2013 History of Civilization - Chapter II


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2013 History of Civilization - Chapter II

  1. 1. History of Civilization II. ANCIENT EGYPT
  2. 2. TOPICS  The River  Language and Scripts  Beliefs, Rituals, Society  Chronology  Narmer and Unification  Old Kingdom and Pyramids  Technology and Medicine  Papyrus Literature  Hyksos and New Kingdom  Amarna Period  Clash with Hittites  The Legacy
  3. 3. THE QUIZ  What you associate with Ancient Egypt?  Name the known names  Where the ancient Egyptians have gone?  What other Egyptian architectural features are prevalent in world cities today?  What famous operas have immediate Egyptian connections?
  4. 4. HIGHLIGHTS  Over three millennia of advanced civilization which left wealth of artifacts  Oldest written history of currently extant language  Orderly stratified society with sophisticated culture  Original attempt of monotheistic religious system  Only surviving of Seven Wonders of ancient world: pyramids of Giza ‘Km.t’ = The black land (Egyptian) Nefertiti by Thutmose (1345 BCE) ‘Hwt Ka Ptah’ = House of Ptah’s Soul → Αἴγυπτος
  5. 5. LOWER & UPPER EGYPT  Earliest Nebti = Two Ladies (Egyptian) Wadjet of Papyrus color Nekhbet White Mother of Nekheb
  6. 6. LANGUAGE  Ancient Egyptian was one of Afroasiatic languages, its descendant today is Coptic  Hieroglyphs and Hieratic script developed in parallel ιερός = sacred
  7. 7. DECIPHERING THE SCRIPT Rosetta Stone from Memphis (196 BCE) Papyrus with Hieratic writings Jean-François Champollion (1790 -1832)
  8. 8. PYRAMID TEXTS  Funerary texts of Old Kingdom (5th dynasty, ca. XXVth cent. BCE)  Recorded earlier oral tradition  Carved on walls of burial chambers  Intended only for Pharaohs  Not illustrated  Later evolved into Coffin Texts (Middle Kingdom) and Book of the Dead (New Kingdom)  Oldest religious texts known today
  9. 9. BELIEFS  Cosmogonies  Ennead (Heliopolis) : Atum / Shu + Tefnut / Geb + Nut / Osiris, Isis, Seth, Nepthys  Ogdoad (Hermopolis) : Nu + Naunet, Amun + Amaunet, Kuk + Kauket, Huh + Hauhet / Cosmic Egg or Lotus → Ra  Maat (daughter of Ra) personifies the cosmic order, and is under threat  Types of sentient beings inhabiting the cosmos: gods, spirits, humans  Pharaoh is human on whom divine authority is bestowed, providing the bridge between people and gods Nut (Sky) supported by Shu (Air) with Geb (Earth) reclining beneath Seth protecting Ra’s boat slays Apep
  10. 10. DEITIES Horus Osiris Isis Ra Amun Maat Thoth Anubis Nepthys Seth Sobek Bastet Hathor Seshat Sekhmet Ptah Khepri
  11. 11. OSIRIS MYTH  God of the afterlife, merciful judge of the dead, lord of love  As ruler of the land Osiris is murdered (not described) by Seth  Isis finds/collects (with help of Nepthys) his remains, performs magic (with help of Thoth and Anubis)  Isis conceives Horus and hides from Seth in papyrus thicket Osiris with wheat sprouting from his body (from bas-relief at Pilae)  Osiris becomes ruler of Duat (the underworld, not Hell)  Horus and Seth struggle, then Horus becomes rightful ruler Isis nursing Horus (bronze, ca. 660 BCE)
  12. 12. Ba (personality) Ka Ren (name) Shwt (shadow) AFTERLIFE  Rituals are important for preservation of an individual in afterlife  Funerary texts ensured the diseased person was safe after Ka left the body  Negative confessional reflected the acts perceived by Egyptians as evil Jb (heart) Human body with five souls Judgment scene from Book of the Dead Papyrus of Hunefer (steward of Seti I, 13th cent. BCE)
  13. 13. RELIGION AND RITUALS  Religion was the unifying agent  It was centered on temples and was highly centralized  Detailed protocols defined the rituals, mummification, burial, burial goods, and ceremonies  Mummification for preservation was known before 3500 BCE Opening of the Mouth ceremony from Papyrus of Hunefer Episodes 1–9 Preliminary rites Episodes 10–22 Animation of the statue Episodes 23–42 Meat offerings aligned with upper Egypt Episodes 43–46 Meat offerings aligned with lower Egypt Episodes 47–71 Funerary meal Episodes 72–75 Closing rites Anubis attending to the mummy
