PLANNING FOR FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT By: James J Pulikottil 4th Sem SIF CUSAT
Plan??• A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with timing and resources, used to achieve an objective.• “The principle for planning should be applied only so far as is necessary. In small dose it may be useful, like A medicine. But in large doses it may kill the patient”(F. Zweig- the planning of free societies)• “Economic planning is the making of major economic decisions-what and how much is to be produced, how, when and where it is to be produced, and whom it is to be allocated by the conscious decision of a determinate authority, on the basis of comprehensive survey of the economic system as whole.” (H.D. Dickinson, economics of socialism (1939))
• Planning can be categorized into various categories on the basis of the following1) Role of the Governmenta) Imperative Planning: It is also known as directive / totalitarian / authoritarian planning or planning by direction . Under imperative planning, the central planning authority decides about each and every aspect of the economy. The targets set the processes delineated to achieve them are to be strictly followed. This type of planning is generally practiced in the socialist economics.b) Indicative Planning : It is also known as soft or facilitatory planning. Under it, state sets broad parameters and goals for the economy and endeavours to achieve them through persuasion and facilitation. The state provides all types of facilities to the private sector and indicates the areas in which it can help in implementing the plan. It is based on French model of planning and generally practiced in capitalistic economics. It has been pursued in India since the Eighth Five Year plan.
c)Planning by Inducement Under such kind of planning, state regulates the private sector through the use of various incentives and disincentives (i.e. fiscal, monetary and industrial policy measures), so that the private sector may cooperate in fulfilling the targets and priorities of the plan. This kind of planning is generally practices in mixed economy.
2) Extent of people’s participation• a)Centralized Planning: Under centralized planning there is a central planning authority which formulates the plan, fix objectives, target and priorities for every sector of the economy. There is a central control and all economic activities are directed in accordance with a single plan.• b) Decentralized Planning: It is also known as democratic planning, planning from below and grass root planning. A decentralized plan in characterized by the widest possible consultations with the various state governments and the private sector at the stage of formulation and implementation of the plan. The central plan incorporates plans under the central schemes and plan for the states as well as the district and village level plan.
3) On the basis of time perioda) Perspective Planning: The term perspective planning refers to the long term planning in which long range targets are set in advance for a period of 15, 20 or 25 years. It sets broader objectives and targets which are to be achieved in various short period plans.b) Medium and Short-Term Planning: Medium term plans set the targets for a period of 4, 5 or 6 years while short term plans are the annual plans which deals with the precise targets of one year duration, A perspective plan provides a background to the short term plans.
4) On the basis of mode of resource allocation• a)Physical Planning: In Physical planning, an overall assessment is made of the available real resources such as raw materials, manpower etc. Such resources are then allocated among various sectors of the economy, so that bottlenecks may not appear during the working of the plan.• b)Financial Planning: In financial planning, resources are estimated and allocated in terms of money. The Indian Planning Commission pointed out that “The essence of financial planning is to ensure that demand and supply are matched in a manner which exploits physical potentialities as fully as possible without major and unplanned changes in the price structure.
5) On the basis of flexibility or rigiditya) Rolling Plan: In a rolling plan, every year three new plans are made and acted upon. First, a short-term plan is formulated for the current year in the form of annual budgets. Second, there is a medium-term plan which contains targets and techniques to be followed during the plan period. Third, a perspective plan is presented every year in which the broader goals are stated and the outlines of future development and forecast. It is a continuous planning process as the plan is revised every year in the light of new information. Rolling plan was introduced in India by the Janta Government in 1978 as the Sixth Five Year Plan (1978-1983). But he congress government abandoned it in 1980 and re launched the sixth five-year plan (1980-85) as a fixed plan.b)Fixed Plan : A fixed plan lays down definite aims and objectives which are required to be achieved during the plan period, say 4, 5, 6, or 7 years. Physical except under financial outlays are seldom changed except under emergencies.
