1
Chapter 2
The Ancient Near East
2
The Ancient Near East
3
4
5
Nature (Gods) as capricious, cruel and unpredictable.
6
Cultural pessimism
7
The Gods of
Mesopotamia:
Henotheism:
Many Gods but one in particular
above others
Over 2,000 deities and demons
The Two Tr...
3,500-2,000 BC
SUMER
A HISTORICAL SOCIETY
Creation of a writing system
(Cuneiform)
Literary Works
Gilgamesh
Development of the Wheel
Deve...
Cuneiform
Latin:
“wedge”-”shape”
The “Operating Code” of civilization
First written documents were tax
records
Writing all...
CYCLINDER SEALS
Seals verifiy legal documents and
ownership
Status symbols (worn around neck)
Incised designs
Banquet scene, cylinder seal (left) and its modern impression (right), from the tomb of Pu-abi
(tomb 800), Royal Cemetery,...
The Epic of Gilgamesh
Ca. 2,100 BCE
Gilgamesh: God-like king of Uruk
•Part human, part god, blessed with beauty and
courag...
Gilgamesh
A “buddy story”
Enkidu represents pre-civilized man
More woolly and wild than
Gilgamesh
15
Epic of Gilgamesh
CONTINUES
Gilgamesh then goes on a quest for
everlasting life.
When he finally finds a plant that promis...
Ziggurat
Massive structures having the form
of a terraced step pyramid of
successively receding stories or
levels. The Mes...
Elevation=closer to
the Gods
Like Stonehenge,
functions as an
“axis mundi”
Mud-brick
19
White Temple and ziggurat, Uruk (modern Warka), Iraq, ca. 3200–3000 BCE.
20
The White Temple and Anu
Ziggurat
Named after the principal god Anu (sky
God).
The White Temple was constructed over
the A...
reconstruction drawing of the
White Temple and Anu
Ziggurat
Cella
Center of the temple
(“Waiting Room”)
22
“bent-axis” plan
23
•Ziggurat at Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca. 2100 BCE.
Ziggurat of Ur
The “Nanna” Ziggurat
Mud-brick building (coated with
asphaultum to resist rain)
Tapers outward for rain to ...
26
Female head (Inanna?),
from Uruk (modern
Warka), Iraq, ca. 3200–
3000 BCE. Marble, 8”
high. Iraq Museum,
Baghdad.
27
Innana
Goddess of Love and War
Inanna by Boris Vallejo
28
29
Presentation of offerings to Inanna
(Warka Vase), from Uruk (modern
Warka), Iraq, ca. 3200–3000 BCE.
Alabaster, 3’ 1/4”...
30
Registers
Horizontal narrative
bands
Depicts the ritual
marriage of the human
Priest-King (Ensi) and the
Goddess Innana
Sumerian Art
Hierarchical Scale
Figures: Men – bare chested with
kilts
Women – left shoulder covered
Nudity is a debasemen...
32
Statuettes of two worshipers, from
the Square Temple at Eshnunna
(modern Tell Asmar), Iraq, ca. 2700
BCE. Gypsum inlaid...
33
34
35
Fragment of the victory stele of Eannatum (Stele of the Vultures), from Girsu (modern Telloh), Iraq,
ca. 2600–2500 BCE....
Composite views (conceptual representation)
36
Ningirsu (God)
Larger than Eannatum
(hieratic scale)
Inscription:
God chose Eannatum to
rule Lagash, and shed tears
for hi...
38
Royal Cemetery of Ur
Discovered by Sir Leonard Woolley
ca. 1922
39
40
41
42
43
A concern for the “after”-life…
44
45
Bull-headed lyre (restored) from
Tomb 789 (“King’s Grave”),
Royal Cemetery, Ur (modern Tell
Muqayyar), Iraq, ca. 2600 B...
46
47
Sound box (right): Wood with inlaid
gold, lapis lazuli, and shell, 1’ 7” high.
University of Pennsylvania Museum of
Arc...
48
• Mounted on pole as military
standard?
• Inlaid with shell, lapus lazuli
(rich blue stone) and red
limestone
• Historical...
War side of the Standard of Ur, from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery, Ur (modern Tell
Muqayyar), Iraq, ca. 2600 BCE. Wood inlaid ...
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
Peace side of the Standard of Ur, from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery, Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar),
Iraq, ca. 2600 BCE. Wood in...
