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Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
Learning Theories  UbD, TfU, Gagne
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Learning Theories UbD, TfU, Gagne

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Instructional Design, Learning Theories

Instructional Design, Learning Theories

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  • 1. JOT2 – LEARNING THEORIES Student: Doni Dorak ID: 000307557 Mentor: Sarah Black
  • 2. Dear Principal Skinner, I received your observation notes on my classroom. It is true; I vary my lessons to fit different learners and different objectives. Per your request, I have created a brief tutorial to share with other teachers, and an example of one of my one lesson units delivered according to three of the major learning theories. The end goals are as follows: 1. Teachers can explain the three learning theories. 2. Teachers can identify these theories and adapt a lesson to the one that best meets their instructional setting and goals. Sincerely, Doni Dorak
  • 3. Essential Questions • What are the three major learning theories and how to identify one in a lesson plan? • What types of objectives and learners best align to the three theories? • How can a lesson plan be adapted to a learning theory?
  • 4. Learning Plan Justify an instructional theory used in a specific lesson plan. Adapt the lesson plan for the other theories. Analyze a lesson plan and find the theory used. Distinguishing learning theories.  Define the benefits of a theory for a learner.  Definitions and characteristics
  • 5. Learning Theories Constructivism, Cognitivism, Behaviorism Task A
  • 6. Behaviorism • Keyword – Drill and kill • Purpose- elicit the correct answer from the student by presenting the learner with a correct stimulus. (Ertmer, 2008) • Fathers – Pavlov, Skinner, Thorndike (Bigge, 1999, table 1.1) • Example: Memorizing multiplication tables. 1x1= 1 and 1x2 = 2 Remember Pavlov’s dog? Pavlov elicited the salivation of a dog by associating the sound of a bell with feeding time. Later, B.F Skinner later fathered the Law of Effect which states that reinforced behavior continues and behavior that is ignored is extinguished (Skinner, 1965).
  • 7. Cognitivism • Keyword – Patterns and Insights • Purpose- To help students construct mental models that improve retention and facilitate transference. • Fathers – Herbart, Gestalt psychology (Bigge, 1999, table 1.1) • Example: If any number times 1 equals itself, then dog(1)=dog. (Bigge, 1999, p.84) Have you ever used a pattern to solve a problem? Cognitivism is based on the concept of apperception or mental insights; and evolved into Gestalt, a German theory of psychology. The word Gestalt roughly translates to the English word, “pattern”. (Bigge, 1999)
  • 8. Constructivism • Keyword – Scaffolding and applications • Purpose- to strengthen competency through application of knowledge. • Fathers – Vygotsky, Piaget, Bruner (Bigge, 1999, table 1.1) • Example: There are 22 students in class, and each has 1 pencil. How many pencils do the students have altogether? Do you use project based learning? Constructivism emphasizes the role of environment, psychological scaffolding, and authentic learning through knowledge application (Bigge, 1999).
  • 9. Rote memorization and recall. Build mental models that support insight and patterns to solve problems. Transfer of knowledge in a scaffold approach, then the learners applies the information in projects. QUIZ Type the theory name that best applies in the textbox. Word Bank Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism Instructions: Type the theory name that best applies to the follow phrases. SubmitReset
  • 10. Learning Plan Justify an instructional theory used in a specific lesson plan. Adapt the lesson plan for the other theories. Analyze a lesson plan and find the theory used. Distinguishing learning theories.  Define the benefits of a theory  Definitions and characteristics
  • 11. When Behaviorism is Beneficial for Learners • Guidelines • When cognition is low or is not required. • When speed and repetition improve performance. • When facts are static. • When the knowledge is procedural or arbitrary. • Examples: Handwriting. Counting. Time sheets. Checking out a book from the library. Staying seated in class.
