SP Wani and Team
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India
The Big Threat
A perfect storm:
 57% of total drylands in two major
Asian countries are degraded
 China – 178.9 m ha
 India – 108.6 m ha
 Accelerated ...
 Widespread deficiency of
micronutrients (Zn, B) and
secondary nutrients (S) in
80-100% farmers fields in
India
 Mining ...
SAT Soils are not only thirsty
but hungry also
 Documented widespread deficiency of micronutrients
State No. of
farmers’
...
Population living in blue water stress (absolute water scarcity)
and green and blue water stress in 2000 and 2050
(after R...
Agriculture can Contribute
Solutions, not just Problems!
Poverty – Land Degradation
Nexus
Drought
Land
Degradation
Poverty
Water is the Key-Issue
An Entry Point
Community Watershe...
Rain-fed Agriculture – A Large
Untapped Potential
 Current farmers’ yields are lower by 2 to 5 folds than the
achievable ...
Observed Yield Gap between Farmers’
Yield and Achievable Yields
Source: Derived from Rockstrom et al., 2007
0%
10%
20%
30%...
Watersheds are Revolutionalising Drylands:
Meta-analysis – 636 Case Studies
Particulars Unit
No. of
studies
Mean Minimum M...
STEPs to Achieve Impact
S = Sustainability
T = Technology inputs
E = Equity
P = Participation
 Less than 1% watersheds ar...
Consortium Approach for Community
Watershed Management
Convergence
Collective action
Capacity building
Consortium for ...
 IGNRM
 Holistic livelihood approach
 Sustainability, empowerment and KS
 Social inclusion (equity & gender)
 Scaling...
Unify the efforts around a new paradigm
which shifts the objectives from merely
drought-proofing and agricultural
producti...
Common Guidelines for Integrated
Watershed Management Program
 Delegated power to states
 Dedicated institutions
 Finan...
Seeing is Believing:
Sites of Learning
 Convergence
 Collective action
 Capacity building
 Consortium for technical ba...
Shift from Cash to Knowledge
for Enhancing Quality Participation
Knowledge-based entry point activity is more
effective fo...
Common guidelines and a single effective
national and state mechanism, using
technology and we need to move from a
subsist...
Recognize IWMP as the most appropriate
framework for area development program
to meet national goals of:
 Food security
...
New Science Tools in IWM
• Geographic Information
Systems for planning,
characterization and
monitoring
• Simulation Model...
Using data on climate and soil, available soil water, runoff etc.
are estimated spatially and temporally in a GIS
GIS for ...
• More variation in the beginning compared to the end
• As early as 10 Jun at Hubli and Haveri; as late as 20 Aug at Pavag...
Through model watershed initiate the
process to establish consortium in each
state comprising the key research and
develop...
Quality Capacity
Development is Must
 Community Based Organizations (CBOs)
 Development Cadre (WDTs, Eos, Paraworkers, e...
Challenging and Complex Issues
in Capacity Building
• Innovative extension to reach small
and marginal farmers
• Climate c...
Harness Power of Collective
Action
Tangible economic benefits for individuals
 Income-generating activities for women
and...
 Strengthen and support small area groups/
user groups formed on the basis of drainage
lines (secondary and territory) in...
Although, watershed approaches seem to have
universal application for effective management
of natural resources, sustainab...
To date, water policy has focused on augmentation of
supply, this now needs to be expanded to embrace water
demand managem...
Equity and gender concerns regarding
women, the resource-less and those
without adequate representation need
to be brought...
Micro-enterprises for landless and women
members enhanced participation
and their incomes
Impacts in On-farm Watersheds:
Developed Five capitals
Human
• Trained men and women in specialized skills
• Youth clubs (...
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40
Non-
watershed
Watershed
Non-
watershed
Watershed
20012002
Actua...
 Tangible economic benefits to individuals
through convergence
 Knowledge-based entry point − empowerment
 Equal partne...
Interactions with Policymakers Enhanced
Project Impact Upscaling
 Eighty per cent of global agriculture is rainfed
and in developing countries these areas are
hot spots of poverty, malnu...
Thank you!
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Nepal kathmandu wani

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Nepal kathmandu wani

  1. 1. SP Wani and Team International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India
  2. 2. The Big Threat A perfect storm:
  3. 3.  57% of total drylands in two major Asian countries are degraded  China – 178.9 m ha  India – 108.6 m ha  Accelerated soil erosion associated with agriculture  Of the 173 m tones of sediment discharged in oceans annually, Asia contributes half of the sediment load Asia: Hot Spot for Land Degradation - Desertification
  4. 4.  Widespread deficiency of micronutrients (Zn, B) and secondary nutrients (S) in 80-100% farmers fields in India  Mining of plant nutrients  Inappropriate soil, water and nutrient management practices Nutrient Depletion a Serious Threat for Sustainable Development
  5. 5. SAT Soils are not only thirsty but hungry also  Documented widespread deficiency of micronutrients State No. of farmers’ fields OC (%) AvP (ppm) K (ppm) S (ppm) B (ppm) Zn (ppm) Andhra Pradesh 1927 84 39 12 87 88 81 Karnataka 38432 65 43 14 82 68 61 Madhya Pradesh 73 9 86 1 96 65 93 Rajasthan 179 22 40 9 64 43 24 Gujarat 82 12 60 10 46 100 82 Tamilnadu 119 57 51 24 71 89 61 Kerala 28 11 21 7 96 100 18 1. OC = Organic Carbon; AvP = Available phosphorus
  6. 6. Population living in blue water stress (absolute water scarcity) and green and blue water stress in 2000 and 2050 (after Rockström et al, 2009)
  7. 7. Agriculture can Contribute Solutions, not just Problems!