Master plan for fisheries development• The master plan is a comprehensive plan for the all round development of the industry in a given period of time.• It will be a composite plan with regional or sectoral targets .• The regional and sectoral plans will have there financial components incorporated with them.• The preparation , implementation and evaluation are the important stages in the working of a master plan
• Preparation of plan : It begin couple of years before the actual implementation of the plan• Its starts with the review of the state of the industry, with respect to the resources, the potential for growth and constraints for developments.• The planning agency done this review by regarding the primary, secondary and tertiary fishery sectors and the man power.• The next step is the identification of the objectives• These objectives are the machinery for projecting investment, planning strategies and giving signal for the course of development.• Prepare specific targets for achievement ,based on the objectives• targets crystallize the objective into numerical terms• Targets sets for regions sand sectors.
• The plan should be maintain certain balances• Important balances in planning involves Cross wise balance- balance between the aggregate out put targets and the overall resource availability• Back- word balance- The balance between the availability of physical inputs and out put targets.• Monetory- balance – the balance between the investment proposals and the investment funds.
Implementation : The implementation of fishery plan is done by the department of fisheries and concerned agency.• The master plan will be implemented in phase as annual plans (short-run)and five year plans(long-run)• Objective such as promotion of employment, earning, consumption, etc. might be released in short run itself others in long run.• Implementation of the plan on the basis of clear priorities and necessary revisions will help in fulfilling the objectives to the maximum extent.
The next stage is the preparation of blue prints. And a strategy of investment.• The blue print for the investment may be prepared on the basis of feasibility studies and project evaluation.• The master plan ones it is technically accepted , is incorporated into the national economic plan and get the approval of the national parliament or other decision making bodies.
Evaluation :Evaluation of the plan should be made at all successive stages of plan implementation, and necessary correction made in the succeeding periods It is important for understanding the achievements and the short- comings of the plan. It helps in measuring the extent of fulfillment of objectives and any gap prevailing therein. Helps in identifying the constraints or bottlenecks that prevent the achievement of the targets. It will be possible for planers to take remedial measures for improving the performance of the plan.
SECTORAL PLAN• A sector plan is undertaken within the context of the governments goals for the sector. Goals are statements which are generally too broad to quantify. For example, a goal of a government might be to improve the quality of rural living in order to reduce or even halt rural migration to the cities. Such a goal might also be a goal for the fisheries sector. Another national goal might be to increase the supply of food, both to the national population and also for export. This goal, also, might apply equally to the fisheries sector.• On the basis of a sector study, the government will be able, within the sector strategy, to refine goals into objectives for the sector. Objectives are more precise statements than goals of what is required from a sector
Steps in sectoral planingThe welfare objective(s) is/are the driving force which stands at its apex.A sector study looks at the industry from the point of view of the stated welfare objective and provides options or recommendations which are considered by a sector study team to enable the government to meet its development objectives within the fisheries sector.The government formulates the sector strategy on the basis of the selected option or recommendations for development. A strategy provides the basis of the sector development plan. Plans contain detailed proposals including projects, which follow from the chosen direction of change and include estimates of the resources (human and financial) required and the time frame within which specified activities are plannedto be undertaken. Aplan should not be merely a list of projects
The sector plan is the detailed working out of the sector strategy plan typically includes detailed proposals for two years, but thereafter is updated - or “rolled-on” -as information on the progress of implementation becomes available and changes in circumstances are taken into account. A Strategy, however, is likely to be only slightly modified within a planning period, unless unforeseen significant changes in circumstances occur during the period
• However, the plan cannot be implemented directly. It is necessary within the timescale of the plan to formulate and prepare policies and projects in sufficient detail to secure commitment and funding.• Implementation is the next stage with programme management, including monitoring, control and evaluation, as the integrating factor, feeding back to all the other stages in the process.• This last point deserves emphasis. The process of planning is always iterative. New information on markets, resources, technology or legislation is always emerging and the alert fisheries department is aware of this. New information may change the basis for any of the stages in the planning process.