58
59
60
61
62
63
AKKAD
Sumer is taken over by the Akkadians.
Semitic peoples-different language than
Sumerian
The style of rule is differen...
65
Head of an Akkadian ruler, from
Nineveh (modern Kuyunjik), Iraq,
ca. 2250–2200 BCE. Copper, 1’ 2
3/8” high. Iraq Museum...
66
•Lost-wax casting
67
Eyes damaged by the Medes
peoples
68
69
Victory stele of Naram-Sin, from Susa,
Iran, 2254–2218 BCE. Pink sandstone, 6’
7” high. Louvre, Paris.
The Victory Stele of Naram-
Sin
Defeat of the Lullubi people(Iranian
mountain people)
Composite View
Frontal chest but the...
The Victory Stele of Naram-
Sin
Defeat of the Lullubi people(Iranian
mountain people)
Composite View
Frontal chest but the...
72
The Victory Stele of Naram-
Sin
Taken to Susa by the Elamites in 1150
BCE as “War Booty”
(second inscription attests to th...
Lagash and Gudea
The “Guti” people invade from the
mountains and wipe out Akkadians.
Lagash remain independent….a
Neo-Sume...
Seated Statue of Gudea
2100 BCE diorite temple statue
• Ensi of Lagash- 20 statues survive
• Holding temple plans- he buil...
76
Seated statue of Gudea holding
temple plan, from Girsu (modern
Telloh), Iraq, ca. 2100 BCE.
Diorite, 2’ 5” high. Louvre...
77
Temple plan
Construction workers treated very
welll…
…as soft as “combed wool”
apparently
78
Hammurabi
(Babylonian)
Hammurabi- classic “micro-
manager”
The most far-reaching leader of
Mesopotamian history, describin...
80
Stele with law code of
Hammurabi, from Susa, Iran, ca.
1780 BCE. Basalt, 7’ 4” high.
Louvre, Paris.
Law Code of
Hammurabi
One of the earliest law codes ever
written.
Sun god (Shamash), hands Hammurabi a
coiled rope, a ring...
Shamash
82
Was found in Susa (Iran)
More war booty for the Elamites..
83
Nearly one-half of the Code deals
with matters of contract,
establishing for example the wages
to be paid to an ox driver ...
85
86
Statue of Queen Napir-Asu, from Susa,
Iran, ca. 1350–1300 BCE. Bronze and
copper, 4’ 2 3/4” high. Louvre, Paris.
Solid bronze- 3,760 pounds
“votive” tradition (found in temple)
Hands over belly signify fertility
87
ASSYRIA
Babylon falls to the
Hittites in 1595 BCE
From 900-600 BCE
Assyrians take charge
88
Sargon II
Makes fortress at Dur Sharukkin
Assyria kings cultivate image of
power- merciless to those that
oppose.
Always m...
90
Reconstruction drawing of the citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad), Iraq, ca.
720–705 BCE (after Char...
91
•The Fortified City
So you wan’t to see the King do
you??
92
93
Lamassu (winged, human-headed
bull), from the citadel of Sargon II, Dur
Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad), Iraq,
ca. 720–705...
Lamassu
Winged human-headed “guardian”
figures meant to ward off enemies,
seen and unseen
5 legs
Front – at attention
Side...
95
96
Assyrian Reliefs
Praised the greatness of the King
Figures are stoic
Animals are expressive
Domination over wild beasts sh...
Ashurnasirpal
Stone panel from the North-West
Palace of Ashurnasirpal II 883–
859BC.
Royal lion hunts were an ancient
trad...
99
Ashurbanipal hunting lions, relief from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Nineveh (modern
Kuyunjik), Iraq, ca. 645–640 ...
Ashurbanipal- “Ashur is creator of the son”
Greeks called him Sardanapalus
100
Modern sympathies lie with lions
101
•Ashurbanipal hunting lions, ca. 645-640BCE. Fig. 1-19.
•Ashurbanipal hunting lions, ca. 645-640BCE. Fig. 1-19.
Neo-Babylonia
Babylon re-merges after fall of
Assyrian empire
King Nebuchadnezzar
“I caused a mighty wall to circumscribe ...
105
106
“Hanging Gardens”
107
Euphrates river ran directly though
the city
108
109
•Marduk Ziggurat
“Etemenanki’
•temple of the foundation of heaven and earth
Tower of Babel
111
112
114
115
•Cyrus did it…. (539 BCE)
116
Ishtar Gate
(restored),
Babylon, Iraq, ca.
