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2013 History of Civilization - Chapter IV

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Copyright (c) 2013 by Dimitry Bubis. All Rights Reserved

Copyright (c) 2013 by Dimitry Bubis. All Rights Reserved

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  • 1. History of Civilization IV. BRONZE AGE GREECE
  • 2. TOPICS     Minoans Mycenaeans Emergence of Greeks Greek Myths    Deities and Heroes Greek Dark Age Iliad and Odyssey
  • 3. THE QUIZ    Who are the Twelve Olympians, name some names Recall names/stories of besiegers and besieged in a war described by Homer (and others) – Any link to computer security?    Recall some Labors of Heracles What are names of Gemini? What famous operas and symphonies have immediate connections with Ancient Greece?
  • 4. LOCATION, LOCATION Tribe of Hellenes → Ἑλλάς 2 People from Graia → 4 Graeci (Latin) 3 1 Anachronistic map of Eastern Mediterranean 1. 2. Crete Wilusa 3. 4. Cyclades Mycenae
  • 5. 2500 2000 1500 1353 – 1323 BCE Amarna period Suppiluliuma I dies 1322 BCE 1279 – 1213 BCE Ramses II Hattusa destroyed ca. 1200 BCE 1010 – 926 BCE Kingdom of Israel 900 BCE Sparta founded 814 BCE Carthage founded 776 BCE Ist Olympic Games 753 BCE Rome founded Minoan Hatshepsut, Thutmose III Thera Eruption ca. 1630 BCE 1479 BCE ca. 1531 BCE Mursili I sacks Babylon ca. 1700 BCE Hammurabi First Greek Speakers on Aegean ca. 1850 BCE Senusreth III ca. 2100 BCE Epic of Gilgamesh recorded ca. 2240 BCE Sargon ca. 2580 BCE Khufu ca. 2500 BCE Troy founded CHRONOLOGY Greece: Bronze Age & “Dark” Period Mycenaean “Dark” 1000 Persian War 500 - 479 BCE Homer ca. 800 BCE Trojan War ca. 1190 BCE Death of Alexander 323 BCE Archaic Classic Hellen istic 500 BCE 1 CE
  • 6. CRETE    Indigenous culture from neolith People ethnically closest to inhabitants of Asia Minor Language became extinct during Greek Dark Ages Bull leaping fresco from Knossos, ca. 1600 BCE
  • 7. THE MINOANS  Μίνως → a king (Cretan)    Bronze age since ca. 2700 BCE Local script developed under influences from Fertile Crescent: Linear A Merchant civilization with contacts across Mediterranean, some trading posts Cultural orbit included Cyclades Phaistos Disk with 45 distinct symbols ca. XVII cent. BCE Saffron crocus
  • 8. MINOAN PALACES Administrative, Religious centers  Knossos  largest, surrounded by settlement (the oldest European city) excavated by Sir Arthur Evans between 1900 and 1931  palace  Three separate water systems Courtyards, ventilation shafts  Λαβύρινθος - according to  Greeks was built by Daedalus for king Minos Κνωσός
  • 9. MINOAN RELIGION  Sacred symbols Bull  Snake  Labrys Polytheistic cults with primarily matriarchal deities: Mistress of Animals (Britomartis), Mistress of Harvest, Mistress of Dance, etc. Shrines, not temples per se      “Snake goddess” Sacrifices? Later reworked into Greek legends (different point of view)
  • 10. PALATIAL ECONOMY  Centralization Evidence:    Architecture Pottery Organic remains ? Control: tribute, proportional     share, seasonal levy? Agriculture: usurpation of local communal institutions Husbandry: palatial and private flocks? Palace-based crafts and manufacture: distribution of the raw materials Trade: primary importance of export of valuables
  • 11. MINOAN CULTURE     Pre-palatial: 2600 – 1900 BCE Old palatial: 1900 – 1700 BCE New palatial: 1700 – 1450 BCE Post-palatial: till ca. 1100 BCE (Mycenaean)  Pax Minoica ? (suggested by A.Evans) • probably too good to be true
  • 12. MINOAN ERUPTION  Thera  Catastrophic eruption ca. 1630 BCE  Earthquake  Ash fallout  Tsunami No reliable Egyptian record (due to war with Hyksos) Most likely source of Plato’s account of Atlantis   island (Cyclades) Santorini Atlantis as described by Plato (427 – 347 BCE)
