AgWater Solutions: Unlocking the potential for smallholder agriculture

387 views
302 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
387
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

AgWater Solutions: Unlocking the potential for smallholder agriculture

  1. 1. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world AgWater Solutions: Unlocking the potential for smallholder agriculture Timothy O. Williams Director, Africa International Water Management Institute (IWMI)
  2. 2. This image cannot currently be displayed. 2 Presentation Outline • Smallholder farmers, land and water resources in SSA • AgWater Project & AWM solutions for smallholder farmers • Key messages and investment opportunities • Proposed solutions for scaling-up AWM solutions for smallholder farmers • AWM solutions in the context of WLE program
  3. 3. This image cannot currently be displayed. 3 Why focus on smallholder farmers? • They dominate the agricultural landscape in SSA. • They contribute significantly to national food security and export earnings in many countries. • They produce a range of commodities on which agricultural value chains depend. • With increased agricultural productivity and incomes they will constitute a huge consumer base for goods and services, with positive implications for investment and economic growth.
  4. 4. This image cannot currently be displayed. 4 Land and water resources in SSA • Less than a fifth of the 39 million ha of land deemed physically suitable for irrigation is currently equipped for irrigation. • Average agricultural water withdrawals are 1.3% of renewable water resources. • Groundwater use is less than 20% of renewable supplies. Source: FAO. 2011. The state of world’s land and water resources for food and agriculture. Rome.
  5. 5. This image cannot currently be displayed. 5 Africa - Smallholder AWM reaches more farmers than public irrigation. Smallholder AWM: A vibrant and growing sector Agricultural Water Management in Ghana Source: estimates based on farmer surveys under this project 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 400,000 No. of farmers Irrigated area (ha.) Public irrigation schemes Small reservoirs Motorized pumps Buckets, watering cans
  6. 6. This image cannot currently be displayed. 6 This image cannot currently be displayed. 6 This image cannot currently be displayed. 6 The goal of the AgWater Solutions Project was to improve the livelihoods of millions of poor and marginalized farmers in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia through better agricultural water management. Reaching Millions
  7. 7. This image cannot currently be displayed. 7 The AgWater Solutions Project A three-year project, commenced in 2009. Implemented in 5 countries in sub- Saharan Africa and 2 states in India. AWM solutions identified through broad partnership of organizations and institutions and in consultation with stakeholders.
  8. 8. This image cannot currently be displayed. 8 Identifying AWM Solutions: Water within a larger context of rural livelihoods An AWM solution is any measure, including technologies, products and practices, that increases or improves AWM knowledge, policies and financing and… • Contributes to smallholder livelihoods • Benefits women and men • Cost-effective • Suitable for out-scaling • Addresses resource sustainability
  9. 9. This image cannot currently be displayed. 9 Project Approach: From Research to Impact on the Ground 4 2 Continual Dialogue, Learning and Adapting Continual Dialogue, Learning and Adapting Core: Engagement with primary stakeholders (e.g. farmers, policymakers, investors)
  10. 10. This image cannot currently be displayed. 10 Scope of Analysis Burkina Faso Ghana Ethiopia Tanzania Zambia India Field and community level studies AWM Technologies and Water Access: manual and motorized pumps, drip irrigation, well drilling, groundwater/surface water use and potential X X X X X X Storage and Management: In-situ/ex-situ rainwater harvesting, small reservoirs, inland valleys X X X X X X Financing: Micro-credit, linkages with poverty programs X X X X Supply Chain: Equipment supply chain, agriculture/energy nexus, produce markets, outgrower schemes X X X X X Gender Dimensions: gendered organization of farming X X X Watershed Impact & Scenario Analysis X X X X National Livelihood & Suitability Maps X X X X X X Regional Upscaling Potential X
  11. 11. This image cannot currently be displayed. 11 Results, products and tools
  12. 12. This image cannot currently be displayed. 12 Smallholder AWM solutions leverage an existing farmer-driven trend • Farmers increasingly initiate and finance. • Technologies exist and adoption rates are increasing. • Investment costs typically low and profit margins high.
  13. 13. This image cannot currently be displayed. 13 Potential yield improvements Crop Low-input, rainfed yield (t/ha) High input, irrigated yield increase (%) Maize 1.4 141-195 Paddy rice 1.1 270-283 Groundnuts 0.7 238-251 Sweet potato 4.3 200-212 Tomatoes 20 76-79
  14. 14. This image cannot currently be displayed. 14 Growth Potential of AWM Solutions in SSA No of farmers that could be potentially reached (million) Annual additional household net revenue generated (Billion US Dollar) Motor pumps 185 22 Rainwater harvesting 147 9 Small reservoirs 369 20 Communally- managed river diversions 113 14 Inland valley rice 53 7
  15. 15. This image cannot currently be displayed. 15 Potential of motor pumps in SSA & Tanzania SSA: motor pumps • 185 million potential rural beneficiaries • Net revenues up to US$22 billion/yr. Tanzania: motor pumps could benefit 2-4 million people (8-12% of rural households) .
