Code of Conduct forResponsible Fisheries BY- SASWATA MAITRA
CCRF- Its Origin• FAO Committee of Fisheries meeting 1991: call for more responsible practice, better management• 1992 Cancún, International Conference on Responsible Fishing called on FAO to prepare a Code of Conduct• Technical Consultations 1992-1995 lead to adoption of CCRF by FAO Conference Member Governments
INTRODUCTIONFISHERIES PROVIDE –• A VITAL SOURCE OF FOOD, EMPLOYMENT, RECREATION, TRADE AND ECONOMICWELL BEING BOTH FOR PRESENT AND FUTURE GENERATIONS AND SHOULDTHEREFORE BE CONDUCTED IN A RESPONSIBLE MANNER.THE CCRF IS AN INTERNALLY ACCEPTED SET OF RULES THAT SETS-• PRINCIPLES AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS OF BEHAVIOUR FORRESPONSIBLE PRACTICES TO ENSURE EFFECTIVE CONSERVATION, MANAGEMENTAND DEVELOPMENT OF LIVING AQUATIC RESOURCES.• RECOGNISES THE NUTRITIONAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, ENVIRONMENTAL ANDCULTURAL IMPORTANCE OF FISHERIES, AND THE INTERESTS OF ALL THOSECONCERNED WITH THE FISHERY SECTOR.• TAKES INTO ACCOUNT THE BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESOURCESAND THEIR ENVIRONMENT AND THE INTERESTS OF CONSUMERS AND OTHERUSERS.
Nature and Scope of CCRF• THIS CODE IS VOLUNTARY- HOWEVER, CERTAIN PARTS OF IT ARE BASED ON RELEVANTRULES OF INTERNATIONAL LA W, INCLUDING THOSE REFLECTED IN THE UNITED NATIONSCONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA OF 10 DECEMBER 1982.• THE CODE IS GLOBAL IN SCOPE- AND IS DIRECTED TOWARD MEMBERS AND NON-MEMBERS OF FAO, FISHING ENTITIES, SUB-REGIONAL, REGIONAL AND GLOBALORGANIZATIONS, BOTH GOVERNMENTAL & NON-GOVERNMENTAL, AND ALL PERSONS CONCERNEDWITH THE CONSERVATION , MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF FISHERIES, INCLUDINGFISHERMEN.• THE CODE PROVIDES PRINCIPLES AND STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO THECONSERVATION, MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF ALL FISHERIES. (COVERSCAPTURE, PROCESSING AND TRADE OF FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS, FISHINGOPERATIONS, AQUACULTURE, FISHERIES RESEARCH AND THE INTEGRATION OF FISHERIES INTOCOASTAL AREA MANAGEMENT).• IN THIS CODE, THE REFERENCE TO STATES INCLUDES THE EUROPEANCOMMUNITY IN MATTERS WITHIN ITS COMPETENCE, AND THE TERM FISHERIESAPPLIES EQUALLY TO CAPTURE FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE.
OBJECTIVE of the CodeTHERE ARE 10 MAJOR OBJECTIVES OF CODE OF CONDUCT FOR RESPONSIBLE FISHERIES-• ESTABLISH PRINCIPLES, IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RELEVANT RULES OFINTERNATIONAL LAW, FOR RESPONSIBLE FISHING AND FISHERIES ACTIVITIES, TAKINGINTO ACCOUNT ALL THE RELEVANTBIOLOGICAL, TECHNOLOGICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, ENVIRONMENTAL AND COMMERCIAL ASPECTS.• ESTABLISH PRINCIPLES AND CRITERIA FOR THE ELABORATION AND IMPLEMENTATIONOF NATIONAL POLICIES FOR RESPONSIBLE CONSERVATION OF FISHERIES RESOURCES ANDFISHERIES MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT.• SERVE AS AN INSTRUMENT OF REFERENCE TO HELP STATES TO ESTABLISH OR TO IMPROVETHE LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK REQUIRED FOR THE EXERCISE OF RESPONSIBLEFISHERIES AND IN THE FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF APPROPRIATE MEASURES.• PROVIDE GUIDANCE WHICH MAY BE USED WHERE APPROPRIATE IN THE FORMULATIONAND IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS AND OTHER LEGAL INSTRUMENTS, BOTHBINDING AND VOLUNTARY.• FACILITATE AND PROMOTE TECHNICAL, FINANCIAL AND OTHER COOPERATION INCONSERVATION OF FISHERIES RESOURCES AND FISHERIES MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT;
Objectives Contd….• PROMOTE THE CONTRIBUTION OF FISHERIES TO FOOD SECURITY AND FOODQUALITY, GIVING PRIORITY TO THE NUTRITIONAL NEEDS OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES.• PROMOTE PROTECTION OF LIVING AQUATIC RESOURCES AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTS ANDCOASTAL AREAS• PROMOTE THE TRADE OF FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS IN CONFORMITY WITH RELEVANTINTERNATIONAL RULES AND AVOID THE USE OF MEASURES THAT CONSTITUTE HIDDEN BARRIERSTO SUCH TRADE.• PROMOTE RESEARCH ON FISHERIES AS WELL AS ON ASSOCIATED ECOSYSTEMS AND RELEVANTENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS.• PROVIDE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR ALL PERSONS INVOLVED IN THE FISHERIESSECTOR.
IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING & UPDATING of the CodeWHO IMPLEMENTS THE CODE?ALL MEMBERS AND NON-MEMBERS OF FAO, FISHING ENTITIES AND RELEVANT SUB-REGIONAL, REGIONAL AND GLOBAL ORGANIZATIONS, AND ALL PERSONS CONCERNED WITHTHE CONSERVATION, MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION OF FISHERIESWHO MONITORS THE WORKING OF THE CODE?FAO WILL MONITOR THE APPLICATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CODE AND ITSEFFECTS ON FISHERIESWHO UPDATES AND ISSUES FURTHER REFORMS OF THE CODE?FAO, THROUGH ITS COMPETENT BODIES, MAY REVISE AND UPDATE THE CODE, TAKINGINTO ACCOUNT DEVELOPMENTS IN FISHERIES AND SUGGESTION FROM COFI (COMMITTEEON FISHERIES)
GENERAL PRINCIPLES of the CODEThere are total of 19 Principles and Provisions of CCRF- Conservation of Aquatic resources- States and users of living aquatic resources should conserve aquatic ecosystems. The right to fish carries with it the obligation to do so in a responsible manner so as to ensure effective conservation and management of the living aquatic resources. Promote Sustainable Development-Fisheries management shouldpromote the maintenance of the quality, diversity and availability of fishery resourcesin sufficient quantities for present and future generations in the context of foodsecurity, poverty alleviation and sustainable development.
Principles Contd…. Prevention of Overfishing- States should prevent overfishing and excessfishing capacity and should implement management measures to ensure that fishingeffort is commensurate with the productive capacity of the fishery resources and theirsustainable utilization.Conservation and management decisions for fisheries should be based on-• The best scientific evidence available.• Traditional knowledge of the resources and their habitat.• Relevant environmental, economic and social factors.
Principles Contd.... Application of precautionary approach in the states, regional and sub-regional fisheries management organizations to conserve, manage and carefullyexploit living aquatic resources to so as to protect them and preserve the aquaticenvironment. Selective and environmentally safe fishing gear and practices should befurther developed and applied in order to maintain biodiversity, to conserve thepopulation structure, aquatic ecosystems and protect fish quality. The harvesting, handling, processing and distribution of fish andfishery products should be carried out properly, so as to maintain thenutritional value, quality and safety of the products, reduce waste and minimizenegative impacts on the environment.
Principles Contd…. Protection of Critical Fisheries Habitats- All critical fisheries habitats such as wetlands, mangroves, reefs, lagoons, nursery and spawning areas, should be protected and rehabilitated as far as possible and where necessary. Integration of Fisheries into CRZ- States should ensure that their fisheries interests, including the need for conservation are taken into account and are integrated into coastal area management, planning and development Monitoring of Fishing Vessels- States should ensure compliance and enforce conservation and management measures and establish effective mechanisms, to monitor and control the activities of fishing vessels and fishing support vessels.
Principles Contd…. States authorizing fishing should exercise effective control over the fishing vessels, bearing their flag, so as to ensure the proper application of this Code. States should cooperate at sub-regional, regional and global levels to-• promote conservation and management,• ensure responsible fishing and ensure effective conservation and• protection of living aquatic resources, throughout their range of distribution. States should promote awareness of responsible fisheries through education and training of fishermen and fish-farmers.
Principles Contd… Proper Law making processes- States should, to the extent permitted by national laws and regulations, ensure that decision making processes are transparent and achieve timely solutions to urgent matters.• Furthermore they should facilitate participation of Industry, Fishermen, and other interested organizations in the actual law making and policies related fisheries mgmt. Abiding International Trade rules- International trade in fish and fishery products should be conducted in accordance with the principles, rights and obligations established in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement and other relevant international agreements. Prevention of Disputes- States should cooperate in order to prevent disputes. All disputes relating to fishing activities and practices should be resolved in a timely, peaceful and cooperative manner, in accordance with applicable international agreements or as may otherwise be agreed between the parties.
Principles Contd…Safe and Secure Fisheries and Fishing- States should ensure that fishing facilities, equipment and all fisheries activities allow for safe, healthy and fair working and living conditions and meet internationally agreed standards adopted by relevant international organizations. Protection of livelihoods of traditional fishermen- States should protect the rights of fishers and fishworkers, particularly those engaged in subsistence, small-scale and artisanal fisheries, to a secure and just livelihood, as well as give them preferential access, where appropriate, under their national jurisdiction. Promotion of Aquaculture- States should consider aquaculture, including culture-based fisheries, as a means to promote diversification of income and diet.
CCRF and Fisheries Management• Aspects of CCRF in Fisheries Management can be broadly categorized into- Management Objectives Precautionary approach Management measures & Implementation
Management Objectives• Recognizing that long-term sustainable use of fisheries resources is the overriding objective of conservation and management.• Avoiding overfishing and exploitation of the stocks remains economically viable.• Conservation and protection of biodiversity of aquatic habitats and ecosystems and endangered species.• Allowing depleted stocks to recover or, are actively restored.• The interests of fishermen, including those engaged in subsistence, small-scale and artisanal fisheries, are taken into account.
• Minimizing the effects of pollution, waste, discards, catch by lost or abandoned gear, catch of non-target species of both fish and non- fish species, and impacts on associated or dependent species.• States should assess the impacts of environmental factors on target stocks and species belonging to the same ecosystem or the by-catch species
Special Provisions for Developing Countries • In order to achieve the objectives of this Code and to support its effective implementation, countries, relevant international organizations, and financial institutions should work for the adoption of measures to address the needs of developing countries, in the areas of- Financial and technical assistance Technology transfer Training and scientific cooperation Ability to develop their own fisheries Participate in high seas fisheries, including access to such fisheries.
Motto of CCRF-THINK OF FISH and FISHERIESINVOLVE “FISH PEOPLE”
References• FAO- Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, FAO Corporate Document Repository, Fisheries and Aquaculture Division, FAO.• www.fao.org/docrep/005/v9878e/v9878e00.HTM