  • 12. When Cognitivism is Beneficial for Learners • When theories, rules, or natural laws have a broad application. • When a student is first learning or defining a process or concept. • When the information being taught has categories or patterns that can be chunked together for better recall. • Examples: Story Maps, T-Charts, Webbing, Schemas Circle Plots and Life Cycles Design Patterns Unified Model Language (UML) Mathematical theories
  • 13. When is Constructivism Beneficial for Learners • When the information is being learned is has a strong cultural context. • When the information being learned supports decision processes. • When the information is scientific and requires deductive reasoning to support inferred ideas or hypothesis. • Examples Authentic learning – How MLK changed your town? Big6 Literacy Skills -- Research skills and cooperative learning Web Quests KWL Charts Field Trips
  • 14. How to login to a school library and renew a book? Text to text comparison of two circle plot stories. Web Quest on the impact of Civil Rights Act of 1964. QUIZ Type the theory name that best applies in the textbox. Word Bank Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism Instructions: Type the theory name that best applies to the follow learning tasks. SubmitReset
  • 15. Learning Plan Justify an instructional theory used in a specific lesson plan. Adapt the lesson plan for the other theories. Analyze a lesson plan and find the theory used. Distinguishing learning theories  Define the benefits of a theory  Definitions and characteristics
  • 16. How to Distinguish Learning Theories Five questions to distinguish learning theories 1. How does the learning occur? 2. Which factors influence learning? 3. What is the role of memory? 4. How does transfer occur? 5. What types of learning are best explained by the theory? (p. 53) (Ertmer & Newby, 1993) states the following:
  • 17. Behaviorism 1. Learning is a function of cues or stimulus and referenced responses. 2. Observable performance is must be evident. 3. Control and manipulations of the environment is critical to the instructional setting. 4. Memory occurs in two phases • Information is learned placed in short-term memory. • Practice causes the knowledge to placed in long-term memory. 1. Transfer occurs when the learner applies the knowledge to problem with common elements. 2. Types of learning that are best supported: • Procedural • Static facts
  • 18. Cognitivism 1. Learning is process of organizing information into conceptualized models. 2. Learning is influenced by goal setting, mental planning, and practice. 3. Memory is support by the organization of the material. 4. Transfer is evident when knowledge is applied to a similarly constructed problem. 5. Types of learning that are best supported: • Analogies, metaphors • Literary Patterns • Mathematical theorems • Broad concepts that can be reapplied
  • 19. Constructivism 1. Learning is an extension of personal experience, culture, and prior knowledge. 2. Learning occurs through interaction with environment and other people. 3. Three Factors: practice, concepts, and culture (Ertmer & Newby, 1993, p.63) 4. Learning occurs through meaningful interactions and authentic learning tasks. 5. What types of learning are best explained by the theory? • Ill structured problems • Scientific inquiry
  • 20. Learning Plan Justify an instructional theory used in a specific lesson plan. Adapt the lesson plan for the other theories. Analyze a lesson plan and find Distinguishing learning theories  Define the benefits of a theory  Definitions and characteristics
  • 21. Learning Theory Used in Lesson Plan Task B
  • 22. Overview of the Lesson PlanGoal: Improve reading comprehension using curriculum designated story, the Mexican folktale, Half-Chicken. • Objectives ( Starting at page 42 in the document) • Learner activates the SQR3 method of study. • Learner uses word mapping to insure he understands the vocabulary of the story. • Learner recognizes “Cause and Effect” in different texts. • Learner can summarize and retell the story in his own words.
  • 23. How does the learning occur in this plan? • The learning occurs by teaching conceptualized models using graphical organizers and mnemonics. • The student uses word maps to insure he fully understands the vocabulary words in the context of the introductory story, The Mouse and the Lion. The vocabulary overlaps the two stories. • The student uses a SQR3 response sheet to guide the process. • The student creates a cause and effect chart for both stories, but the teacher models the first. • The student uses a graphical organizer to summarize and rewrite the story.
  • 24. What factors influence learning in this plan? • The factors influencing learning are teacher demonstrations and the organization of the information. • Tasks are centered on improving comprehension through the use of models and patterns. • Graphical organization and Mnemonics • Strengthen vocabulary • Recognize Cause and Effect • Teach comprehension study skills • Demonstration followed by application
  • 25. What is the role of memory in this plan? •Organization is central to signaling the information from the learner. •Use of graphical organizers. •Use of mnemonics to teach an approach to study.
  • 26. How does transfer occur in this plan? •Knowledge and application of cause and effect are evident one context and applied to another. • Using the story, The Mouse and Lion, the teacher demonstrates key concepts using models; afterwards, the students apply the ideas to the story, Half Chicken.
  • 27. What type of learning is happening in this plan? •Recognition of literary patterns, use of mnemonics to teach a concept, use organizers to strength word understanding. • This plan is teaching information processing by applying standard graphical organizers, recognized study methods, and vocabulary strengthening exercises.
  • 28. What is the learning theory in this lesson plan? Cognitivism Defining patterns and structures that can be transferred to similar problems with mental insight.
