Safe States Slide Master


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Safe States Slide Master

  1. 1. Health and Transportation Partners: Working to Improve Pedestrian Safety in Oregon Safe States Pedestrian Safety Action Team Program Training and Mini-Grant Opportunity June 11, 2014
  2. 2. Outline of Today’s Training Session 1: 11:00 am to 12:30 pm • Safe States Program Overview (10”) • Healthy Communities and Transportation Framework (10”) • Oregon Pedestrian Injury and Fatality Data (15”) • Components of a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan (15”) • The Five Es and Education Strategies (20”) • Q&A (20”) Session 2: 1:00 pm to 2:30 pm • Enforcement Strategies (15”) • Engineering Strategies (30”) • Mini-Grant Opportunity (10”) • Conclusion and Q&A (35”)
  3. 3. Safe States Program Rationale Pedestrian safety is an important health issue. Safety creates walkable neighborhoods, with many health benefits.  Safer streets means pedestrian friendly streets  Better accessibility for all ages, all abilities  Rates of physical activity for ↓ cancer, diabetes, heart disease  Improved air quality for ↓ respiratory disease and cancer  Community interaction, security and social cohesion Pedestrian safety cannot be addressed by one field alone. Engineering Public health Public safety Traffic safety City planning School safety Oregonians and Americans want safe, walkable communities.
  4. 4. “Whether you live in a city or a small town, and whether you drive a car, take the bus, or ride a train: at some point in the day, everyone is a pedestrian. We all have a reason to support pedestrian safety.” – U.S. DOT Secretary Anthony Foxx
  5. 5. Safe States Program Overview • Safe States Alliance - 501(c)(3) with support from NHTSA, CDC • Provided state-level program grant funding (OR, KY, CA, RI) • Oregon Public Health Division Injury & Violence Prevention Program • Funded Activities – 3-day state-level capacity building workshop (March 2014) – Customized training to local partners (today) – Mini-grant funding to local partners for education, enforcement, evaluation (July 2014 to June 2015) – Technical assistance for grantees (July 2014 to June 2015) – Evaluation (through March 2016)
  6. 6. Healthy Communities and Transportation Framework
  7. 7. What Creates Health? Adapted from McGinnis JM, Foege WH. Actual causes of death in the United States. JAMA 1993; 270:2207-2212. Genetic Predisposition, 30% Social Circumstances, 15% Environmental Exposure, 5% Medical Care, 10% Behaviors, 40% Determinants of Health and Their Contribution to Premature Death
  8. 8. Pedestrian Injury Examples Driver Training EMS Seat Belts, Ignition Lock Road design, Pricing Incentives, Licensing, Speed Limit, Social Norms… Socioeconomic Factors Changing the Context to make individuals’ default decisions healthy Long-lasting Protective Interventions Clinical Interventions Counseling & Education Greatest Population Impact Health Impact Pyramid Greatest Individual Effort Poverty, GDP, Rates of Vehicle Ownership, Funding for Infrastructure
  9. 9. Public Health: A Policy, Systems, Environment Approach 10 • Population Approach: All users, all modes, “8 to 80” • Needs of Walkers and Bikers Safety Access Convenience Comfort Social Acceptability • The Five E’s Engineering Education Encouragement Enforcement Evaluation
  10. 10. Transportation as a Social Determinant of Health The leading causes of death in Oregon are powerfully influenced by transportation choices and options. 1. Cancer 2. Heart disease 3. Chronic lower respiratory disease 4. Stroke 5. Unintentional injuries Oregon Death Certificate Data, 2012. Leading Causes of Death, Oregon, 2012.
  11. 11. Pedestrian Safety: One Strategy, Multiple Benefits • Reduce the number of fatalities and serious injuries; • Cut air pollution that contributes to respiratory and heart illnesses; • Increase physical activity to reduce rates of diabetes, cancer and other chronic diseases; • Reduce greenhouse gas emissions; and • Alleviate the high cost of transportation – to users, to system.
  12. 12. Immeasurable Benefits to Walking “People out walking make our towns livelier, safer and more attractive places to live, work, play, shop and invest.” “Walking is safe, simple, and doesn’t require practice, or any fancy gear.” -- U.S. S.G. “It is hard to get people to eat healthier. But we can get them to walk. All they need are shoes.” – KP CEO It connects us to the places where we live, it makes us healthier, and it’s cheap. -- Oregon Walks 13
  13. 13. Scope of the Problem: Injury and Fatality Data
  14. 14. 2011 Pedestrian Fatalities, U.S. Where and When? • In 2011, 4,432 pedestrians were killed and an estimated 69,000 were injured in the US. On average, a pedestrian was killed every two hours and injured every 8 minutes. • Since 2002, pedestrian fatalities have increased from 11% of total traffic crashes, to 14% in 2011. • Nearly 75% occurred in urban settings. • Over 70% occurred at non-intersections versus at intersections. • 88% occurred in normal weather conditions. • A majority, 70%, occurred during nighttime (6 p.m.-5:59 a.m.).
