Agricultural research for crop and livestock value chains development: The IPMS experience

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Presented by Dirk Hoekstra, Azage Tegegne and Berhanu Gebremedhin at the 'livestock live' talk, ILRI Addis Ababa, 28 March 2013 …

Presented by Dirk Hoekstra, Azage Tegegne and Berhanu Gebremedhin at the 'livestock live' talk, ILRI Addis Ababa, 28 March 2013

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  • 1. Agricultural Research for Crop and Livestock Value Chains Development: The IPMS Experience Dirk Hoekstra, Azage Tegegne and Berhanu GebremedhinLivestock Live Talk, Addis Ababa, 28 March 2013
  • 2. Seminar outline Project design and implementation Commodity development within a R4D framework Project results and lessons
  • 3. Project rationale and Goal Ethiopian agricultural development strategy until 2000 - focused on food security and natural resource management Early 2000, strategy was amended to included more commercial oriented agriculture  Need to (re-) orient small holder agricultural sector towards more market oriented agriculture.  Emergence of large scale commercial high tech farms and infrastructure support (ECEX)Goal - To contribute to improved agricultural productivity andproduction through market-oriented agricultural development, as ameans for achieving improved and sustainable livelihoods for therural population.
  • 4. Project pillars• Commodity value chain development• Knowledge management• Capacity development• Research/promotion
  • 5. Pilots in 10 Districts in 4 Regions
  • 6. Project design• Research for development project conceived in the early 2000 at the request of the MoARD and CIDA• Impact (development) oriented project, which included funds for development activities
  • 7. Project implementation No multi location project research frame work at the start, as development interventions varied considerable by site and over time Mostly full time staff dedicated to the project Limited sub contracting of research components Outsourcing of selected development activities to development partners/companies
  • 8. The IPMS CommodityDevelopment Approach in a R4D Framework
  • 9. The Research Impact Pathway Resources(Staff time, finance,equipment/materials, transportation etc.) Activities (Problem identification, research design, implementation, evaluation) Outputs (technologies, institutional/ Organizational/policy recommendations, publications, briefs etc.) Outcomes (Research outputs are taken up/adopted by intended users) Impact (economic, social and environ- mental changes)
  • 10. IPMS Action-oriented Research Approach Experimental Developmental (controlled setting) (uncontrolled setting)  Technology application Focus  Technology generation  Organizational issues  Institutional issues Methods  Lab-based  Diagnostic research  On-station  Action research  On-farm  Impact research
  • 11. The Types of Research• Diagnostic – Research conducted to identify, describe, quantify value chain constraints and opportunities, and technological, organizational and institutional intervention requirements• Action Research – Research aimed at generating qualitative and quantitative knowledge on the development process and performance of a single or combination of interventions, which can be used to modify the interventions, and/or identify context specific adoption factors that can be used to scale out/up best practices• Impact research – Research aimed at generating qualitative and quantitative knowledge on the impact of interventions on economic, social and environmental conditions of farm households.
  • 12. The Value System Consumption Trading Processing Research Transportation Trading Govt. policy regulation Post-harvest Communications handling Production input supply Production Tech. & business training & assistanceInput Financial servicessupply Market information and intelligence
  • 13. Value chain versus channels focus Agro-processing industry (Peri-)urban Urbanspecialized fluid consumers milk farmers Fluid milk tradersRural mixed crop and livestock Butter traders Rural consumersbutter producers
  • 14. Commodity development in R4D framework Diagnostic studies and Identification of interventions Planning and Implementation of interventions Action research on interventions as follow up of diagnostic research Adaptation/modification of interventions Impact evaluation
  • 15. Implementation of Commodity developmentinterventions IPMS facilitated the identification of market oriented commodities and required interventions Interventions were validated by stakeholders IPMS’s role limited to introducing and facilitating the implementation of interventions  ultimate implementation responsibility rested on the value chain stakeholders IPMS focused on reorientation of the MOA’s extension system, value chain actors, service providers and the institutional environment
  • 16. R4D outputs
  • 17. R4D outputs along the value system
  • 18. Promotion of R4D Outputs Over 70, 000 hard copy publications 2000 DVDs distributed IPMS website receives 4500 unique visitors per month
  • 19. ResultsParticipatory market-oriented commodity valuechain development approach resulted in increasedagricultural production, productivity, sales value andmarket participation and orientation of smallholdersin the 10 PLWs
  • 20. Revenue from market-oriented livestock enterprises Revenue (2009/10 prices) Million ETBLivestock enterprise 20054/0 2009/10 Growth Remark 6 rate (%)Improved dairy 2.2 6.5 195 5 PLWs, excluding urban dairy and butter-based local systemSmall ruminant 46 120 159 6 PLWsfatteningCattle fattening 44 207.5 867 7 PLWsImproved poultry 1.0 3.9 291 5 PLWsImproved apiculture 4.94 11.19 127 6 PLWs
  • 21. Selected livestock value chain interventionresults Hormone assisted mass insemination Crossbreeding Borana with highland Zebu Communal grazing area development Pullet production by women groups
  • 22. Mass AI with hormones
  • 23. Initial results hormone assisted massinsemination – Tigray & SNNPR Variables Awasaa-Dale Adigrat- Milkshed Mekelle Milkshed No. % No. %Total animals presented for 210 - 212 -synchronizationNo. animals treated with PGF2α 175 83.3 199 93.9No. of cows that aborted - - 6 3.0Final No. cows synchronized 175 100 193 97.0No. of animals that responded to PGF2α 171 97.7 193 100.0treatment Animals that died (after insemination) 3 1.8 - - Animas that did show up for pregnancy 5 2.9 - - diagnosis Interval to oestrus, hours NA - 45.13 -Pregnant animals 94 57.7 119 61.7
  • 24. Suitability analysis for introduction ofBorana cattle breed in Ethiopia
  • 25. Borana x Highland Zebu crossbred calvesin Metema
  • 26. Grazing area improvement
  • 27. Pullet production by women groups 5 groups with 15-20 members each = 80 Each group member raised 50 day old chicks Vaccination by women Credit Birr 1300/woman Mortality rate 13% Sales price 4 month old pullet Birr 50 Average return/woman farmer Birr 833/4mnts Loan repayment 100%
  • 28. Lessons learned The nature of the value chain development approach is that several interventions need to be combined in order to achieve impact – no stand alone good practices Value chain development is a process which is context specific and evolves over time Over time, value chain development can be driven by the actors with research and development organizations in a supporting role
  • 29. Lessons learned Participatory approach, combined with internal and external knowledge led to identification of new technologies and interventions Failures were observed however, due to market failure and/or insufficient returns Focusing on the value chain as compared to a specific channel, can bring more farmers into market oriented agriculture.
  • 30. Lessons learned The extension system can play a key role in developing market oriented development, by developing their skills beyond the present production skills and being responsive Farmer to farmer exchange of knowledge was an effective tool used by the project Use of modern IT can contribute significantly to enhance knowledge and skills of extension staff as well as value chin actors
  • 31. Lessons learned Achieving a more gender balanced development is a slow process, which can be put in motion through  awareness creation based on gender assessment,  involvement of women in capacity development, knowledge management activities  Involvement of women in decision making institutions  Focusing on gender sensitive commodities and value chain interventions
  • 32. Three Key Messages Technology generation by itself is not enough to achieve developmental outcomes and impact R4D can be combined well in a research environment Knowledge management and capacity development are key elements for the extension system to be responsive in transforming subsistence agriculture in to sustainable economic development
  • 33. Thank you!