  • 13. MYCENAEANS TAKE OVER   Period: 1600 – 1100 BCE Adapted Minoan script into Linear B Golden funerary mask, Mycenae, ca. 1500, called “Mask of Agamemnon” by H. Schliemann  Principal Mycenaean Sites Mycenaeans were probably referred to as “Ahhiyawa” by Hittites, “Danaans” by Egyptians
  • 14. CITY OF MYCENAE   Founded before 2000 BCE by pre-Greek inhabitants Center of culture more warlike than Minoans The Tholos Tombs  The Lion Gate In legends, ruling dynasties:  Perseids  Atreids
  • 15. MYCENAEAN DEITIES AND RELIGION     Chief deity: Poseidon, the Shaker of Earth His two queens (later Demeter and Persephone)  Eleusinian Mysteries Sun Continuity: from Mycenaean beliefs to Ancient Greek religion μυστήριον → ἥρως →  In addition to cults of gods: cults of heroes secret warrior
  • 16. MYCENAEAN CULTURE    Artifacts found across Mediterranean Mycenaean was oldest form of Greek language; written in Linear B syllabary Bronze arms and armour
  • 17. MYCENAEAN COLLAPSE  Part of Bronze Age Collapse  Facts:  Palaces burnt  Population dropped to 10 – 20 % level  Evidence of military conflict  Disruption of trade, subsequent economic decline Burning of Troy by Jan Brueghel the Elder, 1621
  • 18. THE DORIANS AND “DARK AGES”   Invasion or takeover? Who were Dorians?  Transitions:     Bronze and iron Cremation and embalming Bride gifts and dowry Periods:    1200 – 1050 BCE: sub-Mycenaean 1050 – 900 BCE: from Palace to Village 900 – 750 BCE: from Village to Polis Geometric pottery
  • 19. GREEK MYTHOLOGY AND CULTS  Our sources:     Legendary seers and prophets Great epics and poetry: Homer, Hesiod Dramatists of Classical Greece Roman authors: Pausanias the Geographer, Ovid What is Mythos? and Who needs Epics?  Practices     Oracles Mysteries Magic Delphic Pythia
  • 20. FROM BELIEFS TO RELIGION  Roots     No definitive scripture Amalgamation and Syncretism     Local cults Herodotus’ insight Orthodoxy vs. Orthopraxy Gods: neither omniscient, nor omnipotent, nor omnipresent Favorites and Special Deals Criticisms and Revisions Orpheus (Roman mosaic)
  • 21. FROM PRIMORDIAL TO IMMORTAL  Gaia, Chaos, Aether, Aion  χάος Greek version of cosmogony: genesis of Sky & Earth  gaping void Uranus  → Romans: Terra, Caelus  Rhea & Kronos   The Mutilation of Uranus by Saturn: fresco by Vasari and Gherardi, c. 1560   Mother goddess, Creative Power Titans Olympians No world for humans
  • 22. FULL HOUSES  Deities θεοί  Daemons δαίμωνες .   Nymphs (Latin) Primordial, Titans, Gods Oceanic, Chthonic       Asteriae Aurae Alseids Oreads Dryads      Nereids Naiads Oceanids Lampads Maenads  Here be <scary stuff>  Giants Cyclops Dragons Cetea Centaurs Harpies Erinyes Monsters       Hylas and the Nymphs by J. W. Waterhouse, 1896 HC SVNT DRACONES 
  • 23. OUR GUIDE  Hesiod is the principal  source on mythology of Classical Greece Main extant works:  Theogony  Works and Days  Ἡσίοδος (between 750 and 650 BCE) native of Aeolis, lived in Thespiae near Mt. Helicon   First European author to act in own works Language thought to be inferior to Homer’s Pessimism, misogyny
  • 24. TITANS Τιτᾶνες  Kronus, Rhea  Oceanus, Tethys   Coeus, Phoebe  Chronos also Kronus Κρόνος a.k.a Saturn      Leto, Asteria Ῥέα Ἑκάτη Hyperion, Theia   Metis Helios, Selene, Eos Crius Mnemosyne Themis Iapetus  Atlas, Menoetius, Epimetheus, Prometheus Mνημοσύνη Θέμις Ἄτλας
  • 25. PROMETHEUS    The only truly benevolent deity? Cultural Hero and Trickster Meaning?      Punishment (Classic) Rebellion (Romantic) Quest for Knowledge (Modern) “Mystery of Prometheus”? Christ or Lucifer? Προμηθεύς - “pre – thinker” Prometheus Brings Fire to Mankind by Heinrich Fueger, 1817
  • 26. GENERATION CHANGE (AGAIN…) Choke on this one  Τιτανομαχία Saturn devouring his son by Francisco Goya (1823)   Ten years of war between Olympians and Titans (Mt. Othrys) Cyclops and Hecatonchires Details in lost poems by Eumelos of Corinth and Thamyris of Thracia Hesiodic vs. Orphic traditions Cf. Enuma Elish Paradigm shift?  Uranus’ prophecy to blame?  Typhon - “Father of Monsters”     ? Are humans of “Titanic nature”?