575 BCE.
Staatliche
Museen, Berlin.
117
118
Ishtar Gate
Glazed brick over mud walls
Animals guard the city
Lions sacred to the goddess Ishtar
Marduk- Patron God of Ba...
Copper glaze used to create
brilliant blue
120
Ishtar (patroness)
Lion
121
Marduk (patron god)
dragon
122
123
Adad (storm god)
124
125
126
Nebuchadnezzar’s
inscription
speaking across history
127
PERSIA
128
129
130
Persepolis (apadana in the background), Iran, ca. 521–465 BCE.
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
Processional frieze (detail) on the terrace of the apadana, Persepolis, Iran, ca. 521–465 BCE.
Limestone, 8’ 4” high.
138
•Darius and Xerxes
139
Triumph of Shapur I over Valerian, rock-cut relief, Bishapur, Iran, ca. 260 CE.
140•2250 BCE, Akkadian 350 CE, Persian
141
•“repousse”
Art of the Ancient Near East
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Art of the Ancient Near East

  1. 1. 1 Chapter 2 The Ancient Near East
  2. 2. 2 The Ancient Near East
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. Nature (Gods) as capricious, cruel and unpredictable. 6
  7. 7. Cultural pessimism 7
  8. 8. The Gods of Mesopotamia: Henotheism: Many Gods but one in particular above others Over 2,000 deities and demons The Two Triads: Anu: The father of the gods (creator); god of heaven Ea: God of Water Enlil: God of earth, wind, and air Shamash: God of the sun, judge, and law giver; god of wisdom Nanna: God of the moon Ishtar (Innana): Goddess of love, fertility, and war (pictured above right)
  9. 9. 3,500-2,000 BC
  10. 10. SUMER A HISTORICAL SOCIETY Creation of a writing system (Cuneiform) Literary Works Gilgamesh Development of the Wheel Developed Arithmetic base 10 base 6 (time) Primary City States: Uruk, Ur 10
  11. 11. Cuneiform Latin: “wedge”-”shape” The “Operating Code” of civilization First written documents were tax records Writing allows for transmission of advanced social structure across generations
  12. 12. CYCLINDER SEALS Seals verifiy legal documents and ownership Status symbols (worn around neck) Incised designs
  13. 13. Banquet scene, cylinder seal (left) and its modern impression (right), from the tomb of Pu-abi (tomb 800), Royal Cemetery, Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca. 2600 BCE. Lapis lazuli, 2” high. British Museum, London. 13
  14. 14. The Epic of Gilgamesh Ca. 2,100 BCE Gilgamesh: God-like king of Uruk •Part human, part god, blessed with beauty and courage-but high on his own power, oppresses the people of Uruk •Spurns the love of Ishtar (the Queen of Heaven) and kills the Bull of Heaven that was sent to attack him by the angry goddess. •He is punished for the death of the bull with the loss of his dearest (male) companion, Enkidu, and forced to contemplate mortality. •Emotional bonds between men more common in Ancient World
  15. 15. Gilgamesh A “buddy story” Enkidu represents pre-civilized man More woolly and wild than Gilgamesh 15
  16. 16. Epic of Gilgamesh CONTINUES Gilgamesh then goes on a quest for everlasting life. When he finally finds a plant that promises everlasting life, a serpent snatches it away. He is left with a vision of death, a “house of dust,” and a place of inescapable sadness. FORCED TO FACE HUMAN MORTALITY BUT….. REDEMPTION: Gilgamesh realizes that although Man dies-civilization in the form of the city is eternal and an a- temporal extension of being.
  17. 17. Ziggurat Massive structures having the form of a terraced step pyramid of successively receding stories or levels. The Mesopotamian ziggurats were not places for public worship or ceremonies as they were believed to be dwelling places for the gods. Only priests were permitted on the ziggurat or in the rooms at its base, and it was their responsibility to care for the gods and attend to their needs. AXIS MUNDI 17
  18. 18. Elevation=closer to the Gods Like Stonehenge, functions as an “axis mundi”
  19. 19. Mud-brick 19
  20. 20. White Temple and ziggurat, Uruk (modern Warka), Iraq, ca. 3200–3000 BCE. 20
  21. 21. The White Temple and Anu Ziggurat Named after the principal god Anu (sky God). The White Temple was constructed over the Anu Ziggurat Both temples entailed massive manpower inputs—7500 man-years alone Structures separated priestly residents from the populace- was not a public place of worhsip 40 feet high
  22. 22. reconstruction drawing of the White Temple and Anu Ziggurat Cella Center of the temple (“Waiting Room”) 22
  23. 23. “bent-axis” plan 23
  24. 24. •Ziggurat at Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca. 2100 BCE.
