the integrated process of information gathering, analysis, planning, decision-making, allocation of resources and formulation and enforcement of fishery regulations by which the fisheries management authority controls the present and future behaviours of the interested parties in the fishery, in order to ensure the continued productivity of the living resources - FISHERIES MANEGMENT FAO, 1995b An ecosystem is a very complex entity with many interactive components. It can be defined as "a system of complex interactions of populations between themselves and with their environment" or as "the joint functioning and interaction of these two compartments (populations and environment) in a functional unit of variable size"(Odum, 1975; Ellenberg, 1973; Nybakken, 1982; Scialabba, 1998).
Reffer the matter and make notes to each points kept in PAYIII
EXPLAIN BY PAYIIIII
Strategy = idea +plan+action
(see www.ecopath.org). scientific and management tools to support practical implementation . We discuss some of the scientific tools that have been developed to meet this need. These tools include extension of the management strategy evaluation (MSE) approach to evaluate broader ecosystem-based fishery management strategies (using the Atlantis modelling framework), development of new approaches to ecological risk assessment (ERA) for evaluating the ecological impacts of fishing, and development of a harvest strategy framework (HSF) and policy that forms the basis for a broader EBFM strategy. The practical application of these tools (MSE, ERA, and HSF) is illustrated for the southern and eastern fisheries of Australia.
the elements/values that need to be considered for EBFM The major difference in the EBFM component tree structure compared to the individual fishery assessments is that the EBFM process has the ecological assets as the primary focus for management, rather than the activity of fishing as the primary focus. In addition, the EBFMtree has a separate Ecosystem Structure and Biodiversity branch, which recognises that eachof the individual assets that are directly or indirectly impacted (e.g. habitats, target species,protected species) combine together to form ecosystems. These higher-level assets usually linkto the activities and objectives of other stakeholders and agencies through EBM and the broadercommunity.
. what is ecosystem based fisheries management? How it is different from conventional approach offisheries management? what is the need of EBFM? what is the principles of EBFM? What is the goal of EBFM? what all are the strategies of EBFM? what all are the tools for EBFM? how EBFM is implemented ? what all are the merits of EBFM? what all are the demerits of EBFM? what all are the examples in national level what is example from international level
The phrase Ecosystem Approach was first coined in the early .80s, but found formal acceptance at the Earth Summit in Rio in 1992 where it became an underpinning concept of theConvention on Biological Diversity, and was later described as: a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way.
what is ecosystem based fisheries management? ecosystem . EBFM Fisheries management
• Aquatic ecosystems, including rivers, lakes and . inland seas, flood plains, coastal lagoons and estuaries, coastal shelves and open oceans cover a very large part of the earths surface and, among other amenities, goods and services, sustain the production of fisheries and aquaculture. They yield about 120 million tonnes of fish and fishery products per year - the largest source of wild protein - and provide a livelihood to as many as 140 million people. Fisheries and aquaculture exploit a large diversity or organisms ranging from algae, ascidians and sea-cucumbers to mollusks, crustaceans, fish and marine mammals.
EBFM is defined by Ward et al. (2002) as "an extension of conventional fisheries management recognizing more explicitly the interdependencebetween human well-being and ecosystem healthand the need to maintain.ecosystems productivity for present and future generations, e.g.conserving critical habitats, reducing pollution and degradation, minimizing waste, protecting endangered species". The Reykjavik FAO Expert Consultation (FAO, 2003)
The term has been defined (US National Research Council, 1998) as"an approach that takes major ecosystem components and services -both structural and functional - into account in managing fisheries... It values habitat, embraces a multispecies perspective, and is committed to understanding ecosystem processes... Its goal is torebuild and sustain populations, species, biological communities and marine ecosystems at high levels of productivity and biological . diversity so as not to jeopardize a wide range of goods and services from marine ecosystems while providing food, revenues andrecreation for humans". The term puts the focus for management on the users. What is managed is the economic activity. The term did not meet with consensus at the 2001 FAO ReykjavikConference, possibly because some countries took it as implying that the "ecosystem" would become the new "foundation" of fisheries management. This may have been interpreted as giving to environmental considerations pre-eminence over socio-economic and cultural ones, raising concern about equity, political as well as socio-economic costs and feasibility
An ecosystem-based approach to fisheries managementaddresses human activities and environmental factorsthat affect an ecosystem, the response of the ecosystem, and theoutcomes in terms of benefits and impacts onhumans. Human activities include commercial and recreationalactivities from which coastal communities deriveincome, pleasure, and cultural identity. Human benefits andimpacts can also include non-consumptive valuesarising from nature watching, or the value that an inlandresident may place on knowing that an ecosystem ishealthy.