  • 27. FALL OF THE TITANS   Fresco by Giulio Romano (1535) Into Tartarus: Titans as prisoners, Hecatonchires as guards Atlas: the heaviest of punishments Enceladus fountain, Versailles (1677)
  • 28. ZEUS  Ζεύς a.k.a: Jupiter  Youngest son of Kronos and Rhea, born on Crete Mercury and Argus by P. P. Rubens, 1638
  • 29. POSEIDON  Ποσειδῶν a.k.a: Neptune  Earthquakes, Horses, Consorts Neptune calming the tempest by P. P. Rubens, 1635
  • 30. HADES / PLUTON  Αἵδης / Πλούτων a.k.a: Dis Pater, Orcus, Pluto NB: Tartarus is only part of Hades Abduction of Proserpina by R. H. van Rijn, 1631
  • 31. HERA  Ἥρα a.k.a: Juno   Cow eyed, jealous matron, foe of many Seventh wife of Zeus Juno and Argus by P. P. Rubens, 1610
  • 32. DEMETER  Δημήτηρ a.k.a: Ceres  Virgo of Zodiac Ceres teaching King Triptolemus by L. Lagrenee, 1769
  • 33. APHRODITE  Ἀφροδίτη a.k.a: Venus  Born on Cyprus, most probably of Uranus’ genetic material Birth of Venus by S. Botticelli, 1486
  • 34. HEPHAESTUS  Ἥφαιστος a.k.a: Vulcan  Technology, Lameness, pre-Greek cults Thetis receiving the Arms of Achilles from Vulcan by P. P. Rubens, 1634
  • 35. ARES  Ἄρης a.k.a: Mars   Sisters: Eris, Enyo Companions: Phobos, Deimos Venus, Mars, and Vulcan by J. Tintoretto, 1551
  • 36. APOLLO  Ἀπόλλων Φοίβος a.k.a: Apollo    Son of Leto, twin of Artemis Origin: Doric? Minoan? Anatolian? Patron of Delphi Chief of Muses and Olympian Sun God Apollo and Marsyas by C. van Loo, 1735
  • 37. ARTEMIS  Ἄρτεμις a.k.a: Diana    Twin of Apollo Pre-Greek mistress of animals Temple in Ephesus Diana and Actaeon by Paul Manship, 1930s
  • 38. ATHENA  Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη a.k.a: Minerva   Birth by Neurosurgery Owl eyed, grey eyed, aegis bearing warrior, eternal virgin Creation of Man by C. Griepenkerl, 1878
  • 39. HERMES  Ἑρμῆς a.k.a: Mercury   Son of Pleiad Maia Benefactor of humans, patron of skillful or deceptive arts Mercury crowning Philosophy by P. Batoni 1747
  • 40. HESTIA  Ἑστία a.k.a: Vesta  Gets the first offering of any sacrifice in the household
  • 41. DIONYSUS  Διόνυσος a.k.a: Bacchus     Son of mortal Semele, “Twice-born” Descent to Hades Mystic and relief from hardship Thyrsus is wand/weapon Midas and Bacchus by N. Poussin, 1630
  • 42. MOIRAI  Three daughters of Themis (Θέμις the embodiment of law and order)  Κλωθώ the Spinner Λάχεσις the Allotter Ἄτροπος the Unturning     Incarnation of Fates / Destiny Acting over gods (Hesiod) Time & Fates of Man at New York World’s Fair 1939 by Paul Manship
  • 43. MUSES   Daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne Embodiments/sponsors of: Κλειώ o History o Comedy o Hymns and Eloquence o Songs and Elegies o o o o o Dance Epic poetry Love poetry Astronomy Tragedy Πολύμνια Τερψιχόρη Ἐρατώ Μελπομένη Θαλία Eὐτέρπη Καλλιόπη Οὐρανία
  • 44. PERSONIFICATIONS  Embodiments of character traits and abstract notions: • Apate Atë Bia Charites Eris Eros Harmonia Horae Hypnos Kratos • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Metis Mnemosyne Moirai Oneiroi Nemesis Nike Thanatos Themis Zelos Nemesis by Alfred Rethel, 1837
  • 45. ARCHETYPES AND ETERNAL TALES C. G. Jung 1875 – 1961  Archetypal     Figures Motifs Events Collective unconscious J. L. Borges 1899 – 1986  Only four stories     Siege of the City Tale of Quest Epic of Return Death of God
