Japan: emphasis on contemplation and intuition
    • Implications on persuasion styles
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • A global research framework Bui et al. (1999, 2001, 2005) © T. Bui, 2010
  • Factors affecting HA/DR operations factoring in national characteristics © T. Bui, 2010 Acceptance Level of Risk Inferior Technology Education level Insufficient infrastructure & Transportation Cultural Difference Availability of Resource Political and Administrative Stability Quality of Decision Outcomes Quality of Crisis Mgt Process Problem Formulation Group-think Cognitive Abilities HA/DR Agency Unit Isolation Stress Organizational Memory Information Quality/Overload Degree of Org. Readiness Coordination Level Between Units
  • Issues related to HA/DR (1)
    • Importance of information exchange (facts and analyses)
      • Quality
      • Timeliness
    • Coordination complexity
      • No single organization has all resources
      • Each organization wants to show its special value
      • May hinder cooperation
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Issues related to HA/DR (2)
    • Short-term vs. long-term perspectives
      • Short-term rescue vs. long-term development
    • Communication incompatibilities
      • Different languages, incompatible devices, cultural diversity
    • Information standardization needs
      • Information overload, how to interpret data
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Negotiation issues in HA/DR
    • Source of conflicts
      • Different interpretations of the same information.
      • Violating norms of others due to cultural differences
      • Short-term rescue vs. long-term development
      • The very existence of organization (inherent nature of the org. decision making process)
    • Negotiation issues
      • Mutual agreement with needs assessment
      • Need to negotiate for the action priority
      • Agreement about means and ends
      • Negotiation of resource allocation
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Some research process considerations © T. Bui, 2010
  • “ Lost in translation”
    • The “silent language” phenomenon
      • Chinese/Mexican: avoid saying “no”
    • Body language misinterpretations
      • Asian: smiling sometime used to hide shyness or embarrassment
      • American’s direct style and open expression of emotion perceived by mistrust/lack of sincerity
    • Extra layer of noise in data analysis
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Some research design considerations
    • Survey instrument (Harzing, 2004, 2009): For studying cross-national differences,
      • 7-point Likert scale seems better than 5-point (higher confidence)
      • Ranking seems to be better than rating
      • Use of English questionnaires by foreigners might lead to bias related to cultural accommodation
    • Back translation (Brislin, 1980)
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Trusting translators and interpreters
    • Limitations in translating ideas, abstract concepts and nuanced reasoning (e.g., democracy)
    • Some concepts do not exist in another cultures (e.g., fair play)
    • Interpreter’s personal bias (nationalism, own sense of justice)
    • Subject prefers to express in English even if broken and confusing
    • Use local, native co-researchers as much as possible
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Some concluding remarks
    • Crisis and crisis management have increasing taken an international dimension
    • International collaboration has become a necessity, yet much research is needed to figure out how to do it
    • Design of global research design is quite complex
    • Barely addressed some of intriguing issues
    • Each of the aspects covered here could be a relevant topic to “dig in”
    • No pain, no gain – but rewarding
    © T. Bui, 2010