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Active Transportation/Complete Streets Policies


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Review of Active Transportation/Complete Streets policies in Ohio and nationally and the benefits of these design policies.

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Active Transportation/Complete Streets Policies

  1. 1. ABOUT GREATER OHIO POLICY CENTER An outcome-oriented statewide non-profit that champions revitalization and sustainable redevelopment in Ohio: • Revitalize Ohio’s urban cores and metropolitan regions • Achieve sustainable land reuse and economic growth
  2. 2. ABOUT GREATER OHIO POLICY CENTER: HOW WE DO OUR WORK • Develop and publish research • Use research to advocate for practical policy solutions at the state level • Assist communities through strategic assistance and dissemination of best practices • Build collaborative partnerships to extend our reach and ability to impact change
  3. 3. LOCAL AND REGIONAL POLICIES • 19 local or regional Complete Streets ordinances, resolutions, or internal policies • 4 MPOs: • MORPC (Columbus area) • MVRPC (Dayton area) • NOACA (Cleveland area) • TMACOG (Toledo area) • 15 local ordinances, policies, etc. nts/cs-chart-allpolicies-1-2016.pdf
  4. 4. DISTRIBUTION OF LOCAL/REGIONAL COMPLETE STREETS POLICIES Key: Blue: Laws & Ordinances | Red: Resolutions | Yellow: Tax Ordinances | Purple: Internal Policies or Executive Orders | Magenta: Plans | Green: Design Manuals or Guides | Turquoise: Policies Adopted by Elected Boards streets/changing-policy/complete-streets-atlas
  5. 5. OHIO IN CONTEXT: NATIONAL TRENDS • 31 states have state-level Complete Streets/Active Transportation policies including: • Pennsylvania (2007) • Tennessee (2010) • Louisiana (2010) • Mississippi (2010) • There are over 800 local/regional ordinances in the country cs/policy/cs-state-policies.pdf; streets/changing-policy/complete-streets-atlas
  6. 6. DEMOGRAPHIC IMPACTS-PEDESTRIAN FATALITIES Nationally, pedestrian fatality rates: • 60% higher for Latinos as compared to whites • 75% higher for African Americans as compared to whites • 20% of all pedestrian deaths are African American (although African Americans represent only 12% of US population) streets/complete-streets-fundamentals/factsheets/equity/
  7. 7. DETAILED DEMOGRAPHICS OF PEDESTRIAN FATALITIES Elderly (65+ y/o) • 22% of all pedestrian fatalities between 2000-2009 were elderly adults of all ethnicities and races (elderly represented 13% of total US population during this time period) • 173% higher fatality rate among older Latinos than that of older whites Children • Latino children 40% more likely than white children to be killed while walking • African American children twice as likely as white children to be killed while walking Income • In counties where >20% of households have incomes below the federal poverty line, pedestrian fatality rate is +80% higher than the national average streets/complete-streets-fundamentals/factsheets/equity/
  8. 8. OHIO CASE STUDY: MIAMI VALLEY INJURY/FATALITY RATES In the Miami Valley region (Dayton area), between 2011 and 2013 there were: • 288 bicyclist-motorist crashes • 407 pedestrian-motorist crashes This represents 1.6% of all roadway crashes but these crashes were especially lethal: • 91% of pedestrian crashes resulted in an injury or fatality • 80% of bicycle crashes resulted in an injury or fatality Fatalities more than doubled from 2008 to 2013 • 12 fatal crashes (between 2008-2010) • 29 fatal crashes (2011-2013) MVRPC Complete Streets policy enacted 2011, but it’s still too early to see impact s/default/files/CrashData Report2015.pdf
  9. 9. COST OF FATALITIES AND INJURIES A 2015 analysis of 37 Complete Streets projects across the country determined the projects avoided a total of $18.1 million in collision and injury costs in one year alone.* These savings start as soon as a project is complete, and continue long after. * Calculations only apply to 37 analyzed projects. stronger-economies/
  10. 10. DESIGNING FOR SAFETY • Installing raised medians and redesigning intersections and sidewalks for pedestrian travel reduced pedestrian risk by 28 percent. • In places without sideways, pedestrian crashes are more than twice as likely to occur • Streets with sidewalks on both sides have the fewest crashes. • Speed reduction reduces fatalities for pedestrians • 40mph=80% fatality rate • 30 mph=40% fatality rate • 20 mph= 5% fatality rate streets/complete-streets-fundamentals/factsheets/safety
  11. 11. DESIGNING FOR SAFETY-ALL MODES SAFER • The 2015 analysis found that in some projects where collisions and injuries decreased, automobile volume were unchanged or increased, while pedestrian and bicycle traffic increased • In other words, the rate of collision/injury dropped the same or more than the absolute change • Another study describes this phenomenon as “safety in numbers” hypothesis: • As the number and portion of bicyclists and pedestrians increase, deaths and injuries decline economies/; streets-fundamentals/factsheets/safety
  12. 12. DESIGNING FOR SAFETY-MEASURING STRATEGY IMPACT Determine if access for bicycles and pedestrians on Ohio’s designated state and US bicycle routes has improved • Track pedestrian/bike usage and if increase • Track crashes/injuries if percentage declines • Track along key demographic indicators (race/ethnicity, age, income, etc.) • Track impact of active transportation improvements on automobile volume • Maintain longitudinal data collection and analysis economies/; streets-fundamentals/factsheets/safety
  13. 13. ACTIVE TRANSPORTATION DESIGN One study found that: • 43% of people with safe places to walk within 10 minutes of home met recommended activity levels • Among those without safe places to walk just 27% met the recommendation. • Residents are 65% more likely to walk in a neighborhood with sidewalks streets/complete-streets-fundamentals/factsheets/health
  14. 14. ACTIVE TRANSPORTATION MEASURING STRATEGY IMPACT Incorporating health metrics into investment decisions: • Before/after analysis of pedestrian & bicyclist counts • Long term analysis of health indicators streets/complete-streets-fundamentals/factsheets/health
  15. 15. DIRECT IMPACT OF POLICY IMPLEMENTATION: JOBS • Per dollar spent, road improvement projects that include bike and pedestrian facilities create more jobs during construction than those that are only designed for vehicles • Adding or improving transit facilities as part of a Complete Street is also good. During Recession, each stimulus dollar invested in a public transportation project created twice as many jobs as one spent on a highway project. streets/complete-streets- fundamentals/factsheets/economic-revitalization/
  16. 16. INDIRECT IMPACT: JOBS AND BUSINESSES 2015 study found that in areas which received a Complete Street Project • Employment levels rose • Net increase in new businesses streets-stronger-economies/
  17. 17. INDIRECT IMPACT: MARKET AND PROPERTY VALUE 2015 study found that in areas which received a Complete Street Project • Property values increased after Complete Streets improvements in 8 of 10 communities with available data • Eight communities report increased investment from private sector, in part due to Complete Streets projects In a 2011 University of Cincinnati study found: • In Cincinnati, housing prices went up by $9 for every foot closer to a bike/ped dedicated trail. Ultimately, researchers conclude for an average home, homeowners willing to pay a $9,000 premium to be located 1,000 feet closer to the trail • Similar market patterns likely around Complete Streets projects streets-stronger-economies/
  18. 18. Alison D. Goebel, PhD Deputy Director Greater Ohio Policy Center agoebel@greaterohio.or g @alisongoebelOH 614-224-0187