  15. 15. Who? • Older pedestrians (age 65+) accounted for 19% (2.04 per 100,000). • Children age 15 and younger accounted for 6%. • Males accounted for 70% of the fatalities, more than double the rate for females. • Alcohol involvement, either for the driver or pedestrian, was reported in 48% of fatal crashes. – Of the pedestrians involved, 35% had a BAC of .08 or higher, compared to 13% of the drivers. – Those aged 25-34 who were killed had the highest percentage of alcohol impairment at 50%. NHTSA’s National Center for Statistics and Analysis, 2011 Pedestrian Fatalities, U.S.
  16. 16. Oregon Pedestrian Injury Facts • Motor vehicle traffic deaths (occupants, motorcyclists, pedal cyclists, and pedestrians) are a leading cause of unintentional injury in Oregon. • In 2011, pedestrian fatalities (46) accounted for 13.9% of all traffic crash fatalities (331), slightly higher than the 13.7% of traffic crash deaths in the US • Behind MV Occupant deaths, pedestrians are the second category of MV deaths, followed by motorcycle, then cyclist. • In 2011, 831 pedestrians were hospitalized. • Risk factors include both driver and pedestrian use of alcohol and drugs, not yielding, being distracted, and vehicle speed. • Most crashes occur while pedestrians cross streets. • In Oregon, more than half occur on urban roadways and around the 6:00 p.m. hour. • The deadliest time for pedestrians is during dark light conditions without street lights. • The largest age group for pedestrian deaths was adults aged 45-64. • The largest age group for pedestrian hospitalizations (non-fatal) were 15-24 and 45-54. Oregon Death Certificate Data and Oregon Hospitalization Data
  17. 17. Motor Vehicle Traffic Death Rates Per 100,000 By Category of Involvement, Oregon, 2000-2012
  18. 18. Cyclist and Pedestrian Injury Hospitalization Rates per 100,000, Oregon, 2000-2012
  19. 19. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 <1 1-4 5-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75-84 85+ Frequency Age Group (years) Oregon Motor Vehicle Related Pedestrian Deaths by Age Group (2002-2012)
  20. 20. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 <1 1-4 5-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75-84 85+ Frequency Age Group (years) Oregon Motor Vehicle Related Pedestrian Hospitalizations by Age Group (2002-2012)
  21. 21. Components of a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan
  22. 22. Pedestrian Safety Action Plan Step 1: Involve the right stakeholders and representatives • Include transportation agencies, health professionals, emergency providers. • Include representatives of all ages, incomes, genders, and abilities. • Spend time getting to know each other’s language and concerns.
  23. 23. Pedestrian Safety Action Plan Step 2: Define Objectives/Performance Targets • Examples: – reduction in number of fatal and severe injury pedestrian crashes; – targets for reduction in specific pedestrian crash types. • Examples: – increase in pedestrian mode share (%) or number of walking trips; – increase in safe access to certain destinations, for general or targeted populations.
  24. 24. Pedestrian Safety Action Plan Step 3: Collect Crash & Roadway Data to Identify Priority Locations • Crash data • Presence of risk factors contributing to pedestrian crashes: roadway and vehicle data • By spot locations, corridors, targeted areas, or for entire jurisdiction (e.g. as element of TSP) • Pedestrian safety audit
  25. 25. Pedestrian Safety Action Plan Step 4: Prioritize Locations and Select Countermeasures: Engineering Education Enforcement
  26. 26. Pedestrian Safety Action Plan Step 5: Develop an Implementation Strategy • Categorize into: – quick simple fixes – moderately complex fixes – complex/expensive fixes • Develop phasing strategy. • Identify funding strategies.
