Doing Global Research on Crisis Management
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Doing Global Research on Crisis Management

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Presented at the ISCRAM Doctoral Colloquium by Tung Bui

Presented at the ISCRAM Doctoral Colloquium by Tung Bui

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  • Diversity of participants, by country, by background, by interested topics
  • Cross-cultural collaboration / timeliness / view of data quality / eg. Asian vs. western view of sharing data
  • VIC / us navy officer visiting russian university
  • Emergent behavior different / helper behavior in a well organized place– call 911. / helping behavior in a remote place to fully engage in rescue / HCI interface design
  • (e.g., US-originated sub-prime loan; Iceland volcano ash)

Doing Global Research on Crisis Management Doing Global Research on Crisis Management Presentation Transcript

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  • Doing global research on crisis management: Opportunities and challenges Tung Bui [email_address] ISCRAM Doctoral Consortium Seattle, 5-2010 © T. Bui, 2010
  • Vérité au deçà des Pyrénées, erreur au delà Blaise Pascal, 17th Century © T. Bui, 2010
  • ISCRAM2010 Doctoral Consortium Participants An attempt to extend current research proposals to a global context (order based from zip file received) © T. Bui, 2010
  • Babajide Osatuyi
    • Subject : Collaborative Information Behavior under conditions of time constraints and level of crisis severity
    • Global context : How would cross-border DMs seek and handle information?
    • Issues at hand: Language, cultural bias, information sharing attitudes
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Burack Cavdaroglu
    • Subject : Restoring Infrastructure Systems - A multi-network Interdependent Critical Infrastructure Program for the Analysis of Lifelines (MUNICIPAL)
    • Global context: Global ICT and social political contexts and supra-nationality
    • Issues at hand: Cross-border data quality, trust interoperability, nationalism-related conflicts of interest
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Cindy Nikolai
    • Subject : Designing a Net-centric emergency operations simulator for emergency managers – ENSAYO
    • Global context: Understanding and adoption of a international approach to crisis management
    • Issues at hand: Digital divide, trust and mistrust, resource allocation, training scope
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Fredrik Bergstrand
    • Subject : ICT requirements to improve sense-making, situation awareness and decision making in crisis situation
    • Global context: cultural and national impacts on cognition
    • Issues at hand: Interoperability, cross-border HCI, information sharing and use, centralization vs. decentralization
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Gyu Hyun Kwon
    • Subject : Identify dimensions of communication interoperability in public safety work domain
    • Global context: Organizational and institutional structures, power and politics, presence of supra-national entities
    • Issues at hand: Difference is org. structures (flat vs. hierarchical), power influence and relationship ties, communications protocols and local legal constraints, languages, perceptions of security
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Joaquin Lopez-Silva
    • Subject : Using scenario analysis to analyze cross-impact risks related to complex and possibly unknown emergency responses
    • Global context: Global responses are typically uncoordinated, and unspoken sense of competition; assessment of impacts is influenced by national interests
    • Issues at hand: cross impacts more convoluted, cross-border meta-analysis
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Marcus Vogt
    • Subject : Requirements analysis, task-technology fit, value creation, adoption for ICT alignment in emergency management
    • Global context: Global strategy, multiple stakeholders, wide spectrum of ICT literacy
    • Issues at hand: Multiple and conflicting objective analysis, role of leaders and followers in IT governance, inter-organizational mega collaboration, scalability
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Robert Baska
    • Subject : Continuous auditing to help track the effectiveness of decisions to help improve decision making process
    • Global context: Diversity in core values (political vs. financial), conflicting prioritization influenced by national interests
    • Issues at hand: Buy-ins, meta-modeling, data quality
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Thomas Heverin
    • Subject : Micro-blogging for crisis information sharing
    • Global context: nationalism, national attitude w/ regard to crises, privacy
    • Issues at hand: local vs. global space, physical vs. virtual space, privacy and security, national differences in emerging behavior
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Yasir Javed
    • Subject : Emergency Decision Making for Mass Evacuation
    • Global context: National differences in decision making process
    • Issues at hand: National characteristics that impact decision-making process – intelligence, design, choice, implementation and monitoring, emotion and social responsibilities
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Opportunities for global research
    • Crises w/ global impacts have become more regular
    • IS-centric research on crisis management, HA/DR is young, and has lots of unresolved/untapped issues
    • Much research is needed to fill missing pieces in the global puzzle
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Examples of global research phenomena
    • Haiti/Chile: Two major earthquakes to governmental attitudes. Why did one government asked for help and the other one did not? Nationalism?
    • Haiti and Facebook discussion groups : Why emergent behaviors expressed in French seemed more compassionate than those expressed in English? Ethnocentrism? Local behaviors vs. global behaviors?
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Examples of global research questions
    • Iceland volcano ash: Why did the Swiss decided to fly low below the ash clouds and the Germans to fly above them? What drove their decision-making processes?
