refers to characteristics
of living organisms as applied
to population of human and
a measure of social
extent, especially width, height,
the act or process of
educating the result produced
by instruction, training or study.
SIX DIMENSION OF EDUCATION
1.History – record of account of past events or the
study and analysis of past events
2.Sociology –the study of human society and deals
with the study of man kind in relation to physical,
social, and cultural development of the person.
3.Cultural – is the scientific study of development
of the human authors based on theological data
and methods of analysis.
4.Political science – is the systematic body of
state and government.
Political- is derived from Greek word “Polis” w/c means a
city equivalent to a sovereign state and Science
meaning “to know”
5.Economics – the social science concerned w/ the
production, consumption and distribution of goods and
6.Social psychology – the branch of human
psychology that deals w/ the behavior of groups and the
influence of social factors on the individual.
Dahrendorf (1959, 1968)
1.CONSENSUs -- is a general or widespread
agreement among all members of a
2.CONFLICT --- is a clash between ideas,
principles and people.
THE PROPONENTS OF CONSENSUS AND
CONFLICT SOCIOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL
Talcott Parsons & Robert Merton
Louis Althusser & Ralph Dahrendorf
Herbert Mead & Herbert Blumer
Marx's class theory rests on the
premise that "the history of all
hitherto existing society is the
history of class struggles."
According to this view, ever since
human society emerged from its
primitive and relatively
undifferentiated state it has
remained fundamentally divided
between classes who clash in the
pursuit of class interests.
Durkheim discusses how
modern society is held
together by a division of
labor that makes individuals
dependent upon one
another because they
specialize in different types
of work. Durkheim is
about how the division of
labor changes the way that
individuals feel they are part
of society as a whole.
Max Weber believed that
it was social actions that
should be the focus of
study in sociology. To
Weber, a “social action’”
was an action carried out
by an individual to which
an individual attached a
meaning. Therefore, an
action that a person does
not think about cannot be
a social action.
Emphasizes on social order, stability and
See shared norms and values as
fundamental to society, focus on social
order based on tacit agreements, and view
social change as occurring in a slow and
Emphasize to dominance of some social groups by others.
(accdg. Karl Marx) Focuses on
the struggle of social classes to maintain dominance and
power in social systems.
(accdg. Horton and Hunt 1984)
focuses on the heterogeneous nature of society and the
differential distribution of political and social power.
The conflict model is
concerned with the
stresses and conflicts
that emerge in society
It focuses on the
inequalities that are built
into social structures
rather than on those
that emerge because of
produce patterns of
inequality in the
distribution of scarce
Reorganization and Change
Consensus Theories Conflict theories
See shared norms and
values as fundamental to
Emphasize the dominance of
some social groups by
Focus on social order based
on tacit agreements
See social order as based
on manipulation and control
by dominant groups
View social change as
occurring in a slow and
View social change as
occurring rapidly in a
disorderly fashion as
overthrow dominant groups
Structural Functionalism states that society is
made up of various institutions that work
together in cooperation.
Parsons’ structural functionalism has four
Structural Functionalism (AGIL)
1. Adaptation – a system must cope with external situational
exigencies. It must adapt to its environment and adapt environment to
2. Goal attainment- a system must define and achieve its
3. Integration- a system must regulate the interrelationship of its
component parts. It must also manage the relationship among the other
three functional imperatives (A,G,L)
4. Latency (pattern maintenance)- a system must furnish, maintain and
renew both the motivation of individuals and the cultural patterns that
create and sustain the motivation.
Functional Requisites of a social
1. Social system must be structured so that they
operate compatibly with other systems.
2. To survive, the social system must have
requisite from other systems.
3. The system must meet a significant proportion
of the needs of its actors.
4. The system must elicit adequate participation
from its members.
5. It must have at least a minimum of control
over potentially disruptive behavior.
6. If conflict becomes sufficiently disruptive, it
must be controlled.
7. Finally, a social system requires a language in
order to survive.
Is the relation of school and society are
critiques and extensions of the functionalist
and conflict perspectives.
Integrationist theories are critiques and
extensions of the functionalist and conflict
Symbolic interaction theory analyses society by
addressing the subjective meanings that people impose on
objects, events, and behaviours.
Has its own origin in the social psychology of early
twentieth century sociologist George Herbert Mead and
Charles Horton Cooley.
known as symbolic interactionism, views the self as
socially constructed in relation to social forces and
structures and the product of on going negotiations of
PRINCIPLES OF SYMBOLIC
1. Human beings are endowed with the capacity for
2. The capacity for thought us shaped by social
3. In social interaction, people learn the meanings and
the symbols that allow them to exercise their
distinctively human capacity for thought.
4. Meanings and symbols allow people to carry on
distinctively human action and interaction.
5. People are able to modify or alter meanings and symbols
that they use in action and interaction on the basis of
their interpretation of the situation.
6. People are able to make these modifications and
alterations because, in part, of their ability to interact
with themselves, which allows them ton examine
possible courses of action, assess their relative
advantages and disadvantages, and then choose one.
7. The intertwined patterns of action and interaction make
up groups and societies.
Social Dimensions of Education, Violeta A.Vega
Social Dimensions of Philippine Education, Dr. Adelaida Bago