2013 History of Civilization - Chapter I

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2013 History of Civilization - Chapter I

  1. 1. History of Civilization I. FROM PRE-HISTORY TO BRONZE AGE
  2. 2. TOPICS  Peopling of Earth  Origins of Agriculture  From Stone to Metals  Cradles of Civilization  Fertile Crescent  Progress of Settlements  Ancient Sumerians  Invention of Writing  Overview of 2nd and 3rd millennia BCE 10 000 - 3000 BCE
  3. 3. HOMO SAPIENS GOES GLOBAL  Timeline:  200 000 years ago: appearance of Homo Sapiens  150 000 years ago: mitochondrial Eve  90 000 years ago: Y-chromosomal Adam  70 000 years ago: out of Africa  40 000 years ago: cave paintings  29 000 years ago: Neanderthals extinct  20 000 years ago: last glacial maximum Spreading of mtDNA haplogroups:
  4. 4. THE STONE AGE νέος (new) + λίθος (stone) = neolith  Paleolithic  From ~50 000 BCE - Behavioral modernity:  Mesolithic: hunters-gatherers  Neolithic: starts with Agriculture  Pre-pottery (from 10200 BCE in Fertile Crescent)  Pottery (from 6400 BCE in Fertile Crescent)  Fine tools  Fishing  Barter among groups  Self-decoration (pigment and jewelry)  Figurative art  Games, music  Cooking  Burial Woman of Willendorf ( ~ 22 000 BCE )
  5. 5. NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION  Domestication  Increased food production brought Social change  Secondary products:  Hides, skins  Milk  Traction and transport  Wool  Manure  Wheat  Barley  Flax  Peas  Lentils  ….  Sheep  Goat  Donkey  Pig  Cow  Horse Eurasia Elsewhere  Corn  Cotton  Yams  Beans  Potato  Chicken  Duck  Goose  Etc…  Llama  Reindeer  Yak  Guinea pig  Camel  Silkworm
  6. 6. ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE  Multiple origins: different locations, different crops, different times  In some cultures settlements preceded agriculture, but in others nomadic tribes started working crops 9500 BCE 7000 BCE 6000 BCE 3000 BCE 3000 BCE 3000 BCE 1500 BCE
  7. 7. POTTERY  Figurines of clay were made starting ~29 000 – 25 000 BCE  Hand-thrown earthenware vessels appeared in various places in pre-historic times → 11500 BCE 16000 BCE 9500 BCE Jomon pottery (Japan, ca. 8000 BCE) Clay Fire pit / kiln (900°C) Wheel (ca.5000BCE, Mesopotamia) Glaze
  8. 8. ORIGINS OF METALLURGY  Bronze Age was preceded by Chalcolithic (copper tools) period: 5500 – 3700 BCE  Meteoric iron (Fe/Ni) : before 3000 BCE (Iran) Cu 1085°C (1984°F) * requires tin for making bronze Fe 1538°C (2800°F) * requires coal for smelting  Arsenic copper (Cu/As) is stronger than native copper  Bronze (Cu/Sn) is superior  Europe: from 3750 BCE  Near East: from 3600 BCE  Can be smelted in simple furnace (close to pottery kiln) and worked cold Sargon the Great (Akkadian bronze, 22nd century BCE)
  9. 9. CRADLES OF CIVILIZATION Mesoamerica Andean South America Mesopotamia Egypt Indus valley Shang  Multiple locations, different times, significant variations  Imprecise definitions, variable criteria
  10. 10. DEVELOPMENT OF TRADE  Cultures acquire novelties by invention or by exchange  Trade started in Stone Age: flint and obsidian were circulated far from their native sites  Exchange of goods: from barter to commodity money  Used commodities: grains, cattle, shells  Babylonian laws fixed the metrics of the commodities, introducing sheqel as measure of weight (primarily barley) and unit of currency, formalizing money  Universally accepted commodities: noble metals Trade: from Sumer to Harappan
  11. 11. THE FERTILE CRESCENT  From Nile to Mesopotamia  Natufian culture  Levant, 12 500 – 9 500 BCE  Hunter-gatherers  Pre-farming, sedentary  Tools: sickles, harpoons  Burial of domestic dogs  Later (9000 – 5000 BCE) origin of one of earliest:  Farming, plowing, irrigation  Domesticated sheep, goats, cattle  Granaries (and domestic cats)  Wheel  Writing systems  Earliest Cities Çatalhöyük, Jericho, Tell Brak, Uruk
  12. 12. PROGRESS OF SETTLEMENTS  Çatalhöyük according to today’s (2012) data was one of the largest settlements (5000 - 10 000 people) between 7500 – 5700 BCE  Evidence of evolved social structure
  13. 13. THE SUMERIANS  Mesopotamia became an area of multiple city-states, each built around a temple of local deity  Sumer (Akkadian word meaning “native/noble”) in south developed a culture in 5th millenium BCE, which initially was close to pre-historic Samarran culture (in north) Semitic tribes Arian peoples “Fisher-folk” Eridu: city of Enki, one of five cities before the Deluge “When kingship from heaven was lowered, the kingship was in Eridu”  Historical periods:  Ubaid (ca. 6500-3800 BCE)  Uruk (ca. 4000-3100 BCE)  Dynastic (from ca. 2900 BCE)  Mythological timeline: Sumerian king list, starting in pre-dynastic (antediluvian) times
  14. 14. STORIES OF CREATION AND FLOOD  Sumerian cities each had its god (it was said there were 60x60 deities)  Before 3rd millenium these cities were theocracies, led by “En”/”Ensi” (priests)  Mesopotamian religion was polytheistic, inheriting many generic traits of Indo- European religions (sacrifices, magic, purification, divinations, etc.)  Gods’ traits = duties of men  Seven Gods Who Decree created world, animals, “black-headed people” (as servants)  Abgal (7 demi-god sages) gave culture to mankind, then stayed as advisors  Mes were fundamental things/ideas created by Enlil and given to Enki to be spread  King Zi-ud-sura learnt about impending flood and saved men and animals in an ark Creation to be understood as functional not material Enlil and Ninlil
  15. 15. DEVELOPMENT OF WRITING  Earliest writing systems (4th millenium BCE) were logographic Cuneiform Cuneus = wedge (Latin)  Logograms evolved into alphabet
  16. 16. SUMMARY  Since adoption of agriculture (Neolithic revolution) it took more than 5 millennia before emergence of city-based societies  The civilizations appeared in various places and at various times  Ancient civilizations that emerged in most advantageous circumstances developed cultures that set the humanity on its current path  Heritage of Sumer (Mesopotamia) which was historically first, still can be traced in our civilization of today Noah’s Arc on Mount Ararat by Hieronymus Bosch (1514)
  17. 17. 3RD AND 2ND MILLENNIA BCE: OVERVIEW 3000 - 1000 BCE Europe Greece Egypt Near East Mesopotamia India China 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 BCE Early Dynastic Old Kingdom Middle K. New Kingdom Minoan Mycenaean Ancient Sumer Akkad Amorite K. Babylon Cassite Kingdom (Stonehenge) Bronze Age Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors Xia Shang Ancient Fertile Crescent - City States Hittite Empire Early Harappan Mature Harappan Late Harappan Vedic Bronze Age Collapse The Bronze Age
  18. 18. IN THE NEXT CHAPTER:  Civilization on Nile  Lower and Upper Egypt  Pharaohs and dynasties  Papyrus scrolls  Old Kingdom and Pyramids  Trouble with Hyksos  The New Kingdom  Akhenaten
  19. 19. Thank You

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