Doing Global Research on Crisis Management

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Presented at the ISCRAM Doctoral Colloquium by Tung Bui

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  • Diversity of participants, by country, by background, by interested topics
  • Cross-cultural collaboration / timeliness / view of data quality / eg. Asian vs. western view of sharing data
  • VIC / us navy officer visiting russian university
  • Emergent behavior different / helper behavior in a well organized place– call 911. / helping behavior in a remote place to fully engage in rescue / HCI interface design
  • (e.g., US-originated sub-prime loan; Iceland volcano ash)
  • Doing Global Research on Crisis Management

    1. 2. Doing global research on crisis management: Opportunities and challenges Tung Bui [email_address] ISCRAM Doctoral Consortium Seattle, 5-2010 © T. Bui, 2010
    2. 3. Vérité au deçà des Pyrénées, erreur au delà Blaise Pascal, 17th Century © T. Bui, 2010
    3. 4. ISCRAM2010 Doctoral Consortium Participants An attempt to extend current research proposals to a global context (order based from zip file received) © T. Bui, 2010
    4. 5. Babajide Osatuyi <ul><li>Subject : Collaborative Information Behavior under conditions of time constraints and level of crisis severity </li></ul><ul><li>Global context : How would cross-border DMs seek and handle information? </li></ul><ul><li>Issues at hand: Language, cultural bias, information sharing attitudes </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    5. 6. Burack Cavdaroglu <ul><li>Subject : Restoring Infrastructure Systems - A multi-network Interdependent Critical Infrastructure Program for the Analysis of Lifelines (MUNICIPAL) </li></ul><ul><li>Global context: Global ICT and social political contexts and supra-nationality </li></ul><ul><li>Issues at hand: Cross-border data quality, trust interoperability, nationalism-related conflicts of interest </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    6. 7. Cindy Nikolai <ul><li>Subject : Designing a Net-centric emergency operations simulator for emergency managers – ENSAYO </li></ul><ul><li>Global context: Understanding and adoption of a international approach to crisis management </li></ul><ul><li>Issues at hand: Digital divide, trust and mistrust, resource allocation, training scope </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    7. 8. Fredrik Bergstrand <ul><li>Subject : ICT requirements to improve sense-making, situation awareness and decision making in crisis situation </li></ul><ul><li>Global context: cultural and national impacts on cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Issues at hand: Interoperability, cross-border HCI, information sharing and use, centralization vs. decentralization </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    8. 9. Gyu Hyun Kwon <ul><li>Subject : Identify dimensions of communication interoperability in public safety work domain </li></ul><ul><li>Global context: Organizational and institutional structures, power and politics, presence of supra-national entities </li></ul><ul><li>Issues at hand: Difference is org. structures (flat vs. hierarchical), power influence and relationship ties, communications protocols and local legal constraints, languages, perceptions of security </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    9. 10. Joaquin Lopez-Silva <ul><li>Subject : Using scenario analysis to analyze cross-impact risks related to complex and possibly unknown emergency responses </li></ul><ul><li>Global context: Global responses are typically uncoordinated, and unspoken sense of competition; assessment of impacts is influenced by national interests </li></ul><ul><li>Issues at hand: cross impacts more convoluted, cross-border meta-analysis </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    10. 11. Marcus Vogt <ul><li>Subject : Requirements analysis, task-technology fit, value creation, adoption for ICT alignment in emergency management </li></ul><ul><li>Global context: Global strategy, multiple stakeholders, wide spectrum of ICT literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Issues at hand: Multiple and conflicting objective analysis, role of leaders and followers in IT governance, inter-organizational mega collaboration, scalability </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    11. 12. Robert Baska <ul><li>Subject : Continuous auditing to help track the effectiveness of decisions to help improve decision making process </li></ul><ul><li>Global context: Diversity in core values (political vs. financial), conflicting prioritization influenced by national interests </li></ul><ul><li>Issues at hand: Buy-ins, meta-modeling, data quality </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    12. 13. Thomas Heverin <ul><li>Subject : Micro-blogging for crisis information sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Global context: nationalism, national attitude w/ regard to crises, privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Issues at hand: local vs. global space, physical vs. virtual space, privacy and security, national differences in emerging behavior </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    13. 14. Yasir Javed <ul><li>Subject : Emergency Decision Making for Mass Evacuation </li></ul><ul><li>Global context: National differences in decision making process </li></ul><ul><li>Issues at hand: National characteristics that impact decision-making process – intelligence, design, choice, implementation and monitoring, emotion and social responsibilities </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    14. 15. Opportunities for global research <ul><li>Crises w/ global impacts have become more regular </li></ul><ul><li>IS-centric research on crisis management, HA/DR is young, and has lots of unresolved/untapped issues </li></ul><ul><li>Much research is needed to fill missing pieces in the global puzzle </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    15. 16. Examples of global research phenomena <ul><li>Haiti/Chile: Two major earthquakes to governmental attitudes. Why did one government asked for help and the other one did not? Nationalism? </li></ul><ul><li>Haiti and Facebook discussion groups : Why emergent behaviors expressed in French seemed more compassionate than those expressed in English? Ethnocentrism? Local behaviors vs. global behaviors? </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    16. 17. Examples of global research questions <ul><li>Iceland volcano ash: Why did the Swiss decided to fly low below the ash clouds and the Germans to fly above them? What drove their decision-making processes? </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaii tsunami warning on 2/27/10. Known by the world to be a perfect textbook drill. What would be the critical success factors for an International Early Warning Program (IEWP)? </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    17. 18. Some research framework that you could use for crisis management studies © T. Bui, 2010