  16. 16. This image cannot currently be displayed. 16 This image cannot currently be displayed. 16 This image cannot currently be displayed. 16 • Business models on investment options and implementation pathways • National Livelihood Maps to target and prioritize investments • Regional suitability analysis and tools to assess geographic, social and environmental implications of investment scenarios • Multi-stakeholder engagement approaches to promote and accelerate positive AWM changes • Participatory GIS to assess and manage potential trade-offs in a watershed • Interactive gender map to allow planners/implementers to add gender- related farming systems information • Interactive AgWater Solutions scenario tool that will allow implementers to assess the potential of different AWM solutions. Products and Tools http://awm-solutions.iwmi.org
  17. 17. This image cannot currently be displayed. 17 BUT…
  18. 18. This image cannot currently be displayed. 18 Investment costs of irrigation technologies in sub-Saharan Africa Investment costs (USD/ha) O&M costs (USD/year) Financed by Buckets <50 <10 Farmers Motor pumps 400 330 Farmers Treadle pumps 350 <10 NGOs & Farmers Public canal irrigation 10,000 Often not charged, but frequent rehabilitations needed Gov’t & Donors Sector largely overlooked by investors
  19. 19. This image cannot currently be displayed. 19 Lacks supportive institutional structures Existing governing bodies are often not adapted to handle the challenges posed by this alternative mode of irrigation development. Smallholder AWM lacks an institutional ‘home’. Nariarlé Basin, Burkina Faso Local informal actors fragmented, preventing collective bargaining. Water User Associations (WUAs) could enhance coordination and efficiency at the watershed scale. Improving relations between village and national institutions will improve negotiation and planning.
  20. 20. This image cannot currently be displayed. 20 Risks from unchecked spread of the sector Challenges – equity, efficiency and sustainability Access: women and resource poor farmers face challenges accessing affordable AWM. Market Inefficiencies: negatively affect farmer decision- making and technology access. Sustainability: uncontrolled spread of small-scale AWM can lead to environmental damage.
  21. 21. This image cannot currently be displayed. 21 Investment opportunities and approaches for scaling-up AWM solutions
  22. 22. This image cannot currently be displayed. 22 Targeted investments can help address AWM constraints and enhance agricultural sector's potential 4 solution pathways proposed Improved livelihoods of smallholder farmers 1 2 43 Increase access to water Catalyze smallholder value chains Promote policy coherence Take a watershed perspective
  23. 23. This image cannot currently be displayed. 23 1. Increase access to water Rainwater harvesting • Create suitability maps • Show farmers the benefits • Garner local support • Offer smart subsidies • Provide technical support Shallow groundwater • Map groundwater resources • Develop affordable drilling • Raise awareness and create demand • Monitor environmental risks Small reservoirs • Reduce investment costs • Pilot new management approaches • Acknowledge multiple uses
  24. 24. This image cannot currently be displayed. 24 2. Catalyze smallholder value chains Innovative financing mechanisms for equipment acquisition • Pilot innovative financial instruments • Support rental markets • Explore irrigation service providers’ model • Encourage women to own equipment Help farmers to profitably use AWM Solutions • Provide better information • Improve market access • Provide crop storage facilities • Improve roads & transportation systems • Facilitate roles of other value chain actors
  25. 25. This image cannot currently be displayed. 25 3. Create policy coherence across sectors and create incentives • Align trade (import), energy, water and agricultural sector policies • Develop alternative energy sources • Privatize procurement and marketing of irrigation equipment • Review tax policies and import duties
  26. 26. This image cannot currently be displayed. 26 4. Take a watershed perspective Managing social, economic and environmental impacts • Consider multiple complementary AWM solutions and investments • Develop systems to promote cooperation • Develop indicators to monitor and evaluate multiple impacts of AWM solutions and investments
  27. 27. This image cannot currently be displayed. 27 Social and Institutional impacts • Equity in gender and income • Institutions for resource management • Changes in knowledge exchange • Labour Environmental impacts • Quantity and quality of water resources • Area under different land uses • Trends in use of agro- chemicals • Biodiversity • Carbon emissions Economic impacts • Income and wealth • Sources of income • Access to capital/credit Sample indicators for assessing AWM impacts
  28. 28. This image cannot currently be displayed. 28 AgWater Solutions-WLE Linkages
  29. 29. CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems Photo:PrueLoney/IWMI
  30. 30. CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems Cross-cutting themes: Gender, poverty and institutions & Ecosystem services and resilience Irrigation SRP Rain-fed SRP Resource recovery and reuse River Basins Information Systems AC 1.1 AC 1.2 AC 1.3 AC 2.1 AC 2.2 AC 2.3 AC 3.1 AC 3.2 AC 4.1 AC 4.2 AC 4.3 AC 4.4 AC 5.1 AC 5.2 AC 2.4 AC 2.5 AC 1.4 Enhancing success of irrigation in Africa
  31. 31. This image cannot currently be displayed. 31 Thank you

×