  • 29. Learning Plan Justify an instructional theory used in a specific lesson plan. Adapt the lesson plan for the o Analyze a lesson plan and find Distinguishing learning theories  Define the benefits of a theory  Definitions and characteristics
  • 30. Adaptation of Lesson Plan Task C
  • 31. Adapting the lesson for behaviorism 1. Replace word mapping activities with flash cards. 2. Ask the students to memorize the meaning of SQR3? 3. Using page 46, ask the students write the definitions of the each vocabulary word. 4. Give a star for correct responses. 5. Drill the correct responses for cause and effect using the story, The Lion and the Mouse. 6. After teaching the vocabulary and cause and effect, test the students using the story, Half Chicken.
  • 32. Adapting the lesson for constructivism 1. Use the cards in the lesson to play vocabulary dominoes. 2. After modeling cause and effect, have students fill in the cause and effect chart without the cut and paste answers. 3. Using page 46, ask the students to construct sentences using the vocabulary words. 4. Replace the “Make a Movie” activity with a create a script activity. Instruct the children to act-out the story as a readers’ theater. 5. Have the children retell the story and change the setting, animals, and elements to reflect their own cultural heritage and context.
  • 33. Learning Plan Justify an instructional theory u Adapt the lesson plan for the o Analyze a lesson plan and find Distinguishing learning theories  Define the benefits of a theory  Definitions and characteristics
  • 34. Lesson Plan Discussion Task D
  • 35. Instructional Setting & the Learning Theory Selected • Context - Private coop ELA class. Group learning occurs only once a week. Lessons are completed at home with the parents. • Learners • 1st ~ 3rd graders all reading above grade level. The majority are writing on the level, only one of the younger learners needs extra help. • Goals • All students need improve reading comprehension skills. • Cognitivism
  • 36. Justification for using cognitivism •Why use cognitivism? 1. Cause and effect is a common literary technique that can be easily applied to other texts. 2. SQR3 teaches the process of asking questions before, during, and after reading which improves comprehension. 3. Word mapping provides multiple opportunities for the learner to create a deep understanding of new words. 4. Modeling and demonstrations allow the younger learners opportunities to successfully participate. They generally only complete the introductory story.
  • 37. Justification for using cognitivism •Why not use behaviorism? 1. Drill and practice exercises is difficult to apply strategies. 2. Vocabulary taught with drill and practice is quickly forgotten when not used. 3. Memorizing the causes and effects of these two stories is of little value outside the stories.
  • 38. Justification for using cognitivism •Why not use constructivism? 1. Constructivism was strong option for this unit; however, it cognitivism better aligned to the CCSS stated goals for grade 2. 2. Writing a performing readers theater may overwhelm some of the younger learners.
  • 39. Congratulations ! Justify an instructional theory used in a specific lesson plan. Adapt the lesson plan to each of the three theories. Analyze a lesson plan by each of the theories. Distinguishing learning theories.  Define the benefits of a theory for a learner.  Definitions and characteristics of the 3 major learning theories.
  • 40. Dear Principal Skinner, Thank you for allowing me to explain how I use learning theories in my lessons. I am flattered that you have asked me to present, again, at in-service. This month’s topic is the use of the theories of design. The goals for this month’s topic are as follows: 1. To understand how theories of design can support lesson plan creation. 2. To know the strengths and weakness of three primary design theories. Sincerely, Doni Dorak
  • 41. Essential Questions • How do theories of design help in developing effective instruction? • What are the attributes, strengths, and weaknesses of the following: • Wiggins UbD, Understanding by Design • Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction • Harvard’s TfU, Teach for Understanding
  • 42. Learning Plan Justify the use of the design theory used in the lesson plan.  Strengths and weakness of each design theory.  Theories of design for effective instruction.
  • 43. Effective Instruction Through the Use of Design Theories Task E
  • 44. The What, Why, and Who of Design Theories What? Design theories are methods or concept models that help instructors align tasks to stated goals. Why? 1. Creates a cohesive learning plan. 2. Improves performance outcomes. 3. Facilitates meaningful learning. Who? 1. Grant Wiggins • Understanding by Design, UbD 1. Robert Gagne • 9 Events of Instruction 1. Harvard Model • Teach for Understanding, TfU
  • 45. “ ” Have you ever worked very hard on a lesson unit and been frustrated with end result, or endured a class and quickly forgot the material? Please jot down a brief narrative on this experience.
  • 46. Learning Plan Most suitable model.  Strengths and weakness of each design theory.  Theories of design and effective instruction.