  • 46. DEMI-GODS AND FOUNDING HEROES  Cadmus           Divine birth Special powers Life of conflict Quest Mysterious death Founder of Mycenae Theseus   Making of a hero Perseus   Son of Agenor, uncle of Minos, granddad of Dionysus The dragon-slayer Bringer of the letters Founder of Thebes  Founder of Athens Heracles 1904 – 1987 → Comparative Mythology
  • 47. LEGEND OF PERSEUS   The first hero Son of Zeus and Danaë   Golden shower Chest upon waves  Slayer of Gorgon Rescuer of Andromeda Founder of Mycenae Ancestor of Perseids  Middle Eastern connections    Perseus by Benvenuto Cellini, 1545
  • 48. LEGEND OF ORPHEUS  The “Father of Songs”  Thracian prince, son of Muse Calliope Tamed wild beasts with his music Legend of Eurydice and descent to Underworld Death at hands of uncomprehending      Not mentioned by Homer and Hesiod The first Greek prophet? Orpheus by Cristoforo Stati, 1600
  • 49. ORPHIC TRADITIONS    Thracian roots of Dionysian legend “Descent to Underworld” motif Alternative cosmology: Pelasgian creation myth • Eternal soul • Punishment in afterlife • Ascetic prescriptions • Sacred writings “Orphic Egg” Head of Orpheus on the Water or The Mystic by Odilon Redon, 1910
  • 50. ORPHEUS IN OPERA Cristoph Willibald Gluck 1714 – 1787 Jacques Offenbach 1819 – 1880  Orfeo ed Euridice  Orphée aux enfers  First of “reform” operas Tragedy of loss and grief of misunderstanding Love triumphant Berlioz’ rewrite for contralto (1859)  Antagonist is L'Opinion Publique Poking fun at classic legend, Gluck, and social morals Pleasures of Underworld Infernal gallop      
  • 51. ORPHEUS IN 20TH CENTURY Jean Cocteau 1889 – 1963  Philip Glass b.1937 Orphée (1950) “If you look your whole life into a mirror you will see death at work”
  • 52. THE SUPER-HERO Enmity of Hera Born as Alcides, name change Choice: Pleasure or Virtue?   1. Nemean Lion 3. Ceryneian Hind 2. Lernaean Hydra 6. Stymphalian birds 4. Erymanthian Boar 9. Girdle of Hippolyta 5. Augean stables 7. Cretan Bull 8. Mares of Diomedes God or Hero?  Ἡρακλῆς a.k.a Hercules   Cult: temple, ancestry claims   Twelve Labours 10. Cattle of Geryon 11. Apples of Hesperides 12. Capture of Kerberos
  • 53. ARGONAUTS  The ultimate quest     An unrivaled prize Succession of obstacles The dream team Love conquest  Ἀργοναυτικά - an epic poem by Apollonius Rhodius (3rd century BCE in Ptolemaic Egypt) Jason and Medea by J.W.Waterhouse 1890-s     Influenced by Homer Exerted influence on Virgil The only epic on the subject to survive Realistic hero
  • 54. THESEUS        Θησέας son of Aegeus Sword under the stone Medea and capture of Marathonian Bull Tribute to Minos and sailing to Crete Ariadne and killing of Minotaur Fleeing Naxos and wrong sails Marble by E.-J. Ramey, 1826 Jardins des Tuileries Founding of Athenian sinoikismos  By Maître des Cassoni Campana 1520s     Pirithous: first confrontation, then friendship Abductions: Helen, Persephone Amazonian adventure Marriage to Phaedra Refuge on Skyros and death
  • 55. CORNUCOPIA Cornu copiae = horn of plenty    Legend of “endless source” Greek mythology is our cornucopia of images, themes, and inspiration (Latin) To illustrate: Narcissus and Echo  Retold by Ovid in Metamorphoses (8 CE) Metamorphose of Narcissus by Salvador Dali, 1937
