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Lab 11 plasmodium

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Lab 11 plasmodium

  1. 1. Practical Parasitology 2 nd Stage Lab 11: Malaria University of Sulaimani College of Science Department of Biology Blood-dwelling Apicomplexa: Plasmodium spp. Causative agent of malaria
  2. 2. <ul><li>Objectives: Students should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>List Plasmodium spp that are infectious to human. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe sporozoite, hypnozoite, merzoite, and oocyst stages of Plasmodium spp. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain methods of transmission and diagnosis of Plasmodium spp. </li></ul>Blood-dwelling Apicomplexa: Plasmodium spp.
  3. 3. <ul><li>Malaria means “ bad air ”- </li></ul><ul><li>Malaria, which is transmitted by the female anopheles mosquito, is the commonest insect borne diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Its also the most deadly vector-borne disease in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>A life-threatening parasitic disease and its a global problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Malaria a major weapon of mass destruction. </li></ul>Malaria
  4. 4. <ul><li>40% of the world’s population (2.4 billion) is at risk. </li></ul><ul><li>400-900 million people are affected worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes 1.5-2.7 million deaths annually (90% Africa). </li></ul><ul><li>Children less than 5 years and pregnant women mostly vulnerable. </li></ul><ul><li>Most prevalent in tropical and subtropical parts. </li></ul>Malaria
  5. 5. Please control malaria …
  6. 6. Causative parasite <ul><li>Malaria is caused by species of Plasmodium spp. </li></ul><ul><li>Obligate intracellular parasite… </li></ul><ul><li>The genus Plasmodium contains 200 species. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>only four species are known to infect humans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium falciparum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium ovale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium vivax </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium malariae </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Species Infecting Humans <ul><li>Plasmodium falciparum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malignant tertian malaria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plasmodium vivax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benign tertian malaria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plasmodium ovale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benign Tertian or ovale malaria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plasmodium malariae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quartan malaria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common & Severe </li></ul><ul><li>Rare & Mild </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Pre-patent Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time taken from infection to symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium falciparum 6-12 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium vivax 10-17 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium ovale 12-16 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium malariae 28-30 days </li></ul></ul></ul>Incubation Period
  9. 9. The Hosts <ul><li>Human:_ </li></ul><ul><li>_ intermediate host. </li></ul><ul><li>_ asexual cycle (schizogony cycle). </li></ul>Female ANOPHELES MOSQUITOES:_ _ final hosts. _ vector. _ sexual cycle (sporogony).
  10. 10. Female Anopheline mosquito Transmission of Malaria Mother to child (rare) Blood transfusion (rare)
  11. 11. Plasmodium life cycle Infected mosquito bites human; sporozoites migrate through bloodstream to liver of human Sporozoites undergo schizogony in liver cell; merozoites are produced Merozoites released into bloodsteam from liver may infect new red blood cells Merozoites are released when red blood cell ruptures; some merozoites infect new red blood cells, and some develop into male and female gametocytes 1 2 3 4 6 Merozoite develops into ring stage in red blood cell Ring stage Merozoites Another mosquito bites infected humnan and ingests gametocytes 7 5 Ring stage transform to the trophozoite stage and divides, producing merozoites Definitive host In mosquito’s digestive tract, gametocytes unite to form zygote 8 Male gametocyte Female gametocyte Zygote Sexual reproduction Resulting sporozoites migrate to salivary glands of mosquito 9 Sporozoites in salivary gland Asexual reproduction Intermediate host Plasmodium life cycle
  12. 12. Plasmodium vivax & Plasmodium ovale Hypnozoites Hypnozoites: _ _ Are liver dormant stages _Responsible for recurrence of malarial disease.
  13. 14. Exoerythrocytic Schizogony <ul><li>hepatocyte invasion </li></ul><ul><li>asexual replication </li></ul><ul><li>no overt pathology </li></ul>
  14. 15. Erythrocytic Stage <ul><li>intracellular parasite undergoes trophic phase </li></ul><ul><li>young trophozoite called ‘ring form’ </li></ul><ul><li>ingests host hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hemozoin (malarial pigment) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Erythrocytic Schizogony <ul><li>nuclear division = begin schizont stage </li></ul><ul><li>Produces merozoites </li></ul><ul><li>erythrocyte rupture releases merozoites </li></ul><ul><li>blood stage results in disease symptoms </li></ul>
  16. 17. Merozoite
  17. 18. Gametogenesis <ul><li>occurs in mosquito gut </li></ul><ul><li>‘ exflagellation’ of microgametes are obvious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3X nuclear replication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 microgametes formed </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. TEM of two Plasmodium ookinetes Immunostaining of an ookinete Ookinete
  19. 20. Plasmodium oocyst on the gut wall
  20. 21. Transmission <ul><li>Sporozoites injected with saliva </li></ul>A smear of mosquito's salivary gland, Giemsa stain Wet mount of mosquito's salivary gland,
  21. 22. Symptoms of Malaria <ul><li>Fever is the most common symptom. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic episodes of fever alternating with symptom-free periods and this associated with synchrony of merozoite release. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Other symptoms can include: chills, fatigue, weakness, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle pain, mental status changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Manifestations and severity depend on species and host status </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immunity, general health, nutritional state, and genetics </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Malarial Paroxysm Periodicity the attacks occur every second day with the &quot;tertian&quot; parasites ( P. falciparum , P. vivax , and P. ovale ) and every third day with the &quot;quartan&quot; parasite (P. malariae).
  23. 24. Malarial Paroxysm <ul><li>Periodicity:_ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Days 1 and 3 for:_ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium vivax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium ovale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium falciparum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Days 1 and 4 for Plasmodium malariae </li></ul></ul>Quartian malaria Tertian malaria Days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9,………. 48 hrs. Days 1, 4, 7, 10,………. 72 hrs.
  24. 25. Malaria Parasite Erythrocytic Stages Ring form Trophozoite Schizont Gametocytes Merozoites
  25. 26. Malaria Diagnosis <ul><li>Clinical Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Malaria Blood Smear </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorescent microscopy </li></ul><ul><li>Serology </li></ul><ul><li>Polymerase Chain Reaction </li></ul>Blood Smear:_ _ Remains the “gold standard” for diagnosis .
  26. 27. Remember: B.F.F.M. B.F.F.M.=Blood Film For Malaria
  27. 28. References <ul><li>Schmidt GD, & Roberts LS. (2005). Foundations of Parasitology. 7 th ed. McGraw Hill. Boston. </li></ul><ul><li>Satoskar AR, Simon GL, Hotez PJ, & Tsuji, M. (2009). Medical Parasitology. LANDES, Bioscince. Boston. </li></ul><ul><li>Gillespie S, & Pearson RD. (2001) Principles and Practice of Clinical Parasitology. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Chichester. </li></ul><ul><li>Plorde, JJ. (2004). Sporozoa. In: Ryan, KJ. Ray, CG. Sherris Medical Microbiology: An Introduction to Infectious Diseases. 4 th ed. MCGRAW-HILL. New York. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.stanford.edu/group/parasites/Parasites2006/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/784065-media </li></ul><ul><li>http://ipmworld.umn.edu/chapters/curtiscf.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.medicine.cmu.ac.th/dept/parasite/framepro.htm . </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.impact-malaria.com/iml/cx/en/layout.jsp?scat=77824861-679A-433D-B435-9BD832B97130 . </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cdfound.to.it/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.imbb.forth.gr/people/inga/index.htm </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Next Lab </li></ul><ul><li>Blood film technique </li></ul>

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