SOCIOLOGY: Theoretical Paradigms


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Theoretical paradigms on society and social behavior

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SOCIOLOGY: Theoretical Paradigms

  2. 2. Theoretical Paradigms THEORY - Is a statement how and why specific facts are related. - It refers to an organized body of ideas as to the truth of something - Usually derived from study of facts related to it - Sometimes, results from exercising speculative imagination - The branch of a science or art consisting of its explanatory statements, accepted principles, and methods of analysis.
  3. 3. Theoretical Paradigm A basic image of society that guides sociological thinking and research. Example Viewing different dimensions of society. (e.g.:) - 1.) As a stable system - 2.) As a changing system - 3.) As a system in conflict - 4.) As a social interacting system
  4. 4. Four general theoretical paradigms and their proponents 1. The Evolutionary Theory - Proposes that societies undergo different stages in the development cycle and pass through different phases of growth and development, from simple primitive archaic society to complex-modern society - Looks for patterns of change. It offers satisfying explanation how societies come to exist, grow and develop
  5. 5. 2. Structural-Functional Paradigm - Framework for building theory that envisions society as a complex system whose parts works together to promote solidarity and stability. - Views society as an organized network of cooperating groups operating in an orderly manner according to generally accepted social norms. - Members share sets of rules and values and maintains a balance harmonious system. It also recognizes that our lives are guided by social structures.
  6. 6. 2. Structural-Functional Paradigm PROPONENTS: 1. Auguste Comte – stressed social integration 2. Herbert Spencer – “Social Darwinism” (society is a social organism with independent parts performing specific system functions) 3. Talcott Parsons – Society as a social system with basic tasks to perform 4. Emile Durkheim – “mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity” holds society together. 5. Robert Merton – Social Functions (Manifest and Latent) are consequences of social pattern. • Manifest: recognized and intended consequences of social pattern • Latent: largely unrecognized and unintended consequences
  7. 7. 3. The Social-Conflict Paradigm • This is a framework for building theory that envisions society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change. • The approach views class conflict and class exploitation as the prime moving force in mankind’s history, and that the struggle for power and wealth as a continuous process between and among categories of people.
  8. 8. The proponents of this approach include: • Karl Marx- stressed class struggles. • W.E.B. Du Bois- pointed out racial conflict ; Racism. • Coser and Dahrendorf- advanced that prejudice and discrimination conflicts with seemingly organized cooperative groups brought about by power relations.
  9. 9. 4. Symbolic-Interaction Paradigm • This paradigm is a theoretical framework that envisions society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals. • The symbolic-interactions paradigm includes such other approaches as dramaturgy, ethno methodology and social exchange.
  10. 10. The proponents of the symbolic-interactions paradigm includes: • George Herbert Mead(1934)- He believed that our thoughts and feelings are not directly accessible to other people. • W.I. Thomas(1937)- He pointed out that we continuously size up the “here and now” context in which we find ourselves and assign meaning to it. Thomas calls this process the “definition of situation”
  11. 11. The proponents of the symbolic-interactions paradigm includes: • Erving Goffman (1959)- He advanced dramaturgy as a related theory to the symbolic-interactionist paradigm. He views social interaction from the perspective of a theatrical performance. • Harold Garfinkel (1967)- He focused attention on the taken-for-granted routine activities of our daily lives and the understandings that lie behind them. He termed his approach “ethno methodology”
  12. 12. The proponents of the symbolic-interactions paradigm includes: • Peter M. Blau (1964) and George C. Homans (1947) – This theory helps to explain the idea behind the “norm of reciprocity”. Expectations that we should give and return equivalently in our relations with one.
  13. 13. Comparison of the Theoretical Paradigms The different Theoretical paradigms presented by social scientists provide a rich background in understanding a society behavior. However, no particular theory's is sufficient to fully explain the diverse and complex social phenomena. In using the theories as framework for analyzing particular social conditions, one must distinguish which theory would apply to analyze a specific condition. Thus, the eclectic approach seems to be the better and safer way to explain society and social behavior.
  14. 14. MAJOR CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY 1. Neo-positivism a. George Lundberg- (1895-1966) Espoused qualification, behaviorism and operationalism. b. Stuart Dodd- (1990) Contributed the S theory as a qualitative systematic theory of society. The symbol S representing situation. Situations are of 4 components; time , space, population, and characteristics. c. George Zipf-(1902-1950)The guiding postulate of his theory is the “principle of least effort”- that is , in situations allowing alternatives, people choose those procedures that result in the “ least average rate of probable work”
  15. 15. d. William Ogburn- (1886-1959) Contributed the “hypothesis or theory of culture lag”- the lag between the adaptive culture ( non material culture) and the more advanced material culture. 2.Human Ecology a. Robert Parks –(1864-1959, American ) Introduce the term human ecology competition as the basic process in human relationships; biotic factors as the proper field of study in human ecology. b. Ernest Burgess – (1886-1996, American) Introduced the Concentric Zones Theory in the development of cities. c. Amos Hawley- His “ecological theory” proposes five ecological processes which bring about changes in the pattern of relationships: concentration expansion or centralization, contraction or decentralization, segregation and conversion