  14. 14. SOCIETY  Centralized and stratified society  King as source of law  All people essentially equal before the law, anyone (but not slaves) could appeal to authority for redress  No great inequalities for women  State-run economy, no internal trade  Cattle count every two years  Cities without walls and defenses  Military: partially conscripted, partially voluntary, and mercenaries  Majority of population worked the land, also on projects in lieu of taxes  Professional medical care and serious emphasis on hygiene The Scribe
  15. 15. PAPYRUS Cyperus Papyrus
  16. 16. CHRONOLOGY  Historian Manetho (3rd cent. BCE) composed Aegyptiaca from king lists  Some dynasties / highlights  IV: pyramids  XII: classic literature  XVIII: Hatshepsut, Akhenaten  XIX: Ramses II The Great  1st intermediate – Nomes pull the country apart  2nd – Hyksos invade  3rd – Lybians, Nubians 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 BCE 1 CE Early Dynastic Old Kingdom Middle K. New Kingdom Late Ptol. Period Dynasties Dates BCE Early Dynastic 1-2 3100-2686 Old Kingdom 3-6 2686-2181 1st intermediate 7-11 2181-2055 Middle Kingdom 12-13 2055-1650 2nd intermediate 14-17 1650-1550 New Kingdom 18-20 1550-1069 3rd intermediate 21-25 1069-664 Late/ Achaemenid 26-31 664-332 Ptolemaic 332-30
  17. 17. PHARAOH AND FIVE NAMES  “Pharaoh” (meaning “great house”) was used since New Kingdom  Standard naming convention for royal titles included five names  Example for Thutmose III: o Horus’ Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes o He of the Two Ladies, Enduring in kingship like Ra in heaven o Horus of Gold - powerful of strength, sacred of appearance o He of the Sedge and the Bee, Enduring of form is Ra o Son of Ra, Thutmose, beautiful of forms
  18. 18. NARMER AND UNIFICATION  Narmer (ca. 31st century BCE, Ist dynasty)  The first king shown in regalia of both Upper and Lower Egypt  After Ist dynasty shabtis are placed in royal tombs instead of sacrificed retainers Narmer Palette, 31st Century BCE
  19. 19. DJOSER AND IMHOTEP  Djoser (ca. 2650 BCE, IIIrd dynasty)  Military expeditions into Sinai  Copper and turquoise mining Stepped Pyramid (constructed 2667 – 2648 BCE)  Imhotep the first polymath “Chancellor of the King of Egypt, Doctor, First in line after the King of Upper Egypt, Administrator of the Great Palace, Hereditary nobleman, High Priest of Heliopolis, Builder, Chief Carpenter, Chief Sculptor, and Maker of Vases in Chief”
  20. 20. EGYPTIAN MEDICINE  The world’s oldest manual on Trauma and Surgery is attributed to Imhotep:  This text is devoid of magical thinking  48 typical cases of trauma in anatomical order  Each case has details on injury, examination, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment  Level of knowledge surpassing that of Hippocrates (1000 years later)  Concerns with nutrition and hygiene  Houses of Life, Sick Leaves, Medical Insurances and Pensions  Ca. 2400 BCE: recorded evidence of female physicians Edwin Smith Papyrus: Manual on Trauma and Surgery (2nd intermediate period, ca. 1500 BCE)
  21. 21. KING KHUFU AND OLDEST TALES  Khufu (reigned 2589 – 2566 BCE, IVth dynasty)  Westcar Papyrus (from 13th dynasty, ca 1800 BCE) contains five tales of magic: 1. (lost) 2. The Wax Crocodile 3. The Story of Green Jewel 4. Djedi the Magician 5. The Birth of the Royal Children
  22. 22. THE GREAT PYRAMID AND SPINX  Khufu’s pyramid in Giza:  Constructed ca. 2580 – 2570 BCE  World’s tallest structure for 3800 years  Base flat within 15 mm  Side (A): 230.4 m (within 58 mm)  Height: 146.5 m, = 2A/π  Oriented within 4 arcmin
  23. 23. EGYPTIAN MATHEMATICS  Numeric system: base 10, additive:  Mathematical papyri were practical manuals with concrete problems and solutions:  Multiplications and divisions  Fractions  Algebra  Geometry (areas and volumes)  Simple quadratic equations  Land surveyors used ropes with eleven equally spaced knots Problem 14 from Moscow Mathematical Papyrus: Volume of truncated pyramid 𝑉 = 1 3 ℎ (𝑎2 + 𝑎𝑏 + 𝑏2 )
  24. 24. THE MIDDLE KINGDOM  Mentuhotep II (reigned ca. 2061 – 2010 BCE, XIth dynasty)  Origins: nomarchs of Thebes  Re-unification of the country (around year 39 of his reign of 51 years)  Growing importance of Osiris’ cult  Re-assertion of Egypt’s influence Funerary temple of Mentuhotep II (reconstruction, pyramid disputed) Inroads to Land of Punt