A quick recap of EBFM history1987 – NMFS Program Development Plan for Ecosystem Monitoring and FisheriesManagement. (Died)1999 – Ecosystem Principles Advisory Panel (EPAP) Report at the request ofCongress recommending that regional fishery management councils develop aCongress recommending that regional fishery management councils developafisheries ecosystem plan (FEP) for every ecosystem under their jurisdiction.2001 – The NOAA Marine Fisheries Advisory Panel considers EBM andrecommends pilot projects to develop FEPs.2004 – Congress appropriates $2M for use by four Atlantic fisheries councils andcommissions for EBM pilot workshops. (Summaries of each workshop available)2004 – Pew Ocean Commission and President’s Ocean Policy Task Force reportsissued and EBM highlighted.2005 – NMFS proposed MSA reauthorization language for development of FEPs.2006 – Congress does not adopt specific EBFM provisions – NMFS focuses onACL’s.2009-10 – With ACLs underway, NMFS Sustainable Fisheries is reviewing EBFMimplementation again.
Relevant international agreements and frameworks1971 Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance1972 Stockholm Declaration of the UN Conference on the Human Development1973 Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Flora andFauna (CITES)1979 Bonn Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals1980 Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR)1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)1991 Global Environment Facility (GEF)1992 Declaration of the UN Conference on Environment and Development1992 Helsinki Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary WatercoursesUN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC)1992 UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)1995 UN Agreement on Straddling and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks1995 Code of Conduct for Responsible FisheriesConvention on Biological DiversityJakarta Mandate on Marine and Coastal Biological DiversityUN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC)UNEP Regional Seas Conventions2001 Reykjavik Declaration on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem2002 Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development.
How EBFM is different from conventional approach of fisheries management? .
what is the need of EBFM?. FISHERIES IMPACT ON THE ECOSYSTEM Marine Pollution Drainage, Sewage, Eutrophication And SubsequentOxygen Depletion (Jackson Et Al., 2001)From Aquaculture As Well As SeaFood Companies. Gear Loss And Ghost FishingOver Exploitation Release Excess Nutrients (E.G. Nitrates, Phosphorus) As Well AsContaminants (E.G. Polychlorinated Biphenyls(Pcbs), Mercury, Dioxin), Radioactive Wastes, Oil, Antifouling Paints(Tributyl Tin)Blast Fishing" Is Still Common In Parts Of Asia, Africa, Caribbean AndSouth Pacific Excessive Trawling Sea bed was disturbedPoor Selectivity, Bycatch And Discards dumping Human Pathogens (E.G. Cholera, Salmonella), Plastic And
Conventional fisheries management focuses on a single species or stock and generally assumes that the productivity of that stock is a function only of its inherent population characteristics. Following this model, fisheries management has, at best, only been partially successful. Major problems have emerged due to uncertainty ofthe status and dynamics of the stock; a tendency to give priority to short-term social and economic needs versus long-term sustainability of the stock; and poorly defined and often conflicting objectives and institutional weaknesses . To address these concerns, discussions of marine ecosystems now recognize that they are composed of both natural and human elements. Fish populations are one portion of complex marine ecosystems that are affected by many natural and human induced factors. In turn, fisheries should be considered as systems in which social systems and ecological systems are in factlinked. This perspective calls for a new way of managing fisheries, that is, through an ecosystem-based approach.
what is the principles of EBFM? Human and Ecosystem Well-being Resource Scarcity Maximum Acceptable Fishing Level Maximum Biological Productivity Impact Reversibility Impact Minimization Rebuilding of Resources Ecosystem Integrity Species Interdependence Institutional Integration Uncertainty, Risk and Precaution Compatibility of Management Measures
The Polluter Pays Principle (PPP) The User Pays Principle (UPP)The Precautionary Principle and Precautionary ApproachSubsidiary, Decentralization and Participation . Equity
The goal of ecosystem-based fisheries managementto maintain ecosystem health, integrity and sustainability.protect the productive potential of the system other than protecting an individualspecies or stock as a resource.sustainability means restorthose degraded parts of the ecosystemmake decision regarding balancing human needs with resource productivityrequirements.The ecosystem approach also recognizes the complexity and uncertainty in predictingresponses to management Actions•Species sustainability Keeping biomass levels above levels where recruitment couldbe affected•Ecosystem sustainability Ensuring that any impacts on ecosystem structure andfunction are kept at acceptable levels•optimize the economic benefits to the community .• optimize the social amenity (i.e. non-economic benefits) derived by the community•minimize the Social impacts and negative attitudes associated the management ofthese resources .