  25. 25. Ziggurat of Ur The “Nanna” Ziggurat Mud-brick building (coated with asphaultum to resist rain) Tapers outward for rain to wash off Four corners oriented to the compass Guardhouse at top of stairs (public not allowed) Nanna (Sin) the Moon God 25
  26. 26. 26 Female head (Inanna?), from Uruk (modern Warka), Iraq, ca. 3200– 3000 BCE. Marble, 8” high. Iraq Museum, Baghdad.
  27. 27. 27 Innana Goddess of Love and War
  28. 28. Inanna by Boris Vallejo 28
  29. 29. 29 Presentation of offerings to Inanna (Warka Vase), from Uruk (modern Warka), Iraq, ca. 3200–3000 BCE. Alabaster, 3’ 1/4” high. Iraq Museum, Baghdad.
  30. 30. 30 Registers Horizontal narrative bands Depicts the ritual marriage of the human Priest-King (Ensi) and the Goddess Innana
  31. 31. Sumerian Art Hierarchical Scale Figures: Men – bare chested with kilts Women – left shoulder covered Nudity is a debasement, only slaves and prisoners are nude Emotionless “Votive” Figures 31
  32. 32. 32 Statuettes of two worshipers, from the Square Temple at Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar), Iraq, ca. 2700 BCE. Gypsum inlaid with shell and black limestone, male figure 2’ 6” high. Iraq Museum, Baghdad.
  33. 33. 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. 35 Fragment of the victory stele of Eannatum (Stele of the Vultures), from Girsu (modern Telloh), Iraq, ca. 2600–2500 BCE. Limestone, fragment 2’ 6” high, full stele 5’ 11” high. Louvre, Paris.
  36. 36. Composite views (conceptual representation) 36
  37. 37. Ningirsu (God) Larger than Eannatum (hieratic scale) Inscription: God chose Eannatum to rule Lagash, and shed tears for him when wounded
  38. 38. 38
  39. 39. Royal Cemetery of Ur Discovered by Sir Leonard Woolley ca. 1922 39
  40. 40. 40
  41. 41. 41
  42. 42. 42
  43. 43. 43
  44. 44. A concern for the “after”-life… 44
  45. 45. 45 Bull-headed lyre (restored) from Tomb 789 (“King’s Grave”), Royal Cemetery, Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca. 2600 BCE. Lyre: Gold leaf and lapis lazuli over a wooden core, 5’ 5” high.
  46. 46. 46
  47. 47. 47 Sound box (right): Wood with inlaid gold, lapis lazuli, and shell, 1’ 7” high. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia.
  48. 48. 48
  49. 49. • Mounted on pole as military standard? • Inlaid with shell, lapus lazuli (rich blue stone) and red limestone • Historical narrative on two sides (read from left to right and bottom to top) • War , conquest & victory celebration (banquet) • Registers of space (3 bands) • Hierarchy of scale (king) •Standard of Ur (from side) •ca. 2600BCE
  50. 50. War side of the Standard of Ur, from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery, Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca. 2600 BCE. Wood inlaid with shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone, 8” x 1’ 7”. British Museum, London. 50
  51. 51. 51
  52. 52. 52
  53. 53. 53
  54. 54. 54
  55. 55. 55
  56. 56. 56
  57. 57. 57 Peace side of the Standard of Ur, from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery, Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca. 2600 BCE. Wood inlaid with shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone, 8” x 1’ 7”. British Museum, London.
  58. 58. 58
  59. 59. 59
  60. 60. 60
  61. 61. 61
  62. 62. 62
  63. 63. 63
  64. 64. AKKAD Sumer is taken over by the Akkadians. Semitic peoples-different language than Sumerian The style of rule is different – loyalty to the king, rather than the city-state Art deifies the king – who rules with the gods’ approval, not assistance Appropriates Sumerian iconography in their art 64
  65. 65. 65 Head of an Akkadian ruler, from Nineveh (modern Kuyunjik), Iraq, ca. 2250–2200 BCE. Copper, 1’ 2 3/8” high. Iraq Museum, Baghdad.