    18. 19. Self-organizing systems (Steel) <ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of information flow </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of inhibitors </li></ul><ul><li>Good boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Intentionality </li></ul><ul><li>Watchful anticipation </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    19. 20. Culture (Hofstede) <ul><li>Five dimensions of national culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small vs. large power distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualism vs. Collectivism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Masculinity vs. femininity (quantity vs. quality of life) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak vs. strong uncertainty avoidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long vs. short-term orientation </li></ul></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    20. 21. Social political system <ul><li>Cultural multipolarity: Homogenization of global culture vs. robust local cultures (Ballentine, 96) </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure trends </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-connected world </li></ul><ul><li>Rising mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Value trends </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    21. 22. Some research design considerations © T. Bui, 2010
    22. 23. Country-Of-Origin <ul><li>COO stereotyping (Colyer, 2005) (Swiss dog must be good) / Russia-US: cold war heritage </li></ul><ul><li>COO debate (Usumier, 2006), people pay little importance to the country (exploiter behavior can be found anywhere) </li></ul><ul><li>How does COO impact the design and effectiveness of ERS? </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    23. 24. Cross-cultural negotiations <ul><li>Nations in darkness phenomenon (Stoesinger, 1971): pervasive misperceptions affecting information processing </li></ul><ul><li>Relax internal consistency in favor of creative exploration of alternative explanations </li></ul><ul><li>Convert confusion into predictable irrationality </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., national rescue teams competed in Indian tsunami </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    24. 25. Negotiation and national characters <ul><li>National self-images and images of the other party (e.g., French locked in history of imperialism; America’s self proclamation of world police) </li></ul><ul><li>Difference in ethics: (e.g., Americans tend to be dogmatic; Japanese practice situation ethics) </li></ul><ul><li>How to design an argumentation system for int’l ERS </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    25. 26. Cultural Cognition <ul><li>Differences in reasoning process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US: base on hard facts; France: known for Cartesian logic; Mexico/Japan: emphasis on contemplation and intuition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implications on persuasion styles </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    26. 27. A global research framework Bui et al. (1999, 2001, 2005) © T. Bui, 2010
    27. 28. Factors affecting HA/DR operations factoring in national characteristics © T. Bui, 2010 Acceptance Level of Risk Inferior Technology Education level Insufficient infrastructure & Transportation Cultural Difference Availability of Resource Political and Administrative Stability Quality of Decision Outcomes Quality of Crisis Mgt Process Problem Formulation Group-think Cognitive Abilities HA/DR Agency Unit Isolation Stress Organizational Memory Information Quality/Overload Degree of Org. Readiness Coordination Level Between Units
    28. 29. Issues related to HA/DR (1) <ul><li>Importance of information exchange (facts and analyses) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timeliness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coordination complexity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No single organization has all resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each organization wants to show its special value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May hinder cooperation </li></ul></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    29. 30. Issues related to HA/DR (2) <ul><li>Short-term vs. long-term perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term rescue vs. long-term development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication incompatibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different languages, incompatible devices, cultural diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information standardization needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information overload, how to interpret data </li></ul></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    30. 31. Negotiation issues in HA/DR <ul><li>Source of conflicts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different interpretations of the same information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violating norms of others due to cultural differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term rescue vs. long-term development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The very existence of organization (inherent nature of the org. decision making process) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negotiation issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutual agreement with needs assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to negotiate for the action priority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement about means and ends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiation of resource allocation </li></ul></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    31. 32. Some research process considerations © T. Bui, 2010
    32. 33. “ Lost in translation” <ul><li>The “silent language” phenomenon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese/Mexican: avoid saying “no” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Body language misinterpretations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asian: smiling sometime used to hide shyness or embarrassment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American’s direct style and open expression of emotion perceived by mistrust/lack of sincerity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extra layer of noise in data analysis </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    33. 34. Some research design considerations <ul><li>Survey instrument (Harzing, 2004, 2009): For studying cross-national differences, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7-point Likert scale seems better than 5-point (higher confidence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranking seems to be better than rating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of English questionnaires by foreigners might lead to bias related to cultural accommodation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Back translation (Brislin, 1980) </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    34. 35. Trusting translators and interpreters <ul><li>Limitations in translating ideas, abstract concepts and nuanced reasoning (e.g., democracy) </li></ul><ul><li>Some concepts do not exist in another cultures (e.g., fair play) </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreter’s personal bias (nationalism, own sense of justice) </li></ul><ul><li>Subject prefers to express in English even if broken and confusing </li></ul><ul><li>Use local, native co-researchers as much as possible </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010
    35. 36. Some concluding remarks <ul><li>Crisis and crisis management have increasing taken an international dimension </li></ul><ul><li>International collaboration has become a necessity, yet much research is needed to figure out how to do it </li></ul><ul><li>Design of global research design is quite complex </li></ul><ul><li>Barely addressed some of intriguing issues </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the aspects covered here could be a relevant topic to “dig in” </li></ul><ul><li>No pain, no gain – but rewarding </li></ul>© T. Bui, 2010

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