Development of marine fisheries, infrastructure and postharvest operations(2012-2017)
Development of inland fisheries and aquacultureIn inland capture fisheries, the rivers and their tributaries (including cold water resources), the floodplain wetlands and the estuarine resources have been overlooked in the past Plans leading to resource deterioration and fall in production and productivity.• Identification of riverine stretches for conservation as sanctuaries, primarily for maintaining brood stock populations and genetic biodiversity;• Replenishment of depleted stocks through river ranching in selected stretches;• Conservation/protection of breeding grounds of commercially important fish species;• Habitat improvements in floodplain lakes and wetlands and supplementary stocking in identified water bodies for stock enhancement; and Community mobilization for increased participation of local communities in the implementation of conservation and habitat improvement programmes
• National scheme for welfare of fishermen and fisherwomenBeing poorest of the poor, the welfare of fisher community in India is of utmost importance. Thus the welfare schemes implemented for the fisher community during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan are also proposed to be continued during the ensuing Plan. However, changes have been proposed in some schemes to make them more useful and comprehensive. The components that are proposed to be continued are as follows:Development of Model Fishermen VillagesGroup Accident Insurance for Active FishersSaving-cum-Relief
REGIONAL PLANNING• Regional planning refers to central control exercised over the economy of a particular area or a region with constitutes a part of a country.• Regional planning may be conceived as of two typesi. An independent scheme of economic development pertaining to one particular area or region as a self- contained whole. In this sense regional planning is carried out mainly to bring about the economic development of back word areas or regions in the national economy. Its objectives are limited but well defined. It does not patent to to super impose a new structure on the national economy. It intends to mainly to bring into existence some new giant public works eg industrial plants, irrigation system. Etc for developing the economic standards of the region and rising the living standards of its inhabitents.
Regional decentralisation in the formulation, implementation and supervision of a national plan. this type of planning is carried out with in the frame work of a national plan with the special attention to meeting the needs of a particular area or region. To do this the central Gov. Gives special powers to the regional authorities to draw up, to implement and to supervise the plan relating to the regional authorities to draw up., to implement and to supervise the plan relating to that area or region. The regional authorities under this scheme of decentralisation are generally given powers to plan agriculture, handicrafts, consumer goods industries and local services with in there jurisdiction This type of planning becomes more or less inevitable in a large sized country with several regions and wide regional differences In a multi national state regional planning is the only means to secure public co-operation in the implementation of the plan
Annual plans• Annual plans coming under short term planning.• It is a controlling plan• Annual plans split up the various targets into annual targets for the purpose of implementation.• In contrast with the perspective plans and mid term plans, annual plans are more detailed..• A typical annual plan is starts with an evaluation of the progress of the previous year plan• The achieved targets are compared with the planed targets and reason for deviation, if any are analyzed
.• The important projects which are to be carried out in the current year , along with the estimates of costs and recourses are described in detail. It also pin points the specific monetary ,credit, wage, fiscal and other measures which are to be taken in the current year to achieve the annual targets.• As a result an annual plan can adjust the earlier short falls or over fulfillment of the targets.• An annual plan, therefore provide an excellent opportunity for revising the medium term plan.• It makes a mid term plans(five year plan) flexible during its implementation.
References Report of the working group on development and management of fisheries and aquaculture, Planning commission, January 2012,xiith five-year plan(2012 – 2017) Annual Plan 2010‐11 Planning Commission, Government of India Economics of fisheries management-Ramakrishnan korakandy Theory and practices of economic planning- Dr. M.L. Seth
• The first attempt at systematic planning in India was made by Sh. M. Visvesvarya when he published in 1934, his book Planned Economy for India• in 1937, the Indian National Congress set up the National Planning Committee (under the chairmanship of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru) which submitted its reports as late as 1948, since the Second World War and abnormal political developments in the country supervened. In the meantime, eight leading Bombay industrialists came out in 1943 with ‘A plan for Economic Development in India’; popularly known as ‘Bombay Plan’.• The plan aimed at increasing per capita income by 100 percent (from Rs.65 to Rs.130) within a 15 year period. This was sought to be achieved by raising agricultural production by 130 percent and industrial output by 500 percent. It accorded top priority to basic industries.• Almost simultaneously with the Bombay Plan was released, by Shri M.N. Roy, a 10 year ‘People’s plan’, envisaging a total outlay of Rs.15,000 crores. In contrast to the Bombay Plan, it gave the highest priority to agriculture and consumer goods industries and relegated basic industries to a secondary place. There was alsoGandhian Plan which was prepared by Shriman Narayan.