  66. 66. 66 •Lost-wax casting
  67. 67. 67 Eyes damaged by the Medes peoples
  68. 68. 68
  69. 69. 69 Victory stele of Naram-Sin, from Susa, Iran, 2254–2218 BCE. Pink sandstone, 6’ 7” high. Louvre, Paris.
  70. 70. The Victory Stele of Naram- Sin Defeat of the Lullubi people(Iranian mountain people) Composite View Frontal chest but the rest of t he body in profile. (Same as Egyptian) This shows his power and the correct side “right side” of the ruler. Symbols of Authority and Kingship – Largest Figure (Hierarchical Scale). Larger even than the Gods. Wears the horned crown (attribute of a god) Large Beard 3 stars represent approval of gods Mountain-scaling ladder to heavens Disciplined troops Directional Symbols – Upward diagonal motion of King’s soldiers at left, downward motion of enemy.
  71. 71. The Victory Stele of Naram- Sin Defeat of the Lullubi people(Iranian mountain people) Composite View Frontal chest but the rest of t he body in profile. (Same as Egyptian) This shows his power and the correct side “right side” of the ruler. Symbols of Authority and Kingship – Largest Figure (Hierarchical Scale). Larger even than the Gods. Wears the horned crown (attribute of a god) Large Beard 3 stars represent approval of gods Mountain-scaling ladder to heavens Disciplined troops Directional Symbols – Upward diagonal motion of King’s soldiers at left, downward motion of enemy.
  72. 72. 72
  73. 73. The Victory Stele of Naram- Sin Taken to Susa by the Elamites in 1150 BCE as “War Booty” (second inscription attests to this)
  74. 74. Lagash and Gudea The “Guti” people invade from the mountains and wipe out Akkadians. Lagash remain independent….a Neo-Sumerian Dynasty Gudea, king of Lagash patron God is Ningirsu 74
  75. 75. Seated Statue of Gudea 2100 BCE diorite temple statue • Ensi of Lagash- 20 statues survive • Holding temple plans- he built /rebuilt many temples • Piety • Abundance symbolized by overflowing vase • Power and authority: – messages to the gods, temple plans, – diorite (rare), bare shoulder, – muscular physique
  76. 76. 76 Seated statue of Gudea holding temple plan, from Girsu (modern Telloh), Iraq, ca. 2100 BCE. Diorite, 2’ 5” high. Louvre, Paris.
  77. 77. 77
  78. 78. Temple plan Construction workers treated very welll… …as soft as “combed wool” apparently 78
  79. 79. Hammurabi (Babylonian) Hammurabi- classic “micro- manager” The most far-reaching leader of Mesopotamian history, describing himself as “the king who made the four quarters of the earth obedient.” 79
  80. 80. 80 Stele with law code of Hammurabi, from Susa, Iran, ca. 1780 BCE. Basalt, 7’ 4” high. Louvre, Paris.
  81. 81. Law Code of Hammurabi One of the earliest law codes ever written. Sun god (Shamash), hands Hammurabi a coiled rope, a ring, and a (measuring) rod of kingship Hammurabi is literally given right to rule by god. Shamash-Large beard, multi- horned helmet, bare shoulder. Feet placed on mountains. Flames behind shoulders. Hammurabi engages his God directly, but is standing in respect. Made of hard stone (basalt) 81
  82. 82. Shamash 82
  83. 83. Was found in Susa (Iran) More war booty for the Elamites.. 83
  84. 84. Nearly one-half of the Code deals with matters of contract, establishing for example the wages to be paid to an ox driver or a surgeon. Other provisions set the terms of a transaction, establishing the liability of a builder for a house that collapses, for example, or property that is damaged while left in the care of another. Approximately a third of the code addresses issues concerning household and family relationships such as inheritance, divorce, paternity and sexual behavior. Only one provision appears to impose obligations on an official; this provision establishes that a judge who reaches an incorrect decision is to be fined and removed from the bench permanently. 84
  85. 85. 85
  86. 86. 86 Statue of Queen Napir-Asu, from Susa, Iran, ca. 1350–1300 BCE. Bronze and copper, 4’ 2 3/4” high. Louvre, Paris.