what all are the strategies of EBFM? For Enhancing Intra- and Inter-Agency Cooperation and CommunicationIntegrate ecological, political, legal, and administrative information that iscollected by the various local, state, and federal agencies in performing theirmissions and affects fishery management options through proactiveinteragency coordination and cooperation. For Delineating Geographic Area(s) of the Ecosystem Identify and describethe geographical area of the ecosystem or eco-region subset to beaddressed, using biological, chemical, and physical parameters to the extentpossible . for Preparation of Quantified Natural Resource Goals and Objectives(Description of Desired Future Conditions) · Use an open and public process todevelop general goals and specific objectives that describe the “desired futurecondition” of the ecosystem and its major component parts (Sissenwine andMace 2002). Identify and define tolerance limits for the evolving or functionalecosystem within an acceptable range of fluctuations similar to natural historicconditions. Develop a process for evolving policy, direction, and resourceobjectives as well as an institutional process for evolving implementation
For Identify and Apply Specific Indicators Identify specific .indicators of ecosystem condition and integrity and evaluate theireffectiveness in conserving ecosystems and their natural resources(FAO #8 1999; Jamieson et al. 2001). Those indicators are part of aprecautionary approach that accommodates natural variability, ourincomplete understanding of ecosystem structure and function, andthe direct and indirect effects of fishing on natural ecosystems. Usethis information to create an institutional definition andinterpretation of the “precautionary approach” and how it should beemployed in ecosystem based management approaches. Assess how(or whether) the precautionary approach currently is being employedand make recommendations to Congress on the need for legislation.For Socio-Economic Data to Evaluate Management Tradeoffs Whileconserving natural resources and protecting biodiversity, optimizesocial and economic benefits, and minimize negative social andeconomic impacts to communities through a better understandingand integration of the human dimension of fisheries management.
ECOPATHECOSIM EBFM ECOSPACE marine protected areas
Ecosim• What distinguishes ECOSIM from existing systems is its capability to allow an integrated quantitative and qualitative analysis of the environment in urban and industrial areas across different environmental domains and sub-domains. In addition to the state of the environment in each domain, the interrelations between the domains and their dynamic behavior is exploited. Therefore, the individual domains are linked together on large scales and the available multi-media data sources and modeling results are cross-calibrated.• For instance, the system at each local site includes the following numerical modeling tools, which are connected on-line to the users individual monitoring networks:• meteorological forecasting model;• air chemistry and dispersion model;• ground and surface water quality model;• coastal water pollution model.
ECOPATH• Ecologists use path models to estimate the direction and strength of all factors that influence the way ecosystems function. The original ECOPATH model described energy flow through the coral reef food web. Starting at the top of the food chain, scientists tracked tiger sharks to determine what and how much they consumed. They extended their observations to other members of the food chain all the way down to algae, simple plants known as primary producers in the parlance of ecological science. Path models allow scientists to calculate direct and indirect effects from a multitude of ecosystem components, providing them with the first means to model an ecosystem’s true complexity.
ECOSPACE• Ecospace is a dynamic, spatial version of Ecopath, incorporating all key elements of Ecosim. It relies on benthic habitat information derived from a geographic information system and explicit links between biomass groups and preferred habitat types. With the already established values of fishing, trophic and physical interactions in Ecopath and Ecosim, Ecospace allows the user to establish species-habitat associations, rates of dispersal and migration as well as examine how spatially-located marine managed areas affect biomasses through time. It works by dynamically allocating biomass across a user-defined grid map while accounting for:• Symmetrical movements from a cell to its four adjacent cells modified by whether a cell is defined as “preferred habitat” or not• User-defined increased predation risk and reduced feeding rate in non- preferred habitat• A level of fishing effort that is proportional, in each cell, to the overall probability of fishing in that cell, and whose distribution is sensitive to spatial fishing costs• Ecospace allows users to explore the potential role of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and other spatially-explicit policies as tools to manage fisheries and the various ecosystem effects of fishing.
What are Protected Areas?According to the UNEP (United Nations EnvironmentProgramme )a protected area is defined as:an area of land and/or sea especially dedicated tothe protection and maintenance of biologicaldiversity and of natural and associated culturalresources, managed through legal or other effectivemeans. (http://www.unep-wcmc.org)
What is a Marine Protected Area?The US Government defines a Marine Protected Area isdefined as:any area of the marine environment that has beenreserved by Federal, State, territorial, tribal, or local lawsor regulations to provide lasting protection for part or allof the natural and cultural resources therein.(Executive Order 13158, May 26, 2000)
.• The term MPA has been used in many ways. • MPAs serve many different purposes and have been established for a variety of reasons under many different laws and programs. • The perceptions on the value and use of MPAs also varies.