    • Hawaii tsunami warning on 2/27/10. Known by the world to be a perfect textbook drill. What would be the critical success factors for an International Early Warning Program (IEWP)?
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Some research framework that you could use for crisis management studies © T. Bui, 2010
  • Self-organizing systems (Steel)
    • Connectivity
    • Diversity
    • Rate of information flow
    • Lack of inhibitors
    • Good boundaries
    • Intentionality
    • Watchful anticipation
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Culture (Hofstede)
    • Five dimensions of national culture
      • Small vs. large power distance
      • Individualism vs. Collectivism
      • Masculinity vs. femininity (quantity vs. quality of life)
      • Weak vs. strong uncertainty avoidance
      • Long vs. short-term orientation
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Social political system
    • Cultural multipolarity: Homogenization of global culture vs. robust local cultures (Ballentine, 96)
    • Infrastructure trends
    • Inter-connected world
    • Rising mobility
    • Value trends
    • Transparency
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Some research design considerations © T. Bui, 2010
  • Country-Of-Origin
    • COO stereotyping (Colyer, 2005) (Swiss dog must be good) / Russia-US: cold war heritage
    • COO debate (Usumier, 2006), people pay little importance to the country (exploiter behavior can be found anywhere)
    • How does COO impact the design and effectiveness of ERS?
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Cross-cultural negotiations
    • Nations in darkness phenomenon (Stoesinger, 1971): pervasive misperceptions affecting information processing
    • Relax internal consistency in favor of creative exploration of alternative explanations
    • Convert confusion into predictable irrationality
    • E.g., national rescue teams competed in Indian tsunami
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Negotiation and national characters
    • National self-images and images of the other party (e.g., French locked in history of imperialism; America’s self proclamation of world police)
    • Difference in ethics: (e.g., Americans tend to be dogmatic; Japanese practice situation ethics)
    • How to design an argumentation system for int’l ERS
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Cultural Cognition
    • Differences in reasoning process
      • US: base on hard facts; France: known for Cartesian logic; Mexico/Japan: emphasis on contemplation and intuition
    • Implications on persuasion styles
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • A global research framework Bui et al. (1999, 2001, 2005) © T. Bui, 2010
  • Factors affecting HA/DR operations factoring in national characteristics © T. Bui, 2010 Acceptance Level of Risk Inferior Technology Education level Insufficient infrastructure & Transportation Cultural Difference Availability of Resource Political and Administrative Stability Quality of Decision Outcomes Quality of Crisis Mgt Process Problem Formulation Group-think Cognitive Abilities HA/DR Agency Unit Isolation Stress Organizational Memory Information Quality/Overload Degree of Org. Readiness Coordination Level Between Units
  • Issues related to HA/DR (1)
    • Importance of information exchange (facts and analyses)
      • Quality
      • Timeliness
    • Coordination complexity
      • No single organization has all resources
      • Each organization wants to show its special value
      • May hinder cooperation
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Issues related to HA/DR (2)
    • Short-term vs. long-term perspectives
      • Short-term rescue vs. long-term development
    • Communication incompatibilities
      • Different languages, incompatible devices, cultural diversity
    • Information standardization needs
      • Information overload, how to interpret data
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Negotiation issues in HA/DR
    • Source of conflicts
      • Different interpretations of the same information.
      • Violating norms of others due to cultural differences
      • Short-term rescue vs. long-term development
      • The very existence of organization (inherent nature of the org. decision making process)
    • Negotiation issues
      • Mutual agreement with needs assessment
      • Need to negotiate for the action priority
      • Agreement about means and ends
      • Negotiation of resource allocation
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Some research process considerations © T. Bui, 2010
  • “ Lost in translation”
    • The “silent language” phenomenon
      • Chinese/Mexican: avoid saying “no”
    • Body language misinterpretations
      • Asian: smiling sometime used to hide shyness or embarrassment
      • American’s direct style and open expression of emotion perceived by mistrust/lack of sincerity
    • Extra layer of noise in data analysis
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Some research design considerations
    • Survey instrument (Harzing, 2004, 2009): For studying cross-national differences,
      • 7-point Likert scale seems better than 5-point (higher confidence)
      • Ranking seems to be better than rating
      • Use of English questionnaires by foreigners might lead to bias related to cultural accommodation
    • Back translation (Brislin, 1980)
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Trusting translators and interpreters
    • Limitations in translating ideas, abstract concepts and nuanced reasoning (e.g., democracy)
    • Some concepts do not exist in another cultures (e.g., fair play)
    • Interpreter’s personal bias (nationalism, own sense of justice)
    • Subject prefers to express in English even if broken and confusing
    • Use local, native co-researchers as much as possible
    © T. Bui, 2010
  • Some concluding remarks
    • Crisis and crisis management have increasing taken an international dimension
    • International collaboration has become a necessity, yet much research is needed to figure out how to do it
    • Design of global research design is quite complex
    • Barely addressed some of intriguing issues
    • Each of the aspects covered here could be a relevant topic to “dig in”
    • No pain, no gain – but rewarding
    © T. Bui, 2010