  87. 87. Solid bronze- 3,760 pounds “votive” tradition (found in temple) Hands over belly signify fertility 87
  88. 88. ASSYRIA Babylon falls to the Hittites in 1595 BCE From 900-600 BCE Assyrians take charge 88
  89. 89. Sargon II Makes fortress at Dur Sharukkin Assyria kings cultivate image of power- merciless to those that oppose. Always mindful of attack 89
  90. 90. 90 Reconstruction drawing of the citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad), Iraq, ca. 720–705 BCE (after Charles Altman).
  91. 91. 91 •The Fortified City
  92. 92. So you wan’t to see the King do you?? 92
  93. 93. 93 Lamassu (winged, human-headed bull), from the citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad), Iraq, ca. 720–705 BCE. Limestone, 13’ 10” high. Louvre, Paris.
  94. 94. Lamassu Winged human-headed “guardian” figures meant to ward off enemies, seen and unseen 5 legs Front – at attention Side – walking 94
  95. 95. 95
  96. 96. 96
  97. 97. Assyrian Reliefs Praised the greatness of the King Figures are stoic Animals are expressive Domination over wild beasts shows authority of king over his people. Order vs. Chaos 97
  98. 98. Ashurnasirpal Stone panel from the North-West Palace of Ashurnasirpal II 883– 859BC. Royal lion hunts were an ancient tradition in Mesopotamia. Lions set loose in a contained enclosure for king to slaughter. Ashurnasirpal seems to have been an especially enthusiastic hunter. Inscriptions claim that he killed a total of 450 lions 98
  99. 99. 99 Ashurbanipal hunting lions, relief from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Nineveh (modern Kuyunjik), Iraq, ca. 645–640 BCE. Gypsum, 5’ 4” high. British Museum, London.
  100. 100. Ashurbanipal- “Ashur is creator of the son” Greeks called him Sardanapalus 100
  101. 101. Modern sympathies lie with lions 101
  102. 102. •Ashurbanipal hunting lions, ca. 645-640BCE. Fig. 1-19.
  103. 103. •Ashurbanipal hunting lions, ca. 645-640BCE. Fig. 1-19.
  104. 104. Neo-Babylonia Babylon re-merges after fall of Assyrian empire King Nebuchadnezzar “I caused a mighty wall to circumscribe Babylon… so that the enemy who would do evil would not threaten… King Nubuchadnezzar the biblical Daniel’s “King of Kings”
  105. 105. 105
  106. 106. 106
  107. 107. “Hanging Gardens” 107
  108. 108. Euphrates river ran directly though the city 108
  109. 109. 109
  110. 110. •Marduk Ziggurat “Etemenanki’ •temple of the foundation of heaven and earth
  111. 111. Tower of Babel 111
  112. 112. 112
  113. 113. 114
  114. 114. 115 •Cyrus did it…. (539 BCE)
  115. 115. 116 Ishtar Gate (restored), Babylon, Iraq, ca. 575 BCE. Staatliche Museen, Berlin.
  116. 116. 117
  117. 117. 118
  118. 118. Ishtar Gate Glazed brick over mud walls Animals guard the city Lions sacred to the goddess Ishtar Marduk- Patron God of Babylon 119
  119. 119. Copper glaze used to create brilliant blue 120
  120. 120. Ishtar (patroness) Lion 121
  121. 121. Marduk (patron god) dragon 122
  122. 122. 123
  123. 123. Adad (storm god) 124
  124. 124. 125
  125. 125. 126
  126. 126. Nebuchadnezzar’s inscription speaking across history 127
  127. 127. PERSIA 128
  128. 128. 129
  129. 129. 130 Persepolis (apadana in the background), Iran, ca. 521–465 BCE.
  130. 130. 131
  131. 131. 132
  132. 132. 133
  133. 133. 134
  134. 134. 135
  135. 135. 136
  136. 136. 137 Processional frieze (detail) on the terrace of the apadana, Persepolis, Iran, ca. 521–465 BCE. Limestone, 8’ 4” high.
  137. 137. 138 •Darius and Xerxes
  138. 138. 139 Triumph of Shapur I over Valerian, rock-cut relief, Bishapur, Iran, ca. 260 CE.
  139. 139. 140•2250 BCE, Akkadian 350 CE, Persian
  140. 140. 141 •“repousse”

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