Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIwww.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldDr. Simon LanganMay 2013Hilton Hotel, Addis AbabaInsights ...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldIWMI Projects Ethiopia/ NRM• Nile Basin Development Challenge• IMPACT2C• Agricult...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldNBDC: Developing site-specific RMSinterventions and domains to scale-out1. Unders...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldExample: Improved soil and water conservationon farms, along with small water sto...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldSuitability
NBDC Innovation Platforms: working withcommunities to identify issues and solutionsimportant to them and utilises local in...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldIMPACT2C: Climate Change: WaterAvailability and Demand• Rainfall projected to hav...
Modeling FrameworkWatershedsSub-basinsAbayBasinSWATModelClimateSoilLUWEAPModelRMSScenariosL-SDev’tScenariosImpactEvaluatio...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldInitial Results: Impact of CC on BN tributariesshown as changes in flow Scenarios...
AWM Technologies: products and practices forsmallholder farmers for agriculture use.AWM Solutions: Any measure (knowledge,...
Where to prioritize AWM for smallholdersPotential for AWM vary - Where to prioritize AWM forsmallholders ?1) water is avai...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldSuitability domains example: WLTOR+and=Up scaling - What are the most suitable so...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldCase Studies in EthiopiaCase Study Region• Water Lifting Technologies Tigray, Amh...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldIrrigation in EthiopiaImplementation• Design - >90% of small scheme infrastructur...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure world1. Initiated and financed bysmallholders themselves2. Owned individually or bysma...
Investment costs of irrigation technologies in sub-Saharan AfricaInvestmentcosts(USD/ha)O&M costs(USD/year)Financed byBuck...
Irrigation pump pricingCost Component AverageAverage CIF Value of water pump (Birr) 4668Average tax per unit of water pump...
ProductionPostharvesthandlingRetailingConsumptionTrading- -Market support servicesFinancial servicesTransportationCommunic...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure world• Poorly developed equipment supply chain, low qualitypumps, limited choice, high...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldPotential interventions in irrigated VCsProduction• Access to improved seeds and ...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldLIVES outcomes1) Increasing smallholders’ access to inputs andmarkets2) Promoting...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldSMART-ICT: From pixels….to information….to simple actionmessages
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Insights into water and natural resource management for policy development

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Sustainable Land & Watershed Management Interventions and Impact Workshop. Hilton Hotel, Addis Ababa, May 10, 2013.

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  • A review of selected schemes in Ethiopia gives a range of issues and bottlenecks which are likely to be common across the region to differing degrees, for example:Governance and OrganisationLack of co-ordination between institutions involved in irrigation (research, extension, agencies, WUA’s)Capacity is sub-optimal due to re-structuring, staff turnover, lack of practical training, lack of transport and little monitoring and evaluationScheme administration and ownership - lack of policy implementation e.g. Full Cost Recovery- Eth; Land ownership tenure and security- Kenya
  • Insights into water and natural resource management for policy development