“An area of land and/or sea . especially dedicated to the protection of biological diversity and natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means (IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature 1996).”Benefits provided by protected areas – Conservation of ecosystems and biodiversity – Recreation – Prevention of erosion on watersheds – Provision of clean water to cities – Provision of clean air – Control of biological pests – Preservation of medicinal and genetic resources – Maintenance of harvestable resources – Soil regeneration – Nutrient cycling – Carbon sequestration/climatic regulation
IUCN’s* types of mpaCategory I. Strict Nature Reserve: managed for science or wildernessCategory II. National Park: managed primarily for ecosystem protection and recreationCategory III. Natural Monument: managed primarily for conservation of specific natural featuresCategory IV. Habitat/Species Management Area: managed for conservation through active interventionCategory V. Protected Landscape/Seascape: Managed for cultural and scenic integrity, conservation, and recreation; human settlements and agricultural areas are accommodatedCategory VI. Managed Resource Protected Area: Managed primarily for the sustainable use of ecosystems IUCN = The World Conservation Union, previously known as the International Union for the Conservation of Nature
Implementation of MPAStep 1. Select an ecologically meaningful unit (e.g. an ecoregion, a landscape, a watershed, etc.)Step 2. Conduct an integrated assessment, consisting of: - An ecological assessment a) Terrestrial b) Aquatic - A Socio-economic assessment - An integrated analysis of the first two componentsStep 3 Develop a range of management alternatives Determine the “Desired Future Condition”Step 4. Select an alternative, then implement it.Step 5. Monitor
A Few Highlighted• Achievements conflict Co-existence of users with minimal• Increases in fish stocks in marine reserves and fishing areas and reflection of these increases in fishermen’s catches• Self-sustainability with regards to operating costs• International recognition• Community support• Enhanced awareness and sensitization 36
how it EBFM implemented? implementation involves 5 steps, but 3 steps are explained because it is unique to the EBFMStep 1— determine the scope of the assessmentStep 2—asset and issue identificationStep 3—prioritising issues
what all are the meritsfrom aEBFM? of • Potential simplification of management in moving of large numberstock-based management plans to fewer integrated plans for ecologically definedareas • More effective coordination of management actions for fisheries, protectedresource species, biodiversity conservation, and habitat protection • Direct accounting for fishery interactions (e.g., bycatch) and biologicalconsiderations (e.g., predation, biodiversity, habitat requirements, protectedresources) along with climate change and environmental variability within a singleframework • Consideration of biological constraints on simultaneous efforts to rebuildstocks to long-term target levels and evaluation of compatibility with stock–specific recovery plans • Increased stewardship from broader participation of stakeholders, widersharing of ecological and fisheries knowledge, and greater opportunities fordeveloping place-based governance approaches and co-management • Potential for greater stability and predictability by focusing on higher-levelecosystem processes, resulting in more predictable planning horizons for thefishing industry
what all are the demerits of EBFM? EBFM is by no means a well-defined process with set protocols and formulas.The complexity of ecosystems makes this impossible. Understanding how anecosystem functions is an enormous challenge in itself - complex food webs aredifficult to comprehend, natural fluctuations in temperature and currents affectpopulation levels and distributions, and ecosystems vary greatly based on locationand proximity to shore (Hayden and Conkling, 2007). Developing effectivepolicies will remain difficult, since understanding ecosystem dynamics isextremely hard. Another problem is that EBFM cannot work without up-to-date scientificdata on population levels and ecosystem conditions. involves heavy expenditure of money EBFM is complicated by the fact that ecosystems do not follow jurisdictionalboundaries that humans have established (Ecosystem Principles AdvisoryPanel, 1998). Marine policy is implemented in artificially bounded jurisdictionalregions, while ecosystems readily cross these boundaries. Effective EBFM policywill require significant regional and international cooperation.
ICELAND, WHALING AND ECOSYSTEM BASED FISHERIES MANAGEMENT .