  27. 27. Pedestrian Safety Action Plan Step 6: Institutionalize Changes to Plans, Development Codes, and Design Standards • Comprehensive plan policy • Transportation system plan policy • Performance measures • Project lists • Street design and street connectivity standards • Development requirements in zoning/development code and construction zone manual
  28. 28. Pedestrian Safety Action Plan Step 7: Consider Land Use, Zoning, and Site Design Issues • Mix and density of land uses • Transit-oriented development • Site design (e.g. parking lot) • Bus stop and transit station location • Siting considerations for: schools hospitals universities community colleges
  29. 29. Pedestrian Safety Action Plan Step 8: Reinforce Commitment to Action • Agency mission statement • Culture of safety • Internal and external training • Award system for safe designs • Support ongoing research in effectiveness of countermeasures
  30. 30. Pedestrian Safety Action Plan Step 9: Evaluate Results • Quantify and document before and after conditions; • Keep track of and publicize successful projects/programs • …...and not so successful projects/programs
  31. 31. The Five Es
  32. 32. The Five Es • Education – Teaching about the range of transportation choices, creating bicycling and walking safety skills, and launching driver safety campaigns. • Encouragement – Using events and activities to promote walking and bicycling and to generate enthusiasm for active transportation. • Engineering – Creating operational and physical improvements to infrastructure to reduce speeds and potential conflicts with motor vehicles, and to establish safe and accessible crossings, walkways, trails, bikeways. • Enforcement – Partnering with local law enforcement to ensure that traffic laws are obeyed (e.g., speed limits, yielding to pedestrians in crosswalks, proper walking and bicycling behaviors) and initiating community enforcement such as crossing guard programs. • Evaluation – Monitoring and documenting outcomes, attitudes and trends through the collection of data before and after the intervention(s).
  33. 33. Enlist the Community
  34. 34. Target audiences: vulnerable populations Typical priorities in Oregon. Check local data: • Children/students • Older adults (65+) • Men • People walking at night/dark conditions • Urban settings • Impaired pedestrians and drivers • Drivers
  35. 35. Sample Messaging Pedestrians can: • Be predictable. Follow the rules of the road, cross at crosswalks or intersections, and obey signs and signals. • Walk left, ride right. • Pay attention to the traffic moving around you. • Make eye contact with drivers as they approach.
  36. 36. Sample Messaging Drivers can: • Look out for pedestrians. • Look right before turning right. • Slow down and be prepared to stop when turning or entering a crosswalk. • Stop at the crosswalk stop line to give drivers in other lanes an opportunity to see and yield to the pedestrians, too. • Be cautious when backing up. • Be predictable. • Use turn signals (blinkers).
  37. 37. How to communicate?
  38. 38. Safe Routes to School
  39. 39. Safe Routes to School •
  40. 40. See and Be Seen
  41. 41. Address Drivers
  42. 42. Create a community-wide pledge
  43. 43. How to communicate? • Distribute program flyers and brochures to homeowner’s associations, retirement communities, senior centers, and libraries. • Distribute project flyers and brochures as door hangers to each residence in neighborhood. • Post on boards in local businesses. • Ped campaigns are new! Look to and learn from: – Successful biking campaigns – Successful driver education campaigns
  44. 44. Land Use & Transportation Planning
  45. 45. Post WWII Development Patterns 1. Concentrate all commercial activities in auto-dominated corridors. 2. Segregate land uses 3. Locate the school in the surrounding corn field 4. Resulting community is auto dominated
  46. 46. Result: Auto-Dominated Landscapes
  47. 47. The Old is New Again…
  48. 48. Advantages of Walkable Development • Travel Choices • Fewer Auto Trips • Improved Walkability • Easier to serve with transit • More sustainable footprint
  49. 49. Connectivity creates a pedestrian-friendly street system by:  Reducing walking distances;  Offering more route choices, more quiet local streets;  Dispersing traffic
  50. 50. High Connectivity Travel Lanes Required Moderate Connectivity Low Connectivity
  51. 51. Engineering
  52. 52. Which are safer – wide streets or narrow streets? Colorado study looked at injury crashes on local streets (<2500 ADT):
  53. 53. At a certain point, sidewalks are needed
  54. 54. What about rural roads?
  55. 55. What are characteristics of good sidewalk design? 1. Proper width 2. Clear of obstacles 3. Smooth surfaces 4. Separation from traffic 5. They lead you to the right place
  56. 56. Sidewalk Corridor - The Zone System Sidewalk corridor extends from the edge of roadway to the edge of right-of-way:  Curb zone  Furniture zone  Pedestrian zone  Frontage zone
  57. 57. The Zone System - Summary Pedestrian Zone Furniture Zone
  58. 58. The Zone System - Summary Furniture Zone Pedestrian Zone
  59. 59. Speed: what’s more likely to slow traffic?
  60. 60. Best solution: separate sidewalk with planter strip (buffer, parkway…)
  61. 61. Sidewalk behind ditch or swale
  62. 62. High-quality crossings are vital
  63. 63. Where do pedestrians get hit? • Most (58%) vehicle/pedestrian collisions occur at signalized intersections. • Of those that occur at signalized intersections, most (67%) occur while the pedestrian is in the crosswalk with the right of way. • Most (73%) involve a turning vehicle, with approximately half of the vehicles turning left and half turning right.
