Learning Objectives:• Learn a variety of theories on representation.• Understand how to answer question 1b on representation.• Decide which of your productions you would write about for a question on representation.
Laura Mulvey “The Male Gaze”Mainstream Hollywood adopts the position of themale’s gaze – the camera lingers on legs, lips andbreasts. Men are not objectified in the same way:they are active. Women are presented as passive.
Laura Mulvey “The Male Gaze”Critics point out that most women don’t seem to havea problem with such patriarchal texts.Also, women can gaze at each other for comparison,not for sexual reasons.
Laura Mulvey “The Male Gaze”Critics also give examples of mainstream textswhere women are active and not objectified – e.g.the ‘Aliens’ films.
DyerStereotypes are a way of reinforcingdifferences, and representing thesedifferences as natural.
BaudrillardSociety is so reliant on representations wehave lost contact with the real. This leads tohyper-reality (e.g Disneyland)
Representation• Identify characters, events or issues within the production to discuss.• How does your video represent different social groups/ people/ places/ lifestyles? What values/ ideologies are you representing/ promoting?• Discuss the specific elements of character representation, i.e. modes of address, facial expression, costume, behaviour etc.• Have any stereotypical representations been generated?• Does the production conform to, or subvert, any dominant ideologies?• What would Laura Mulvey say about your production?
Sample Question“Representations in media texts are often simplistic and reinforce dominant ideologies so that audiences can make sense of them.” Evaluate the ways that you have used/ challenged simplistic representations in one of the media products you have produced.