  • 56. CATASTERISMI Andromeda Cetus’ intended victim Cepheus King of Aethiopia Aquarius Ganymede or Deucalion Eridanus River or Phaeton’s path Aquila Eagle of Zeus Gemini Castor and Pollux Argo Navis Jason’s ship Hercules Heracles Aries The Golden Fleece Hydra Second labor Auriga Erichtonius Libra Scales of Themis/Astreia Boötes ploughman, son of Demeter, or Icarius Lyra Orpheus’ instrument Canis Major Orion’s dogs, or Canis Minor Maera, dog of Icarius Orion hunter, patient of Ophiuchus Capricornus Amaltea Pegasus Bellerophon’s steed Cassiopeia Queen of Aethiopia Perseus Andromeda’s rescuer Centauros Not Chiron Virgo Astreia or Demeter
  • 57. TROJAN CYCLE  Ilion, the City of Troy   Historicity    Wilusa in Hittite sources Nine cities: from 3000 BCE to 500 CE VIIa burnt ca. 1250 BCE Troy in epics and legends  Iliad and Odyssey  Oresteia by Aeschylus  Aeneid by Virgil Homer by R. H. van Rijn, 1663 Heinrich Schliemann (1822 – 1890) and the walls of Troy VII in Hissarlik
  • 58. CRASHED PARTY & BEAUTY PAGEANT  Wedding of Peleus and Thetis  Zeus stays out Resolution  Judgment by Paris by S. Botticelli, 1488   The abduction and its consequences The war: Zeus’ genocidal design?
  • 59. HOMER     Homeric question Oral tradition and Epic poetry Court Bard Language     Foundation of Greek culture   Hexameter Formulaic Composition μῆνιν ἄειδε, θεά, Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος Dactylic Hexameter: What “culture” in Archaic Greece meant Epics as a focal point between Myths and Literature Thís is the fórest priméval The múrmuring pínes and the hémlocks. (Longfellow)
  • 60. ILIAD   Tale of Wrath of Achilles Events of 40 days in last year of the ten-year siege κλέος μῆνις τιμή Troy, 2004  Themes:  Rage (pride, vanity) Glory (fame) Honor (respect) Coming home Fate (death)  κήρ νόστος   
  • 61. OLDEST EXTANT WORK IN THE WEST  Localities and Personalities    Structure:    Gods People Starts in media res 24 chapters Plot: from conflict between Agamemnon and Achilles to burial of Hector Achilles slaying Hector by Rubens, 1635   Gods’ intervention as one of driving forces Hidden Mystery
  • 62. AFTER EVENTS IN ILIAD   Death of Achilles Danaan Gift  Story told in Odyssey  Fall of Troy  Escape of Aeneas’ party Nostoi  The Procession of the Wooden Horse into Troy, by Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo, 1760 Death of Achilles, from VIth century
  • 63. ODYSSEY     Story of ten-year return after the ten-year war The hubris and resulting curse Cattle of Helios, shipwreck and captivity on Calypso’s island Nausicaä and return to Ithaca Odysseus and Nausicaä by Jacob Jordaens (ca. 1630)  Ὀδυσσεύς a.k.a: Ulysses  Man of many troubles Odyssey is a sequel to Iliad     Homecoming epic Story of Telemachus Flashbacks
  • 64. MODERN ULYSSES    Major work of 20th century modernism Bloomsday: June 16th, 1904 18 episodes  Comedy by Joel and Ethan Coen (2000)
  • 65. ROOTS OF CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY  The Bronze Age cultures of Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean were a bridge between fertile crescent and cultures of Classical Antiquity Athens: half way between the first civilization and the present
  • 66. SUMMARY     Minoans were the first European civilization Mycenaean culture was foundation of later Archaic and Classical Greece Epics by Homer are the oldest extant literature in the West and foundation of Classical Greek culture Greek Bronze Age links the cultures of Fertile Crescent to Antiquity Aeneas escaping from siege of Troy by Daniel van Heil (ca. 1650)
  • 67. IN THE NEXT CHAPTER:       Indus Valley The Harappan Civilization Mohenjo-Daro and other cities Vedas and Emergence of Hinduism Vedic Sanskrit Collapse and the Aryans
  • 68. Thank You