Historical setting in which Sociology appeared as a discipline.


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Historical setting in which Sociology appeared as a discipline.

  1. 1. Historical setting in which Sociology appeared as a discipline. Presented By Guannu Kuluku Dezon
  2. 2. Introduction: History of the Discipline Sociology is a relatively new academic discipline which emerged in the early 19 th century in response to the challenges of modernity. Increasing mobility and technological advances resulted in the increasing exposure of people to cultures and societies different from their own.
  3. 3. Definition: What is Sociology? Sociology •The systematic study of social behavior in human groups. •Examines the influence of social relationships on people’s attitudes and behavior. •Studies how societies are established and change
  4. 4. The Sociological Imagination Definition: An awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society. It is the ability to view our own society as an outsider might, rather than from the perspective of our limited experiences and cultural biases.
  5. 5. Developing the Sociological Imagination •Theory in Practice •Research in Action •The Significance of Social Inequality •Speaking Across Race, Gender, and National Boundaries •Social Policy Throughout the World
  6. 6. Sociology In and the Social Sciences contrast to other social sciences, sociology emphasizes the influence that groups can have on people’s behavior and attitudes and the ways in which people shape society.
  7. 7. Sociology and Common Sense Knowledge that relies on “common sense” is not always reliable. Sociologists must test and analyze each piece of information that they use.
  8. 8. What is Sociological Theory? •Theory: An attempt to explain events, forces, materials, ideas or behavior in a comprehensive manner. •Sociological Theories: Seek to explain problems, actions, or behavior. •Effective theories should explain and predict. •Sociologists employ theories to examine the relationships between observations or data that may seem completely unrelated.
  9. 9. Historical setting of Sociology Sociology began in the middle nineteenth century. Four Factors lead to the development of Sociology: 1. Industrial Revolution: Moving from close- knit agricultural communities to cities traditional norms and values could no longer be counted on. 2. American and French revolutions: people began to question social life (the belief that people have inalienable rights)
  10. 10. Historical setting of Sociology cont. 3. Imperialism: exposure to different cultures 4. Success of the natural sciences: The use of the scientific method
  11. 11. Development of Sociology Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought Auguste Comte 1857 1798 Harriet Martineau 1802 Herbert Spencer Karl Marx 1876 1820 1903 1818 1883 Émile Durkeim 1858 Jane Addams 1860 George Herbert Mead 1864 1935 1863 Max Weber Charles Horton Cooley W.E.B. Du Bois 1931 1920 1864 1929 1868 Talcott Parsons The “time lines” shown here give an idea of relative chronology. 1917 1963 1902 Robert Merton 1979 1910 C. Wright Mills 1916 Erving Goffman 1922 1962 1982
  12. 12. Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought Auguste Comte: Founder (Father) of Sociology 1. Interested in how society functions 2. Social Static 3. Social Dynamic Sociology could discover social principles and those principles could be used for social reform. 4. Positivism: Applying the scientific approach (scientific method ) to the social world.  1798-1857
  13. 13. Comte Cont... Coined the term Sociology From the Greek – logos “study of” From the Latin – socius “companion” or “being with others”
  14. 14. Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought 1. The First Feminist Sociologist 2. Drew an Analogy Between The Plight of Women And Slavery – Said Women Were Oppressed Because They Had No Economy Power 3. Society In America: family, race, gender, politics and religion Harriet Martineau 1802 - 1876
  15. 15. Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought  1. Influenced by Charles Darwin Herbert Spencer  2. Society evolve from lower (Barbarian) to higher (Civilized) forms. The most capable and intelligent (Fittest) surviveimproving society  3. Coined the term “Survival of the Fittest.”  4. Said the “Fittest Society” Was the best so anyone sick, disenfranchised, poor, should not be helped. This would make the society weak. 1820 - 1903
  16. 16. Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought  1. There will always be conflict between the “Have and Have Nots”-Class conflict  2. Bourgeoisie- Own the means of production  3. Proletariat – Own their own labor. This conflict must result in revolution by the middle class resulting in a classless society Karl Marx 1818 – 1883
  17. 17. Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought  1. Society exists because of consensus (Agreement) to follow the rules to keep society stable  2. Mechanical Solidarity Social pressure for conformity, tradition and family Emile Durkheim 1858 - 1917
  18. 18. Emile Durkheim Cont...  3. Organic Solidarity – Social InterdependencyHighly specialized rolesSociety dependent on goods and services.  4. He wanted to show how social forces affect peoples behavior.  5. Anomie- The breaking down of the controlling influences of society. - People become detached and do not have enough moral guidance. - Sociologists intervene by creating new social groups to provide a sense of belonging.  6. SUICIDE- Social integration (How closely people are tied to their social group) – People with weaker ties are more likely to commit suicide-Protestant males, unmarried are more likely to commit suicide
  19. 19. Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought  1. Interested in the personal meaning people attach to their behavior and the behavior of others.  2. Verstehen – Being able to put yourself in someone else’s shoes.  3. Religion is the central force in social change.  4. Protestant Ethic- Sociology should be “Value free”. Max Weber 1864 - 1920
  20. 20. Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought  1. First Social Worker  2. Founder Hull House in Chicago (1889)-Provided food, education, medical care for the poor  3. First American woman and only sociologist to received a noble peace prize. Jane Addams 1860 – 1935
  21. 21. Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought  Was a philosopher at the University of Chicago who was a pragmatist.  Def – Pragmatism- Test the truth of a belief by its actual consequences. Tries to capture the created, socially constructed reality  Def – Phenomenology – Things do not have meaning in and of themselves, their meaning is created by like minded groups defining them. George Herbert Mead 1863-1961
  22. 22. Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought  1. Interested in race relations  2. He wanted to eliminate social injustice  3. The Philadelphia Negro, the souls of black folk   4. Founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) WITH Jane Addams and others in 1909. W.E.B. Du Bois 1868 - 1963
  23. 23. Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought  1. In 1956- Urged sociologists to become more involved in social reform.  2. Power Elite- Top leaders in business, politics, and the military are a treat to freedom C. Wright Mills 1916 - 1962
  24. 24. Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology 1. Symbolic Interactionism  2. Functionalist ( Functional Analysis)  3. Conflict
  25. 25. Functionalist Perspective Society is a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system. Society is held together through consensus - people agree to what is best for society and work together to ensure a stable social system. Study division of work in family – functions served by education Sociologists – Herbert Spencer/Emile Durkheim
  26. 26. Conflict Perspective There are forces in society that promote competition and change. Conflict in society arises over competition for scarce resources and social change is an inevitable feature of society. Study decision making in the family; relationships of racial groups; labor disputes Sociologists – Karl Marx
  27. 27. Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Individuals attach meaning to their own actions and to the actions of others; interaction between people takes place through the use of symbols. Studies how people interact with one another in society Study child development; relationships within groups; mate selection
  28. 28. Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology Levels 1. of Analysis Macro – level analysis: Functionalists and conflict theorists - examine large-scale patterns in society – Homelessness = changes in society (family structure, outsourcing, failing economy) 2. Micro – level of analysis: symbolic interactionists – examine small scale patterns in society – homeless ( patterns of communication both verbal and nonverbal)
  29. 29. Conclusion Although sociology emerged from Comte’s vision of a discipline that would subsume all other areas of scientific inquiry, that was not to be the future of sociology. Far from replacing the other sciences, sociology has taken its place as a particular perspectives for investigating human social life.
  30. 30. Thank You