Chapter 2, Section 1

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Chapter 2, Section 1

  1. 1. Measurement – A Common Language<br />Chapter 2, Section 1 – The Nature of Science and Technology<br />
  2. 2. A Standard Measurement System<br />The Metric System<br />A system of measurement based on the number 10<br />The International System of Units (SI)<br />Using SI allows scientists to compare data and communicate with each other about their results<br />
  3. 3. LENGTH<br />The basic unit of length in the SI system is the meter<br />To measure objects smaller than a meter scientists use units called the centimeter (cm) or the millimeter (mm)<br />Large distances are measured using kilometers (km)<br />To measure length we use a metric ruler<br />
  4. 4. MASS<br />The basic unit of mass in the SI system is the kilogram (kg)<br />To measure the mass of smaller objects we use the gram (g)<br />Even smaller masses are measured in milligrams (mg)<br />To measure mass we use a balance<br />
  5. 5. MASS VS. WEIGHT…<br />Weight is the force of gravity acting on an object. This CAN change<br />Mass is the measure of the amount of matter an object contains. This ALWAYS stays the same!!<br />
  6. 6. VOLUME<br />The amount of space an object takes up<br />To measure the volume of liquid scientists use the liter (L)<br />Smaller volumes are measured using milliliters (mL)<br />
  7. 7. Volume of Liquids<br />To measure the volume of liquid just pour it into a container with markings that show the volume<br />Be sure you read the volume at the BOTTOM of the meniscus (the curved upper surface of a liquid in a column of liquid)<br />
  8. 8. Volume of Rectangular Solids<br />To measure the volume of solid we use the cubic centimeter (cm3) <br />Larger volumes can be measured using the cubic meter (m3)<br />Calculate the volume using the formula: Volume=Length X Width X Height (or V=LWH)<br />
  9. 9. Volume of Irregular Solids<br />To measure the volume of solid such as rock we can immerse the object in water and measure how much the water rises<br />
  10. 10. Density<br />Density is the measure of how much mass is contained in a given volume<br />To calculate density divide the mass of the object by it’s volume (D=M/V)<br />Density is always expressed using TWO units such as grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3), or grams per milliliter (g/mL)<br />
  11. 11. Time<br />The SI unit of time is the second<br />The second can be divided, just as other units can (example, millisecond=one-thousandth of a second<br />Longer times are measured in minutes or hours<br />
  12. 12. Temperature<br />Scientist commonly use the Celsius scale<br />On this scale water freezes at 0oC and boils at 100oC<br />Scientist may also use the OFFICIAL SI unit, Kelvin (K)<br />On Kelvin water freezes at 273oK and boils at 373oK<br />Measure temperature using a thermometer<br />

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