175 Years of Texas


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175 Years of Texas

  1. 1. 175 Years of Texas<br />Revolution, Republic, and the United States;1836-1845<br />
  2. 2. Texas and Mexico, 1821-1836<br />Texians and Tejanos?<br />Stephen F. Austin<br />Juan Seguin<br />Jose Antonio Navarro<br />Sam Houston<br />William Travis<br />Davy Crockett<br />Jim Bowie<br />Why Were They Here?<br />Rancheros<br />Empresarios<br />Political Opportunity<br />Financial Opportunity<br />Frontiersmen<br />Fundamentally Entrepreneurial<br />
  3. 3. Creating Mexico; The Constitution of 1824<br />Based on U.S. Constitution<br />Established a federal system<br />Key Differences<br />Established Religion<br />19 States, 4 Territories, vast geographical region<br />No democratic tradition<br />
  4. 4. The Law of April 6, 1830<br />Why They New Law?<br />“Americans” ignoring Mexican Law<br />Slavery<br />Religion<br />“Illegals”<br />The Texian Perspective<br />Unconstitutional!<br />Closing doors for Opportunity<br />Loss of Slaves = Lower Net Worth<br />
  5. 5. The Road to Revolution<br />Consultation, 1835<br />Experienced Texans<br />Averaged 7 years in Texas<br />38 Years Old<br />Skirmish at Gonzales<br />“Come and Take It”<br />Texans take Goliad<br />
  6. 6. The Alamo---THE Texas Legend<br />James Clinton Neill<br />Bowie and the Volunteers<br />William Barrett Travis<br />Davy Crockett<br />2,000 v. 250?<br />
  7. 7. San Jacinto<br />“Remember the Alamo, Remember Goliad!”<br />18 Minutes that Changed America<br />Santa Ana Captured<br />“That man may consider himself born to no common destiny who has conquered the Napoleon of the West; and it now remains for him to be generous to the vanquished”<br />
  8. 8. What Next?<br />Treaties of Velasco<br />Santa Ana agrees that Texas is free<br />Santa Ana pledges to Return to Mexico and work Ratification<br /> What is Texas?<br />
  9. 9. What Now? State? Or Nation?<br />State<br />Most “Texians” formerly US citizens<br />Trade with US was dominant economic engine<br />A Sure Thing<br />Nation<br />Many Texians left US for “bad” reasons; Financial, Legal, or Personal problems.<br />Entrepreneurial Spirit, “Why do we need US troubles?”<br />
  10. 10. Founding A Republic<br />Texas<br />1st Government votes for Annexation<br />3,277-91<br />United States<br />Jackson did not see a legitimate government; Not even an official battle report from San Jacinto?<br />3,277 out of more than 20,000? Tejanos? Indians?<br />SLAVERY!!<br />
  11. 11. Republic of Texas<br />Two Year Presidential Term; Non-Consecutive<br />Houston v. Lamar<br />No Official Recognition from US or Mexico<br />
  12. 12. Republic of Texas<br />Houston--Annexation<br />Peace with Indians, Tejanos and Mexico<br />Thrift<br />Repeated appeals to US<br />Capital City: Houston<br />Lamar--Independence<br />Peace through Conquest<br />War Against Indians, Especially Cherokee<br />Texas Navy; protect trade, harass Mexico, assist Yucatan Revolution<br />Education<br />SPEND to Build a Nation<br />Capital: Austin<br />
  13. 13. End of the Republic<br />Mexican Attack 1842<br />US Politics especially Slave issue<br />Houston’s negotiations with foreign powers<br />Presidential Election 1844<br />Joint Resolution<br />
  14. 14. Is This Legal?<br />Texas/United States<br />Yes! Treaties of Velasco assured independence<br />Yes, Joint Resolution allows President and Congress to bypass normal rules for territorial annexation/statehood<br />Mexico<br />NO! Texas remains part of Mexico. Treaties of Velasco signed under duress<br />No! US Congress can’t pass a Resolution dealing with international territory<br />IF Anything is independent it’s Tejas!<br />
  15. 15. Treaty of Annexation and Texas Myths<br />Myth<br />Texas is the only State to join the US by Treaty, and therefore has special status relative to other States.<br />Texas is only State to ever be an independent Republic.<br />Texas can divide itself in as many as five states.<br />Reality<br />Joint Resolution of Congress admitted Texas immediately. There was/is no TREATY<br />Vermont was an Independent nation from 1777-1791. Hawaii was a sovereign nation prior to annexation in 1898. California technically independent for about a month in 1846<br />True, BUT…this provision recognized the realities of the Republic’s land grab.<br />
  16. 16. Annexation and Texas Myths<br />Texas is the only state whose flag can fly at equal height with US flag.<br />Texas DID receive one special benefit from Annexation; retained public lands<br />
  17. 17. Mexican War, 1846-1848<br />President Polk forces border dispute<br />Mexican Raids Kill Americans<br />US Declares War<br />Two year war saw wide protests<br />Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo<br />Nearly 1 million acres added to US between Texas Annexation and Mexican Cession<br />Modern Texas boundaries defined in 1850<br />
  18. 18. Whaddya Think? A Whole Other Country?<br />