  64. 64. Crosswalks Defined – ORS
  65. 65. Crosswalks Defined – T Intersection
  66. 66. Why are marked crosswalks provided? 1. To indicate to pedestrians where to cross 2. To indicate to drivers where to expect pedestrians
  67. 67. Locating Crosswalks: General Principles 1. Recognize pedestrians want and need to cross the street safely. 2. Pedestrians will cross where it’s most convenient. 3. Drivers need to understand pedestrians’ intent. 4. Minimize crossing distance. 5. Simplify crossing. 6. Speed dictates the type of crossing you need. Good design makes use of these principles
  68. 68. Many locations are not suitable for a marked crosswalk
  69. 69. Create a good place to cross the street.
  70. 70. Crosswalk Markings: Crosswalk Visibility
  71. 71. Crosswalk Visibility
  72. 72. What the pedestrian sees
  73. 73. What the driver sees
  74. 74. Textured crosswalks: Theory – more visible. Reality?
  75. 75. Textured crosswalks are hard on wheelchair users, unless great care is used in construction
  76. 76. Creating Good Crossings: Minimize Crossing Distance Florence: Hwy 101 at 8th Street
  77. 77. Curb Extensions • Must have on-street parking • Improves visibility of pedestrian • Shortens crossing distance • Shortens Ped Phase at signalized crossings
  78. 78. Reduce Curb Radius to Shorten Crossing Distance
  79. 79. With small radii crossing distances are short, crossings are in line with approach sidewalk
  80. 80. Large radii increase crossing distances, pedestrians initiate crossing in a poorly defined area
  81. 81. Hwy 101 Depoe Bay Median Islands Reduce Ped Crashes By 40%
  82. 82. Bailey Hill Rd, Eugene
  83. 83. 37th and Hwy 101, Florence
  84. 84. Hwy 42 Winston
  85. 85. Provides methodology for determining what type of treatment to use to improve safety of crossings on high speed high volume roadways.
  86. 86. Illumination
  87. 87. Americans with Disabilities Act: Where do you find the Standards? US ACCESS BOARD
  88. 88. ADA is Simple Sidewalks require 4’ x 4’ x 7’ clear passage
  89. 89. Six Principles of Ramp Construction 1. Traversable Path slopes in one direction AT A TIME. 2. Provide 4’ square level landing at top of ramp. 3. Provide Truncated Domes at base of ramp (2’ x ramp width). 4. There should be no lip at the end of the ramp 5. Max. Algebraic difference between the ramp slope and the street or gutter slope ≤ 11. 6. DON’T BLOCK THE TRAVERSIBLE PATH!
  90. 90. Available Publications Ped Safety Action Plan Book Safety Benefits of Walkways, Sidewalks, and Paved Shoulders ◦ Tri-fold - ◦ Brochure - Safety Benefits of Raised Medians and Pedestrian Refuge Areas ◦ Tri-fold - ◦ Brochure -
  91. 91. Mini-Grant Opportunity
  92. 92. Mini-Grant Overview • Eligible: Governmental Organizations and 501(c)3 e.g. police agency, public health, city planning, bike/ped advocacy group, injury prevention coalition, and others • Purpose: Advance an existing safety plan or policy, or transportation plan or policy. • Outcome: Local communities have taken additional step(s) to improve pedestrian safety. • Amount: $9,000 maximum request. • Activities: Conduct specific activities in the areas of education, enforcement and/or evaluation. – If enforcement, you must, also conduct another “E”
  93. 93. Examples • Conduct education (and enforcement, but not enforcement alone) activities that support new infrastructure projects. • Improve data collection and analysis of pedestrian crashes to identify trends, high-risk populations, and high-crash locations. • Conduct educational campaigns focused on high- risk groups or high-crash locations. • Evaluate a program, policy or infrastructure change intended to reduce pedestrian injuries.
  94. 94. Key Mini-Grant Facts • Released: June 11, 2014 • Due: June 30, 2014, 5:00 p.m. • Awarded: August 1, 2014 • Completion: June 1, 2015 • Evaluation: through March, 2016 Application available at: childhood-injury-prevention-webinars/
  95. 95. Resources • Safe States Alliance: • How to Develop a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan 512.pdf • (people add here…)
  96. 96. Contacts for Questions Healthy Communities strategies: Five Es and Transportation strategies: Mini-Grant Application Questions