  25. 25. EXPANSION AND LITERATURE  Senusreth III (reigned 1878 – 1839 BCE, XIIth dynasty)  Military raids into Canaan and Ethiopia  Extensive mining  Building of forts and canals  Reform of government  Literature later regarded as “classic”:  Tale of Shipwrecked Sailor  Story of Sinuhe  Dispute between man and his Ba  The Satire of the Trades  The instructions of Amenemhat
  26. 26. THE HYKSOS  “Foreign Rulers”  Appeared ca. 1800 BCE  XIIIth dynasty (18th century BCE): famine and plague  Invasion or gradual takeover?  Ruled Lower Egypt as XVth dynasty  Expelled ca. 1560 BCE  Ahmose I ca. 1550 – 1525 BCE (first of XVIIIth dynasty)
  27. 27. HATSHEPSUT reigned ca. 1479 – 1458 BCE, XVIIIth dynasty  Queen of Thutmose II  Stepmother and regent for Thutmose III  Great revival of trade  Expeditions to Land of Punt  Height of architecture and monuments  Royal architects: Ineni, Senenmut
  28. 28. THUTMOSE III reigned ca. 1479 – 1425 BCE, XVIIIth dynasty  First 22 years under regency  16 military campaigns in 20 years  Conquests in Canaan, Syria, Nubia: Egypt at its maximal territorial extent  Construction of more than 50 temples Amduat scene from the tomb
  29. 29. AKHENATEN reigned ca. 1353 – 1336 BCE, XVIIIth dynasty  Amenhotep IV, son of Amenhotep III  On 5th year of the reign changed name to “Effective for The Aten”  Great Royal Wife: Nefertiti  Six daughters and two sons/successors  New capital: Akhetaten (Amarna)  Cult of Aten (The Sun), new temples  On 9th year of the reign declared Aten to be not merely supreme god, but the only God  Great Hymn to the Aten
  30. 30. THE AMARNA PERIOD  Amarna letters  Clay tablets in Akkadian, 30 years’ span  Record of decline of Egypt’s influence  Religious Revolution  Amarna Art  Thutmose the Sculptor  Plague  pandemic claiming members of king’s family, Hittite King Suppiluliuma I (ca.1322 BCE), etc. 1345 BCE
  31. 31. THE SUCCESSORS  Smenkhare / Neferneferuaten  Tutankhamun (ruled ca. 1332– 1323 BCE)  Grand Vizier: Ay  Army Chief: Horemheb  Intact tomb found in 1922  Ay  Related to king’s family, claim to power unclear  Army Chief: Horemheb  Horemheb (ruled ca. 1306 – 1292 BCE)  Grand Vizier: Paramess "My husband has died and I have no son. They say about you that you have many sons. You might give me one of your sons to become my husband. I would not wish to take one of my subjects as a husband... I am afraid." Ankhesenamun to Suppiluliuma I, ca. 1323 BCE Tutankhaten with Ankhesepaten
  32. 32. AKHENATEN’S LEGACY 1939 1983 from Book of the Heavenly Cow
  33. 33. RAMSES THE GREAT  Ramses II  Became Prince Regent at 14, king in teens, reigned 66 years, died in nineties  Re-asserted Egyptian influence  Capital: Pi-Ramses  Erasing Amarna period  Ozymandias in later Greek sources XIXth dynasty
  34. 34. RAMSES’ MONUMENTS  Abu Simbel Temple  Great Wife’s Tomb Nefertari playing SenetSolar light penetrated the sanctuary on February 22 and October 22
  35. 35. CLASH OF SUPERPOWERS  Hittite Empire  Battle of Kadesh  May 1274 BCE (year 5 of Ramses’ reign)  First battle in history for which tactical details are known  Egyptians: 20000 men, 2000 chariots  Hittites: 50000 men, 3700 chariots  Indecisive outcome, strategic defeat for Egypt  Peace Agreement  Year 21 of Ramses'’ reign
  36. 36. END OF THE NEW KINGDOM  XXth Dynasty  Conflicts between sons of Ramses III  Third Intermediary Period  Draughts, famines, plagues  Internecine strife, civil unrest, corruption of officials  Sea Peoples, Libyans, Nubians
  37. 37. SUMMARY from Stargate (1994)  Egyptian civilization of more than 3 millennia: progress in food production and in preservation of knowledge  sustained development of advanced society  Unifying role of culture  Concepts: afterlife, resurrection, monotheism  Achievements: medicine, construction, etc.
  38. 38. IN THE NEXT CHAPTER  Sargon the Great and Akkadian Empire  Ur-Nammu and Sumerian Renaissance  Elamites and Amorites  Babylonian Kingdom  Hammurabi and his Code of Laws  Mittani and Hatti
  39. 39. Thank You