  8. 8. Poverty – Land Degradation Nexus Drought Land Degradation Poverty Water is the Key-Issue An Entry Point Community Watershed Management
  9. 9. Rain-fed Agriculture – A Large Untapped Potential  Current farmers’ yields are lower by 2 to 5 folds than the achievable yields  Vast potential of rain-fed agriculture needs to be harnessed 0 2 4 6 8 1976 1979 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2010 Year Yield(tha -1 ) BW1 BW4C Rate of growth 71 kg ha -1 y -1 Rate of growth 20 kg ha -1 y-1 Carrying Capacity 27 persons ha -1 Carrying Capacity 4.8 persons ha -1 Observed potential yield 0 2 4 6 8 1976 1979 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2010 Year Yield(tha -1 ) BW1 BW4C Rate of growth 71 kg ha -1 y -1 Rate of growth 20 kg ha -1 y-1 Carrying Capacity 27 persons ha -1 Carrying Capacity 4.8 persons ha -1 Observed potential yield
  10. 10. Observed Yield Gap between Farmers’ Yield and Achievable Yields Source: Derived from Rockstrom et al., 2007 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Zambia Tanzania Kenya Uganda Ethiopia BurkinaFaso Niger Botswana Zimbabwe Vietnam Thailand India Iran Iraq Jordan Morocco Pakistan Syria Yemen Farmers yields are lower by 2 to 4 folds of achievable yields
  11. 11. Watersheds are Revolutionalising Drylands: Meta-analysis – 636 Case Studies Particulars Unit No. of studies Mean Minimum Maximum t-value Efficiency B:C ratio Ratio 311 2.01 0.82 7.30 35.09 IRR Per cent 162 27.43 2.03 102.70 21.75 Equity Employment Person days ha-1 y-1 99 154.53 0.05 900.00 8.13 Sustainability Increase in irrigated area Per cent 93 51.55 1.28 204.00 10.94 Increase in cropping intensity Per cent 339 35.51 3.00 283.00 14.96 Runoff reduced Per cent 83 45.72 0.38 96.00 9.36 Soil loss saved t ha-1 y-1 72 1.12 0.11 2.05 47.21
  12. 12. STEPs to Achieve Impact S = Sustainability T = Technology inputs E = Equity P = Participation  Less than 1% watersheds are economically non-remunerative  Two-thirds of watersheds’ performance can be improved
  13. 13. Consortium Approach for Community Watershed Management Convergence Collective action Capacity building Consortium for technical backstopping
  14. 14.  IGNRM  Holistic livelihood approach  Sustainability, empowerment and KS  Social inclusion (equity & gender)  Scaling-up and scaling-out  Learning and evolutionary Strategy Farmers centric watersheds as entry point for improved livelihoods
  15. 15. Unify the efforts around a new paradigm which shifts the objectives from merely drought-proofing and agricultural production to sustainably increasing agricultural productivity, reducing poverty, protecting the environment, and building human and natural resource resilience to cope with future challenges, including climate change Way Forward
  16. 16. Common Guidelines for Integrated Watershed Management Program  Delegated power to states  Dedicated institutions  Financial assistance to dedicated institutions  Duration of the program  Livelihood orientation  Cluster approach  Scientific planning  Capacity building  Multi-tier approach
  17. 17. Seeing is Believing: Sites of Learning  Convergence  Collective action  Capacity building  Consortium for technical backstopping
  18. 18. Shift from Cash to Knowledge for Enhancing Quality Participation Knowledge-based entry point activity is more effective for better and sustainable community participation than the regular cash back EPA currently adopted in the watershed programs
  19. 19. Common guidelines and a single effective national and state mechanism, using technology and we need to move from a subsistence to a business model by establishing market links and public private partnerships to harness larger benefits through value-chain approach Develop Watersheds as Business Model with PPPP
  20. 20. Recognize IWMP as the most appropriate framework for area development program to meet national goals of:  Food security  Inclusive and sustainable growth  Cope with growing water scarcity  Cope with the climate change impacts Convergence is Must for Operationalizing New Paradigm in Watersheds
  21. 21. New Science Tools in IWM • Geographic Information Systems for planning, characterization and monitoring • Simulation Modeling for assessing potential yields and quantifying yield gaps • Remote Sensing for monitoring and impact assessment
  22. 22. Using data on climate and soil, available soil water, runoff etc. are estimated spatially and temporally in a GIS GIS for Estimating Derived Parameters
  23. 23. • More variation in the beginning compared to the end • As early as 10 Jun at Hubli and Haveri; as late as 20 Aug at Pavagada • Extends up to 20 Dec at Gudibanda and Sidlaghatta; Ends by 25 Nov at Pavagada • At Hubli, Haveri and Ranebennur, two wet periods separated by semi-moist period • Hiriyur has great risk of dry conditions during crop vegetative phase • Kolar and Tumkur districts have more than 6 consecutive weeks of wet conditions from Sep LGP at Sujala-ICRISAT Nucleus Watersheds New Knowledge