  • 47. Design Theories Overview Task F
  • 48. Wiggins Understanding by Design (UbD) Backward Design Process in three stages. 1.Desired Results 2.Evidence 3.Learning Plan (Wiggins & McTighe, 2011) Overview UbD Framework 2.0 1.Goals • Transfer • Meaning • Acquisition 1.Assessments • Validate evidence • Verify alignment to goals 1.Learning Plan • Learning tasks are tied to the above goals definitions of transfer, meaning, and acquisition.
  • 49. Wiggins Understanding by Design (UbD) Strengths Weaknesses • Conveys main ideas to transfer learning. • Stimulates authentic performance. • Develops instructors as learning coaches. • Performance goals directed. • Requires several interim assessment activities. • Requires a significant time to design, implement, and manage the assessment process.
  • 50. Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction Learning occurs through a series of external events presented to the student who encodes the information for later use. The instructional events support the moving of information long term memory. (Gagne, 1988) (Gagne, 1988) Nine events of instruction are as follows: 1. Gaining attention 2. Informing the learner of the objectives 3. Stimulating prior recall 4. Presentation 5. Providing learning guidance 6. Elicit performance response 7. Provide feedback 8. Assessing performance 9. Enhance retention & transfer (p. 201)
  • 51. Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction Strengths Weaknesses • States learning goals • Builds on prior knowledge • Emphasis on engaging the learners attention • Verifies understanding before final assessment with feedback • Structured design is rigid • Learning goals may not always fit the process flow • Low emphasis on applying knowledge to new problems. Five Categories of Learning 1.Intellectual Skills 2.Cognitive strategies 3.Verbal Information 4.Motor Skills 5.Attitudinal Learning
  • 52. Harvard Model Teach for Understanding Founded by Howard Gardner and David Perkins. Based on classroom research from pre-K to graduate school. ("Founders of TfU Framework," n.d.) 4 ?’s  4 Principles 1.What to teach? • Generative topics that stretch across several domains. 1.What is worth understanding? • Goals  Year long goals with supporting unit goals. 1.How to teach for understanding? • Assessment  Successive assessments with increasing difficulty construct aggregate knowledge. 1.How teachers and students assess understanding and deepen it? • Assessment is continuous in nature. ("TfU Online Learning Initiative from Harvard Graduate School of Education," n.d.)
  • 53. Harvard Model Teach for Understanding Strengths Weaknesses • Creates meaningful learning. • Encourages active thinking • Supports collaboratio n and diversity of thought. • Requires a long time fully see results. • Does not account for contingency of transient learners. (Jobs change, people move) • Learners are tethered to ideas and subjects they may not enjoy. What is understanding? The ability to think and apply earned knowledge in a innovative ways to solve new problems.
  • 54. Reflections •Consider your earlier noted experience. •Which design theory might have improved your learning experience or teaching efforts? •Jot down your reasons.
  • 55. Learning Plan Most suitable model.  Strengths and weakness of each design theory.  Theories of design and effective instruction.
  • 56. Most Suitable Design Process Task G
  • 57. Teaching for Understanding(TfU) in my instructional setting. • TfU best fits my instructional setting for these reasons. • The COOP purpose is to provide supporting activities that promote understanding of concepts taught at home. • Several interim assessments are not possible parents and parents are unlikely to deliver them. • Each week, a new idea can be added to the prior topic. • Parents support extension activities like research, field trips, and application outside the classroom.
  • 58. What theory of design was used to create these presentations? Wiggins Backwards Design However, I also employed several of Gagne’s instructional events, too.
  • 59. Congratulations Most suitable model.  Strengths and weakness of each design theory.  Theories of design and effective instruction.
  • 60. • Bigge, M. L. (1999). Learning Theories for Teachers (6th ed.). 1999: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. • Ertmer, P., & Newby, T. (1999, July 24). Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing Critical Features from an Instructional Design Perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50-72. http://dx.doi.org/Retrieved from • Gagne, R. (1988). The Events of Instruction. In Principles of Instructional Design (pp. 185-204). 1988: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers. • Origins of a framework for effective practice. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.uknow.gse.harvard.edu/learning/LD2-9.html • Skinner, B. F. (1965). Science and Human Behavior (1st ed.). New York, New York: The Free Press. • Teaching for understanding Putting Understanding Up Front. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://learnweb.harvard.edu/alps/tfu/index.cfm • Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2011). The Understanding by Design Guide to Creating High-Quality Units. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. References

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