Teeth chatter and the bed may rattle from the patient , s shivering. Chill Mild delirium : hallucination: confusion: fever: restlessness. Slaty
Paludisme (French)= malaria
Most of these deaths are in children aged 1 to 5 in sub-Saharan Africa, making it the biggest single infectious killer of children in the world. Malaria is endemic in over 100 sub-tropical and tropical countries. 1 million children under the age of five years in tropical Africa. Although typically an illness of tropical regions of the world, more than 1500 cases (nearly all foreign-originating) are diagnosed in the US each year.
of which P. falciparum causes the most severe form of malaria and the most deaths. and less commomly P. malariae.
Malignant because it is the most severe form and can be fatal. No exoerythrocytic stage. If erythrocytic stage eradicated relapses do not occur.
Malaria is primarily transmitted through the bite of an infected female Anopheles species mosquito. Malaria also can be transmitted via a blood transfusion or congenitally between mother and fetus, although these forms of infection are rare.
Only a small number of sporozoites are needed to cause an infection in humans (about 10 P. falciparum). Within about 15–45 minutes of inoculation, the sporozoites of all Plasmodium species reach the liver in the bloodstream and infect hepatocytes, in which asexual multiplication takes place. P. malariae infects mainly older erythrocytes, P. vivax and P. ovale prefer reticulocytes, and P. falciparum infects younger and older erythrocytes.(Kayser, 2005)
The plasmodia are sporozoa in which the sexual and asexual cycles of reproduction are completed in different host species.
http://www.ciriscience.org/ph_151-Plasmodium_falciparum_Copyright_Dennis_Kunkel_Microscopy http://www.sharinginhealth.ca/pathogens/parasites/plasmodium_spp.html Plasmodium falciparum plasmodial merozoite making initial contact with an erythrocyte (red blood cell) membrane at the beginning of erythrocyte invasion. The invasive merozoite has a distinct trilaminar membrane (brown). The merozoite cytoplasm contains a rhoptry neck or duct and rhoptry bulbs (purple), a nucleus (yellow), ribosomes (green), micronemes (rust brown) and mitochondria (pink). Malaria is caused by Plasmodium spp., parasitic single-celled protozoans called plasmodia. Malaria is spread to humans by species of tropical mosquitoes (Anopheles species). Infection spreads from the liver to the blood, where the plasmodium multiplies inside red blood cells. The plasmodial parasite reproduces asexually in the red blood cells significantly destroying many red blood cells. There are four stages of the parasite that develop in human red blood cells - merozoite stage, ring stage, trophozoite stage and schizont stage. Release of mature Plasmodium merozoites results in further infection and produces bouts of shivering fever (paroxysms) and sweating that may be fatal.
Exflaggellation process, Microgametes bud from microgametocyte (male gametocyte).
Several days to a week after onset of parasitemia, the schizogonic cycle synchronizes: in infections with P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. falciparum, a cycle is completed within 48 hours, in infections with P. malariae within 72 hours. Bouts (Attach, hort times) of fever occur at the same intervals, i.e., on day 1, then 48 hours later on day 3 (hence “malaria tertiana”) or on day 1 and then again after 72 hours on day 4 (hence “malaria quartana”). (Kayser, 2005).
About 7000 cases of imported malaria were reported in Europe in the period from 1985 to 1995, whereby the data are incomplete.
Lab 11 plasmodium
Practical Parasitology 2 nd Stage Lab 11: Malaria University of Sulaimani College of Science Department of Biology Blood-dwelling Apicomplexa: Plasmodium spp. Causative agent of malaria
<ul><li>Objectives: Students should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>List Plasmodium spp that are infectious to human. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe sporozoite, hypnozoite, merzoite, and oocyst stages of Plasmodium spp. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain methods of transmission and diagnosis of Plasmodium spp. </li></ul>Blood-dwelling Apicomplexa: Plasmodium spp.