  24. 24. Through model watershed initiate the process to establish consortium in each state comprising the key research and development institutions, civil society organizations and the private sector Establish Consortia for Technical Backstopping
  25. 25. Quality Capacity Development is Must  Community Based Organizations (CBOs)  Development Cadre (WDTs, Eos, Paraworkers, etc)  Executing agencies (NGOs, line department, etc)  DWDU  SLNA  CLNA  M&E agencies  Policy makers  Development investors  Politicians  Researchers
  26. 26. Challenging and Complex Issues in Capacity Building • Innovative extension to reach small and marginal farmers • Climate change • Microenterprises, market linkages • Gender, equity • Change from water supply augmentation to demand management - Drinking water - Sustainable use of groundwater - Growing water smart crops - Enhancing water use efficiency
  27. 27. Harness Power of Collective Action Tangible economic benefits for individuals  Income-generating activities for women and landless  High-value crops  Holistic approach – IGNRM approach
  28. 28.  Strengthen and support small area groups/ user groups formed on the basis of drainage lines (secondary and territory) in the watershed in their planning and execution  Ensure at least 50% representation on WCs by women Effective Institutional Arrangements for Sustainable Development
  29. 29. Although, watershed approaches seem to have universal application for effective management of natural resources, sustainable agricultural production and income generation; the comprehensive assessment showed that one size fits all approach did not work. Need to support on-farm research and development options for higher and lower rainfall regions One Size Fits All Approach Does Not Work
  30. 30. To date, water policy has focused on augmentation of supply, this now needs to be expanded to embrace water demand management and water use efficiency. There are a number of aspects: • Drinking water needs • Devise and implement policies to regulate groundwater extraction • Ban the cultivation of high water requiring crops such as paddy and sugarcane in watershed areas • Encourage cultivation of low-water requiring crops with market incentives • Promote efficient irrigation methods through water-saving devices and the creation of community-based water assets Water Demand Management Options are Must
  31. 31. Equity and gender concerns regarding women, the resource-less and those without adequate representation need to be brought to the forefront of watershed planning and execution • Emphasis on women’s active participation • Gender concerns should form non- negotiable components of the initial phase • Adequate representation of women and vulnerable groups in decision- making committees Gender and Vulnerable Groups
  32. 32. Micro-enterprises for landless and women members enhanced participation and their incomes
  33. 33. Impacts in On-farm Watersheds: Developed Five capitals Human • Trained men and women in specialized skills • Youth clubs (vermicomposting, nursery raising, cross breed animal rearing • Increase awareness through environment clubs • All children in school •Increasedfamilyincomeby100%in5years •Marketablesurplusmilk700Ld-1@Rs.20L-1 •Nobroughtmigrationunderstressduringdrought •ImprovedFunctionalwells •Check-damstoharvestwater •Increasedno.oftrees •Tractors,motorcyclesand transportvehicles •Personalhouseholdassets
  34. 34. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 Non- watershed Watershed Non- watershed Watershed 20012002 Actual values (Rs 1000) Crops Livestock Non-farm 41 % 11 % 48 % 44 % 7 % 49 % 18 % 12 % 70 % 40 % 14 % 46 % 29.0 21.6 37.7 29.2 Income stability and resilience effects during drought year (2002) in Adarsha Watershed, Kothapally AP, India
  35. 35.  Tangible economic benefits to individuals through convergence  Knowledge-based entry point − empowerment  Equal partnership, trust and shared vision  Good local leadership  Transparency and social vigilance in financial dealings  Equity through low-cost structures  Pre-disposition to work collectively  Targeted activities for landless and women members Drivers for Improved Collective Action and Participation
  36. 36. Interactions with Policymakers Enhanced Project Impact Upscaling
  37. 37.  Eighty per cent of global agriculture is rainfed and in developing countries these areas are hot spots of poverty, malnutrition and prone to degradation  Vast untapped potential of rainfed agriculture could be harnessed to achieve targets of food security and sustainable development  Integrated and holistic watershed management approach could be used as an entry point Conclusion
  38. 38. Thank you!

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