Learning Management Systems and Cutting-edge Issues for Web-based Delivery


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A presentation in English and Japanese by Steve McCarty at the 9th Annual International Business Communicators (IBC) Conference on Communication and Culture in the Workplace, Tokyo (24 March 2002)

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Learning Management Systems and Cutting-edge Issues for Web-based Delivery

  1. 1. Learning Management Systems and Cutting-edge issues for Web-based delivery A Workshop by Steve McCarty at the 9th Annual International Business Communicators Conference on Communication and Culture in the Workplace: Technology in English for Special Purposes World Import Mart, Sunshine City 8F, Ikebukuro, Tokyo 24 March 2002
  2. 2. Applying Instructional Design principles in Japan インストラクショナル・デザインの原理を応用して <ul><li>All-around interactivity 多面的にインタラクティブ </li></ul><ul><li>All avenues of learner support あらゆる学習者サポート </li></ul><ul><li>Technological empowerment ICT でのエンパワーメント </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding the client’s circle 人間のサークルを広げる </li></ul>人 人間
  3. 3. WebCT (j) Kajita-sensei’s WebCT 3 modes/interfaces
  4. 4. WebCT (j) Steve’s Home
  5. 5. WebCT (e) Course Homepage example
  6. 6. WebCT (e) Training - Biology Demo Home
  7. 7. Training Demo Student Tools
  8. 8. WebCT (e) Tools, Learning Styles & Teaching Practices
  9. 9. WebCT (e) Content Module example
  10. 10. WebCT (e) Student Tracking function
  11. 11. Training Demo Steve’s Student Page
  12. 12. WebCT (e) Extreme Teaching seminar * compile * using HTML
  13. 13. LMS Blackboard (e) free version
  14. 14. MetaCollege TA setup
  15. 15. LMS MetaCollege combination chat/whiteboard
  16. 16. WebCT (e/j) whiteboard
  17. 17. LMS VU(e) virtual campus map
  18. 18. VU BBS online seminar
  19. 19. WebCT (e) training DE f2f
  20. 20. WebCT (e/j) Ritsumeikan presentation 1
  21. 21. Ritsumeikan 2
  22. 22. Ritsumeikan 3
  23. 23. Ritsumeikan 4
  24. 24. Gender differences in thinking & communication <ul><li> “ Man and women’s brains have evolved with different strengths, talents and abilities. Men, being responsible for hunting game, needed areas in the brain for long- distance navigation , to develop tactics for organizing the kill and to hone skills for hitting a target. They didn’t need to be good conversationalists or sensitive to anyone’s emotional needs, so they never developed strong brain areas for interpersonal skills. Women, by contrast, needed an aptitude for good short-range navigation, wider peripheral vision to monitor their surroundings, the ability to perform several activities simultaneously, and effective communication skills. As a consequence of these needs, men and women’s brains developed specific areas to handle each skill” (Pease, p. 44). “For example, most men have a specific brain location for sensing direction so they find that easy to do. They enjoy planning directions and are drawn to pursuits and pastimes that allow them to use abilities such as navigation and orientation. Women have specific areas for speech. They’re good at it, can do it with ease, and are attracted to fields that allow them to make use of this strength, such as therapy, counseling and teaching” (p. 49). “Men can mentally index their problems and put them on hold … The only way a woman gets rid of problems from her mind is by talking about them to acknowledge them. Therefore, when a woman talks at the end of the day, her objective is to discharge the problems, not to find conclusions or solutions” (p. 80). “Since women originally spent their days with the other women and children in the group, they developed the ability to communicate successfully in order to maintain relationships. For a woman, speech continues to have such a clear purpose: to build relationships and make friends. For men, to talk is to relate the facts. Men see the telephone as a communication tool for relaying facts and information to other people, but a woman sees it as a means of bonding” (p.81). </li></ul>
  25. 25. Females show more f2f dependence <ul><li>“ When girls play together, they do so in small, intimate groups, with an emphasis on minimizing hostility and maximizing cooperation, while boys’ games are in larger groups, with an emphasis on competition … boys take pride in a lone, tough-minded independence and autonomy, while girls see themselves as part of a web of connectedness ” (Goleman, p. 150). “Indeed, the most important element for women – but not for men – in satisfaction with their relationship in a [University of Texas] study of 264 couples was the sense that the couple has ‘good communication’” (p. 151). </li></ul><ul><li> “ While men have side-by-side friendships based on things and achievement, women have face-to-face relationships based on emotional sharing” (Pease, p. 144). </li></ul><ul><li>The above references give enough indication of basic male-female differences. But while women tend to have better communication skills, men may more readily navigate distance education. It may be more difficult to market online courses to women or make them feel comfortable online, but if their f2f dependence is overcome, they can add a social dimension to sustain online relationships. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Gender Differences in Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) <ul><li>“ Gender differences in online communication tend to disfavor women. In mixed-sex public discussion groups, females post fewer messages </li></ul><ul><li>Some evidence suggests that women participate more actively and enjoy greater influence in environments where the norms of interaction are controlled by an individual or individuals entrusted with maintaining order and focus in the group … it makes sense if the leader's role is seen as one of ensuring a civil environment, free from threats of disruption and harassment. </li></ul><ul><li>Males and females tend to participate more equally in chat environments, both in terms of number of messages and average message length </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to off-line cultures, therefore, in which men control public discourse and women communicate more often in private settings (Coates 1993), public CMC is predominantly a male preserve.” </li></ul><ul><li>Susan Herring, “Gender Differences in CMC [Computer-Mediated Communication] http://www. cpsr .org/publications/newsletters/issues/2000/Winter2000/herring.html </li></ul><ul><li>The above study shows that women feel more at home in synchronous communication. That may be because chat environments more closely simulate the f2f communication where women have always excelled. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Gender Differences in Asynchronous Learning <ul><li>“ results suggest that gender differences in communication patterns for male and female students in CMC are the same as FTF communication. Females communicate in an elegant way, while males are generally rough, using shorter words and slang. Males communicate with an underlying purpose of seeking power or status while females more often communicate striving to help others. Males dominate the conversation, effectively silencing females. Females use tag words to justify a statement, while males use slang, insults, derogatory words, and often post jokes of a sexual nature. And lastly, females communicate in a more personal manner, often including mention of self, personal experience, and family in their messages. In contrast, male messages did not contain such references, instead they contained impersonal statements in an abstract manner.” </li></ul><ul><li>Women also tend to be less confident in learning through computers. And yet: </li></ul><ul><li>“ distance education allows a pedagogy preferred by women that is sharing and interactive, and provides an environment for differing learning style preferences because distance education has collaborative potential.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ the professor in the CMC distance education environment must act as a facilitator who constantly looks for ways for the students to build a sense of community. Small-group instruction is a ‘common teaching strategy’ for distance education organizations.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ online female students have less time than their traditional education female counterparts, and have even less time than online males. Data from the analysis on learning styles showed that online females prefer to learn in a connected manner. These two findings together offer a solution to reduce this situational barrier for females: Institutions could make it a policy to include more collaborative and cooperative learning in their courses.” </li></ul><ul><li>Kimberly Blum, “Gender Differences in Asynchronous Learning in Higher Education” http://www.aln.org/alnweb/journal/Vol3_issue1/blum.htm </li></ul>
  28. 28. East Asian Culture & Distance Education <ul><li>Among the cultures with advanced technologies, the greatest cultural gulf seems to exist between East and West, despite their friendship, most extreme between the U.S. and East Asia. The contrast in common sense, such as individualism vs. collectivism or group orientation, is reflected in distance education as well. Western assumptions about the active learner and student-centered education cannot be taken for granted in a non-Western culture. Westerners need to apply originally Western Web-based tools and learning theories to East Asian students. The traditional cultural similarities among East Asian countries will be seen in the following: </li></ul><ul><li>“ South Korea has made remarkable progress, for example providing even non-degree programs for teacher training, and aiming for Net-based, government-supported teacher education programs with their own software platform. But they have found teachers not facilitating learning, with students passive, using the PC just for information processing, not as a communication tool. In Taiwan, 70% of adult students were found to be teacher-dependent.” </li></ul><ul><li>Open and Distance Education in the Asia Pacific Region </li></ul><ul><li>If adults were found by the Taiwanese to be teacher-dependent, then it must be more true for younger students, and the same pattern would probably be found in Japan. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Japanese Culture & Distance Education <ul><li>Japan is a very f2f-oriented culture, which means the men as well as the women. The lack of essential f2f rituals would mean that not being able to meet in person would be a great barrier for Japanese people to join online courses. The closeness of relationships between Japanese people also seems to be measured by the frequency they meet f2f, so they often visit in person when Western people would find a phone call or written message sufficient. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indeed, online education has been very slow to become popular in Japan. For about six years the presenter has worked to introduce the field in Japanese, receiving little response. Research grants have also been relatively few. There have been some encouraging signs most recently, however, such as the Advanced Learning Infrastructure Consortium and the MOFA/JICA J-Net project along with the World Bank’s Global Development Learning Network, both to provide distance education from Japan to the Southeast Asian region. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. For more information <ul><li>E-mail Steve McCarty , Professor, Kagawa Junior College President, World Association for </li></ul><ul><li>Online Education ( WAOE ) </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional Designer, World Bank </li></ul><ul><li>Global Development Learning Network (GDLN) </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership with Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Sites:   www.waoe.org/steve/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>Online library (an Asian Studies WWW </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Library 4-star site, 1997/2001): </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.waoe.org/steve/epublist.html </li></ul><ul><li>In Japanese: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.waoe.org/steve/j.html </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail: steve@kagawa-jc.ac.jp </li></ul><ul><li>スティーブ・マッカーティ </li></ul><ul><li>香川短期大学教授、 世界オンライン教育学会 (米国認定の NPO )会長、 グローバル大学 ( UNESCO 認定の NGO ) アジア太平洋機構 等のネット上のボランティア活動を行っている。ボストン生まれ、ハワイ大学大学院文学修士(アジア/日本学の専門)取得。「 バイリンガリズムと日本学 」という著作目録とリンク集は、☆☆☆☆(アジア学にとても役立つ)と Asian Studies WWW Virtual Library に評価されています。 </li></ul>
  31. 31. WebCT (j) Welcome Page link <ul><li>Logon to Online Courses or visit the presentation on “ WebCT for the Language Teacher” at: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.waoe.org/president/ritsumeikan/index.html </li></ul>Now let’s go to the Web