Agricultural research for crop and livestock value chains development: The IPMS experience
Agricultural Research for Crop and Livestock Value Chains Development: The IPMS Experience Dirk Hoekstra, Azage Tegegne and Berhanu GebremedhinLivestock Live Talk, Addis Ababa, 28 March 2013
Seminar outline Project design and implementation Commodity development within a R4D framework Project results and lessons
Project rationale and Goal Ethiopian agricultural development strategy until 2000 - focused on food security and natural resource management Early 2000, strategy was amended to included more commercial oriented agriculture Need to (re-) orient small holder agricultural sector towards more market oriented agriculture. Emergence of large scale commercial high tech farms and infrastructure support (ECEX)Goal - To contribute to improved agricultural productivity andproduction through market-oriented agricultural development, as ameans for achieving improved and sustainable livelihoods for therural population.
Project design• Research for development project conceived in the early 2000 at the request of the MoARD and CIDA• Impact (development) oriented project, which included funds for development activities
Project implementation No multi location project research frame work at the start, as development interventions varied considerable by site and over time Mostly full time staff dedicated to the project Limited sub contracting of research components Outsourcing of selected development activities to development partners/companies
The IPMS CommodityDevelopment Approach in a R4D Framework
The Research Impact Pathway Resources(Staff time, finance,equipment/materials, transportation etc.) Activities (Problem identification, research design, implementation, evaluation) Outputs (technologies, institutional/ Organizational/policy recommendations, publications, briefs etc.) Outcomes (Research outputs are taken up/adopted by intended users) Impact (economic, social and environ- mental changes)
IPMS Action-oriented Research Approach Experimental Developmental (controlled setting) (uncontrolled setting) Technology application Focus Technology generation Organizational issues Institutional issues Methods Lab-based Diagnostic research On-station Action research On-farm Impact research
The Types of Research• Diagnostic – Research conducted to identify, describe, quantify value chain constraints and opportunities, and technological, organizational and institutional intervention requirements• Action Research – Research aimed at generating qualitative and quantitative knowledge on the development process and performance of a single or combination of interventions, which can be used to modify the interventions, and/or identify context specific adoption factors that can be used to scale out/up best practices• Impact research – Research aimed at generating qualitative and quantitative knowledge on the impact of interventions on economic, social and environmental conditions of farm households.
The Value System Consumption Trading Processing Research Transportation Trading Govt. policy regulation Post-harvest Communications handling Production input supply Production Tech. & business training & assistanceInput Financial servicessupply Market information and intelligence
Value chain versus channels focus Agro-processing industry (Peri-)urban Urbanspecialized fluid consumers milk farmers Fluid milk tradersRural mixed crop and livestock Butter traders Rural consumersbutter producers
Commodity development in R4D framework Diagnostic studies and Identification of interventions Planning and Implementation of interventions Action research on interventions as follow up of diagnostic research Adaptation/modification of interventions Impact evaluation
Implementation of Commodity developmentinterventions IPMS facilitated the identification of market oriented commodities and required interventions Interventions were validated by stakeholders IPMS’s role limited to introducing and facilitating the implementation of interventions ultimate implementation responsibility rested on the value chain stakeholders IPMS focused on reorientation of the MOA’s extension system, value chain actors, service providers and the institutional environment
Promotion of R4D Outputs Over 70, 000 hard copy publications 2000 DVDs distributed IPMS website receives 4500 unique visitors per month
ResultsParticipatory market-oriented commodity valuechain development approach resulted in increasedagricultural production, productivity, sales value andmarket participation and orientation of smallholdersin the 10 PLWs
Selected livestock value chain interventionresults Hormone assisted mass insemination Crossbreeding Borana with highland Zebu Communal grazing area development Pullet production by women groups
Pullet production by women groups 5 groups with 15-20 members each = 80 Each group member raised 50 day old chicks Vaccination by women Credit Birr 1300/woman Mortality rate 13% Sales price 4 month old pullet Birr 50 Average return/woman farmer Birr 833/4mnts Loan repayment 100%
Lessons learned The nature of the value chain development approach is that several interventions need to be combined in order to achieve impact – no stand alone good practices Value chain development is a process which is context specific and evolves over time Over time, value chain development can be driven by the actors with research and development organizations in a supporting role
Lessons learned Participatory approach, combined with internal and external knowledge led to identification of new technologies and interventions Failures were observed however, due to market failure and/or insufficient returns Focusing on the value chain as compared to a specific channel, can bring more farmers into market oriented agriculture.
Lessons learned The extension system can play a key role in developing market oriented development, by developing their skills beyond the present production skills and being responsive Farmer to farmer exchange of knowledge was an effective tool used by the project Use of modern IT can contribute significantly to enhance knowledge and skills of extension staff as well as value chin actors
Lessons learned Achieving a more gender balanced development is a slow process, which can be put in motion through awareness creation based on gender assessment, involvement of women in capacity development, knowledge management activities Involvement of women in decision making institutions Focusing on gender sensitive commodities and value chain interventions
Three Key Messages Technology generation by itself is not enough to achieve developmental outcomes and impact R4D can be combined well in a research environment Knowledge management and capacity development are key elements for the extension system to be responsive in transforming subsistence agriculture in to sustainable economic development