  16. 16. d.Walter Firey- Advanced the socio-cultural ecology; posited the theory that space may have symbolic value; cultural definition and cultural values in the giving of meaning to space. e. Eugene Odum- Advanced the “equilibrium theory” or a balanced development, that is ,maintaining a proper ecological system, His idea is in the line with the concept of sustainable development 3. Sociometry and Microsociology a. Jacob Moreno-(1890-1974),Rumanian) – Chief promoter of sociometry as a theory about the informal structure , includes sociogram; psychodrama and socio-drama b. Robert Bales-(1916)- proponent of microsociology and the study of small groups; developed the method for studying small groups called “interactions process analysis.”
  17. 17. 4. Symbolic-Interactionism • George Herbert Mead – Pioneer of Social Interactionism; social action is seen as symbolic behavior and interaction is based on shared symbolic meanings learned through socialization. • Charles Cooley – “organic theory of society” – the relation of the individual society; developed the concept of “looking-glass self” – the ability to visualize oneself through the eyes of other people. • W.I Thomas – introduced the situational approach or behavioral approach; behavior as conditioned by one’s “definition of the situation”
  18. 18. • Herbert Blumer – theorized that meaning does not inhere in objects but derives from uses people make of objects, he distinguished “definitive concepts” and “sensitizing concepts” • Erving Goffman – posited dramaturgical approach as a special variation of symbolic interactionism 5. Functional Approach • Florian Znaniecki – posited the postulate of universal cultural order which is essential in social comprehension and cultural phenomena.
  19. 19. • Talcott Parsons – posited the “theory of actions”; constructed three analytical systems namely – the social system, the personality system and the cultural system • Robert Merton – made a distinction between “manifest and latent function”, concept of disfunctions – implies the concept of strain, stress and tension of structural level 6. Dialectical Sociology • George Gurvitch – advanced the “hyper emperic dialetics” – the dialectic method grounded in emperical reality; distinction b/n macro and micro sociology
  20. 20. • Luigi Struzo – advanced the “theory of social harmonism” – relationship between society and individual • Ralf Dahrendorf – advanced the “theory of conflict dialectics” • C. Wright Mills – founder of “radical sociology” and the concept of “sociological imagination” • Alvin Gouidner – posited “reflexive sociology” • Lewis Coser – emphasized the “functions of conflict in social life”
  21. 21. 7. Phenomenology Sociology • Alfred Vierkandt - advanced the use of “phenomenological method or “ideational abstraction” • Alfred Schutz – advanced philosophical phenomenology and analysis od “intersubjective consciousness” • Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann – advanced the Sociology of Knowledge concerned with the “social construction of reality” – common sense knowledge provides a sense of ordered reality in a person’s daily life
  22. 22. 8. Ethno Methodology • Harold Garfinkel – he coined the term “ethno methodology” meaning the study of folk or common sense methods and maintaining social reality’ 9. Sociology of Knowledge • Karl Mannheim – advanced the influence of the entire social situation in shaping beliefs 10. Exchange Theory • George Homans – Developed “psychological exchange theory” which views human interaction as essentially an exchange of rewards and punishments
  23. 23. • Peter Blau – attempted synthesis elements of functional analysis, conflict dialectics and symbol interactionism in individual exchange relationships 11. Developmental Theories • Gunnar Myrdal – studied about the poverty of six Southeast Asian Nations, the Philippine included. • W.W Rostow – “capitalist theory of development” or theory of economic growth • Don Santos – states that underdevelopment of 3rd world countries is a resuly of a capitalistic development known as dependent capitalism
  24. 24. • Andre Frank – advanced the “theory of development of undedevelopment” • Samir Amin – advanced the “unequal development theory” • Immanuel Wallerstein – extended Frank’s dependency theory and proposed a more general theory which he called “world system theory”
  25. 25. 12. Sociology Edward O. Wilson (1975- American) • He advanced the “theory of sociobiology” to explain scientifically the basic reasons behind social phenomena Sociobiology means the systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior.
  26. 26. 13. Postmodernism - A term usually contrasted with modernity; it designates a new condition which contemporary advanced industrial societies are alleged to have reached. a. b. c. d. Social Cultural Economic Political
  27. 27. Postmodernists include: 1. Foucault says that he only wants to talk about society as a whole when it comes time to destroy it. 2. Baudrillard – If the “social” ever existed as an object of representation, study, or collective action, it no longer does, or else it has been transformed into an object of manipulation. 3. Lyotard develops a richer and more positive conception of politics, justice, and community than most postmodernists.
  28. 28. 4. Bell defines some features of postmodern society; to him, economics is based on a service economy. -Society will give pre-eminence to professional and technical elite and will be based on a reinvigorated meritocracy. - Society will be based on the axial principle: the centrality of theoretical knowledge as the source of innovation and policy formulation. - Central technology and technology assessment will be based on future orientation. - Experts will make decision; an “intellectual technocracy” will emerge.
  29. 29. 14. Contemporary Feminist Theory Patricia M. Langermann and Jill N. Brantly - advocates of feminist theory – that system of general ideas designed to describe and explain social life and human experience from a woman – centered vantage point; the feminist theory posits that women’s location in, and experience of, most situations is different from and unequal to that of men, and in terms of a direct power relationship between men and women, women are oppressed, that is, restrained, subordinated, molded, used and abused by men. Thus, the feminist theory can be classified as a “theory of difference”, or of inequality, or of oppression.
  30. 30. PRESENTED BY Capuso, Czarilyn Fernando, Aviguel Guerta, Daniel Karamihan, Ena Marie Gwyneth Merilles, Lyka Orbe, Joshua