Iceland people and fishery both are greatlydepends up on fisheries sector most of the time the island fisheries seen to behealthy comparing to the world. because here the annual quotas for fishing arebased on scientist assessment about stock. . council for exploration in recent years internationalof the sea found out that Iceland cod,caplin andhaddock are over exploited Iceland scientist found the statement as true aftertaking samples so the govt. reduced the fishing quota for cod andhaddock
UK marine conservation society took anindependent decision to cut short cod and haddockquota delivering to British consumers. and tat is proven to be a very good step towardssustainability . in 2006 the Iceland people restarted whaling withmuch lesser catching than fixed quota. in 2007 the boat owners said that the quota forwhale hunting should be increased because whalesare eating most of the remaining cod and haddockwhich are economically important the mink whaler association also the argumentsupported with scientific explanation.
on July 2007 the quotas for culling of whale didn’texceeded. They thought it is not ethical. they have collected field data, non manipulatedstudy, and natural experiment .They applied classical fishery, biological .oceanography traditional as well as scientificknowledge for decision making. after 2006 the number of mink whales aredecreased but with that Icelandic dolphin and somefishes are also decreased but it’s a fact that the number of Icelandic haddockcaplin and cod increased considerably.
on 2010 they completely implemented EBFM in to their fisheries sector they managed the fisheries in order to maintain ecosystem health .
TROPHIC MODEL OF THE . ARABIAN SEA OFF KARNATAKA , CMFRI
after the conference on responsible fishery inmarine ecosystem held in 2001. CMFRI took initiativeof implementing EBFM the scientist are appointed for predictingsustainable catch rate 2 tools are used ECOPATH :- studies the interactionof species in an ecosystem,. ECOSIM :- calculate thecorresponding changes in biomass of each component when the fishingmortality of any particular group is altered. ICAR have given the fund ewe software used and constructed in an area of27000km2 and 24 functional ecological groups fromthe predators like marine mammals , shark to microzooplankton.
estimation is done for• biomass• biomass ratio•Consumption rate•Diet composition . based on the gross efficiency value of theecosystem . It can be classified as an ecosystem whichhas not yet reached or achieved the full maturity.
by the realization that catch is going stagnant nowa days so CMFRI now giving more push to changeconventional fisheries on to the track of EBFM. trawl ban become compulsory several programs organized to protect breeding andnursery ground . limit the marine pollution Giving more stress to aquaculture than capturefisheries costal habitat conservation by the participation ofpeople Made catching rate for almost all species ofeconomically important fishes
We can say EBFM is in an initial stage in India since Indian people are poor and they often doesnt understand the relevance for EBFM, with thatcorruption in the system also plays a crucial role in the delay of implementation. Increase in the non registered boats is an another problem . .
The ecosystem-based approach to fisheriesmanagement sees the linkages. between human andnatural systems and recognizes the need formanagement approaches that address these linkages.It is also an approach with a human face and a peoplefocus – fishermen and fishing communities. It willrequire creativity and innovation. Combinations ofboth tried and true and new and unfamiliarmanagement approaches will be used. There will belearning and adaptation. The communities offishermen, resource managers and researchers willneed to work together to decide the best combinationof approaches to address their situation.
Fisheries scientists and managers are beginning tograsp the potential of ecosystem-based fisherymanagement to improve the sustainability offisheries resources. The benefits of adoptingecosystem-based fishery management andresearch are more sustainable fisheries andmarine ecosystems, as well as more economically-healthy coastal communities
http://www.journalogy.net/Publication/40560348/understanding- marine-ecosystem-based-management-a-literature-review http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/viewFile/142/460 http://www.meece.eu/highlights/balticcod.pdf http://www.packard.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Synthesis- Report-for-the-EBM-Initiative.pdf http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/Ecosystem- . based%20fisheries%20management.pdf FISHERIES MANAGEMENT. Marine protected areas and fisheries FAO GUILDLINE FOR RESPONSIBLE FISHERIES 4http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/4271/1/IJMS%2032(3) %20226-233.pdf http://chesapeakebay.noaa.gov/images/stories/pdf/FEP_FINAL.pdf http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/sfa/EPAPrpt.pdf Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management Dr. Robert Pomeroy University of Connecticut
http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/ocs/mafac/meetings/2003_05/mafac_rev _5th_7Finalwref.pdf http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/sars/improvement/pdfs/meaning.pdf http://cpps.dyndns.info/cpps-docs-web/subsec/proc-ord/docs/PO/info/03.05.DI.SPO%20An%20Ecosystem%20Based%20Fish eries%20Management%20framework.%20Fletcher.pdf http://www.wamsi.org.au/sites/default/files/Project%204.1%20Ecosys .tem%20Based%20Fisheries%20Management%20case%20study%20repo rt.pdf SMALL-SCALE FISHERIES PERSPECTIVES ON AN ECOSYSTEM-BASED APPROACH TO FISHERIES MANAGEMENT Sebastian MATHEW http://www.wamsi.org.au/sites/default/files/Project%204.1%20Ecosystem%20Based%20Fisheries%20Management%20case%20study%20repo rt.pdf www.fao.org