    1. 1. Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIwww.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldDr. Simon LanganMay 2013Hilton Hotel, Addis AbabaInsights into waterand naturalresourcemanagement forpolicy development
    2. 2. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldIWMI Projects Ethiopia/ NRM• Nile Basin Development Challenge• IMPACT2C• Agricultural Water Management Solutions• LIVES- Livestock & Irrigated Value Chainsfor Ethiopian Smallholders• SMART-ICT
    3. 3. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldNBDC: Developing site-specific RMSinterventions and domains to scale-out1. Understand which RMS is suitable for which location interms of :– Bio-physical characteristics– Socio-economic situation of the actors(farmer/community)– Institutional settings2. Provide tools to the national reserach centres and otherorganisations to provide extension services and NGO’s onthe ground the information on site-specific possibleinterventions3. Use these to open dialogue with farmers and communities3
    4. 4. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldExample: Improved soil and water conservationon farms, along with small water storage systems,enable farmers to introduce high value enterprises(e.g. Apple) but also replace currently used earlymaturing low-yielding crop varieties with high-yielding ones. This will enable the system toproduce more food, more fodder and income.
    5. 5. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldSuitability
    6. 6. NBDC Innovation Platforms: working withcommunities to identify issues and solutionsimportant to them and utilises local indigenousknowledgeThere are prominent local traditional institutionsand these demonstrate that collective action ispossible if initiated by community membersthemselves. Potential for harnessing these.Feed into NationalPlatform and SLM
    7. 7. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldIMPACT2C: Climate Change: WaterAvailability and Demand• Rainfall projected to haveincreased variability in watersource areas of the Nilebasin; Greater watermanagement needed.• Irrigation water demand willalso increase in response totemperature increment.• Climate extremes andseasonality are crucial foragriculture productivityFeed intoMoWe, MoA,CRGEdevelopment
    8. 8. Modeling FrameworkWatershedsSub-basinsAbayBasinSWATModelClimateSoilLUWEAPModelRMSScenariosL-SDev’tScenariosImpactEvaluationLarge dams andRiver Junctions
    9. 9. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldInitial Results: Impact of CC on BN tributariesshown as changes in flow Scenarios-30-20-1001020304050TanaNorthGojamBeshiloWelekaJemmaSouthGojamMugerGuderFinchaDidessaAngerWonberaDabusBellesDinderRahad%ChangeofAnnualFlow2030s-1990s2090s-1990sBasin4.21%3.60%
    10. 10. AWM Technologies: products and practices forsmallholder farmers for agriculture use.AWM Solutions: Any measure (knowledge,policies, markets, and financing) that boosts theuptake of AWM and:• Contributes to smallholder livelihoods• Benefits women and men and does notincrease income disparities• Is cost-effective to implement• Can be out-scaled• Addresses resource sustainabilityAgricultural Water Management Solutions: Tounderstand the AWM context and where there are investment opportunities thatwill help poor farmers improve their livelihoodswells
    11. 11. Where to prioritize AWM for smallholdersPotential for AWM vary - Where to prioritize AWM forsmallholders ?1) water is available;2) high dependence on water use for agriculture;3) high number of smallholders
    12. 12. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldSuitability domains example: WLTOR+and=Up scaling - What are the most suitable solutions indifferent context?One scenario forIndividual motor pumps
    13. 13. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldCase Studies in EthiopiaCase Study Region• Water Lifting Technologies Tigray, Amhara, Ormia & SNNP• Watershed Management Tigray, Amhara & Oromia• Groundwater PotentialAssessmentAmhara (Kobo), Tigray (RayaValley) & Ormia (Adea-Becho)• Cost-Benefit Analysis ofGroundwater IrrigationAmhara (Kobo) & Tigray (RayaValley)• Small Reservoirs (Dams) Tigray• Rainwater harvesting and on-farm water storageOromia & SNNP• Manual Drilling Implemented by IDE
    14. 14. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldIrrigation in EthiopiaImplementation• Design - >90% of small scheme infrastructure performingpoorly, do not consider sub-basin impacts or the multiple useaspects, which are important to farmers• Poor engineering giving rise to inefficient and expensiveschemes, and no measuring devices lead to inequitablewater distribution.Governance and Organisation• Lack of co-ordination between institutions involved inirrigation• Capacity is weak• Scheme administration and ownership poor
    15. 15. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure world1. Initiated and financed bysmallholders themselves2. Owned individually or bysmall informal groups3. Used to irrigate small plots(<2 ha)4. Investment costs typicallylow and profit marginstypically highSmallholder irrigation
    16. 16. Investment costs of irrigation technologies in sub-Saharan AfricaInvestmentcosts(USD/ha)O&M costs(USD/year)Financed byBuckets <50 <10 FarmersMotor pumps 400 330 FarmersTreadle pumps 350 <10 NGOs & FarmersPublic canal irrigation 10,000 Often not charged, but frequentrehabilitations neededGov’t & DonorsSector largely overlooked by investors
    17. 17. Irrigation pump pricingCost Component AverageAverage CIF Value of water pump (Birr) 4668Average tax per unit of water pump (Birr) 1832Average purchase price/water pump(CIF+Tax) (Birr)6500Tax rate 36 %Customs duty 10%Value Added tax 15%Sur tax 8%Withhold tax 3%
    18. 18. ProductionPostharvesthandlingRetailingConsumptionTrading- -Market support servicesFinancial servicesTransportationCommunicationsGovt. Policy/regulationExtension ServiceInput supplyBusiness support servicesand enabling environmentResearchCommodity value chainsTradingInputSupplyProcessingProcessingLivestock andIrrigatedValue chains forEthiopianSmallholders
    19. 19. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure world• Poorly developed equipment supply chain, low qualitypumps, limited choice, high taxes and transaction costs.• Lack ofinformation and knowledge on irrigation, seeds,marketing and equipment.access to infrastructure; output markets are dominatedby brokers.• Frequent breakdown of pumps and high maintenance cost• Weak input & spare-part supply, maintenance service,extension serviceLIVES: Irrigated Value Chains component
    20. 20. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldPotential interventions in irrigated VCsProduction• Access to improved seeds and seedlings• Irrigated agriculture technologies including on-farm watermanagement• Crops staggering – adapt crop calendars to market demand• Pests and diseases control• Increase of labor productivity (farming tools and equipments)Post harvest handling• Better practices to respond to market demand : quality ofproduct: hygiene, level of impurities, storage, packaging, etc.
    21. 21. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldLIVES outcomes1) Increasing smallholders’ access to inputs andmarkets2) Promoting locally adapted improved irrigatedagriculture technologies3) Improving extension and business support services4) Strengthening WUAs and support services forbetter irrigation productivity and sustainability5) Securing smallholders’ water rights and sustainablemanagement of natural resources6) Increasing role of Ethiopian women in irrigation
    22. 22. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldSMART-ICT: From pixels….to information….to simple actionmessages

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