<ul><li>Malaria means “ bad air ”- </li></ul><ul><li>Malaria, which is transmitted by the female anopheles mosquito, is the commonest insect borne diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Its also the most deadly vector-borne disease in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>A life-threatening parasitic disease and its a global problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Malaria a major weapon of mass destruction. </li></ul>Malaria
<ul><li>40% of the world’s population (2.4 billion) is at risk. </li></ul><ul><li>400-900 million people are affected worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes 1.5-2.7 million deaths annually (90% Africa). </li></ul><ul><li>Children less than 5 years and pregnant women mostly vulnerable. </li></ul><ul><li>Most prevalent in tropical and subtropical parts. </li></ul>Malaria
Causative parasite <ul><li>Malaria is caused by species of Plasmodium spp. </li></ul><ul><li>Obligate intracellular parasite… </li></ul><ul><li>The genus Plasmodium contains 200 species. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>only four species are known to infect humans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium falciparum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium ovale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium vivax </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium malariae </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Pre-patent Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time taken from infection to symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium falciparum 6-12 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium vivax 10-17 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium ovale 12-16 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium malariae 28-30 days </li></ul></ul></ul>Incubation Period
The Hosts <ul><li>Human:_ </li></ul><ul><li>_ intermediate host. </li></ul><ul><li>_ asexual cycle (schizogony cycle). </li></ul>Female ANOPHELES MOSQUITOES:_ _ final hosts. _ vector. _ sexual cycle (sporogony).
Female Anopheline mosquito Transmission of Malaria Mother to child (rare) Blood transfusion (rare)
Plasmodium life cycle Infected mosquito bites human; sporozoites migrate through bloodstream to liver of human Sporozoites undergo schizogony in liver cell; merozoites are produced Merozoites released into bloodsteam from liver may infect new red blood cells Merozoites are released when red blood cell ruptures; some merozoites infect new red blood cells, and some develop into male and female gametocytes 1 2 3 4 6 Merozoite develops into ring stage in red blood cell Ring stage Merozoites Another mosquito bites infected humnan and ingests gametocytes 7 5 Ring stage transform to the trophozoite stage and divides, producing merozoites Definitive host In mosquito’s digestive tract, gametocytes unite to form zygote 8 Male gametocyte Female gametocyte Zygote Sexual reproduction Resulting sporozoites migrate to salivary glands of mosquito 9 Sporozoites in salivary gland Asexual reproduction Intermediate host Plasmodium life cycle
Plasmodium vivax & Plasmodium ovale Hypnozoites Hypnozoites: _ _ Are liver dormant stages _Responsible for recurrence of malarial disease.
Gametogenesis <ul><li>occurs in mosquito gut </li></ul><ul><li>‘ exflagellation’ of microgametes are obvious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3X nuclear replication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 microgametes formed </li></ul></ul>
TEM of two Plasmodium ookinetes Immunostaining of an ookinete Ookinete
Transmission <ul><li>Sporozoites injected with saliva </li></ul>A smear of mosquito's salivary gland, Giemsa stain Wet mount of mosquito's salivary gland,
Symptoms of Malaria <ul><li>Fever is the most common symptom. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic episodes of fever alternating with symptom-free periods and this associated with synchrony of merozoite release. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Other symptoms can include: chills, fatigue, weakness, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle pain, mental status changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Manifestations and severity depend on species and host status </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immunity, general health, nutritional state, and genetics </li></ul></ul></ul>
Malarial Paroxysm Periodicity the attacks occur every second day with the "tertian" parasites ( P. falciparum , P. vivax , and P. ovale ) and every third day with the "quartan" parasite (P. malariae).
Malarial Paroxysm <ul><li>Periodicity:_ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Days 1 and 3 for:_ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium vivax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium ovale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium falciparum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Days 1 and 4 for Plasmodium malariae </li></ul></ul>Quartian malaria Tertian malaria Days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9,………. 48 hrs. Days 1, 4, 7, 10,………. 72 hrs.
Malaria Parasite Erythrocytic Stages Ring form Trophozoite Schizont Gametocytes Merozoites