+    Representation
+    Analysing Representation – Richard    Dyer       Dyer identifies four questions to ask of a representation:        ...
+    The Male Gaze – Laura Mulvey       Mulvey identifies three ways of looking associated with cinema:           The lo...
+    Mulvey       Cinema offers voyeuristic pleasures – visual pleasures.       Men look, women are looked at. Men are a...
+    Criticisms of Mulvey       Theoretical not empirical model.       Focuses on heterosexual male spectators.       A...
+    Analysing the Male Gaze       Watch the trailer for Charlie’s Angels: Full Throttle.       How are women represente...
+    The Bechdel Test    The Bechdel test derives from an Alison Bechdel comic strip called    Dykes to Watch Out For. The...
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Representation

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Dyer and Mulvey

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Representation

  1. 1. + Representation
  2. 2. + Analysing Representation – Richard Dyer  Dyer identifies four questions to ask of a representation:  What is represented to us?  How is it re-presenting the world to us (through technical codes)?  What does it suggest is typical and what is not?  Who is speaking? For whom?
  3. 3. + The Male Gaze – Laura Mulvey  Mulvey identifies three ways of looking associated with cinema:  The look of the camera that records the film  The look of the audience that views the film  The look of the characters in the film
  4. 4. + Mulvey  Cinema offers voyeuristic pleasures – visual pleasures.  Men look, women are looked at. Men are active women are passive.  The camera assumes a male perspective.  Powerful female characters are ‘fetishised’
  5. 5. + Criticisms of Mulvey  Theoretical not empirical model.  Focuses on heterosexual male spectators.  Assumes mass audience responding to a text in a uniform way.  Kathleen Rowe argues that being the object of the gaze is a position of power.  Richard Dyer questions the association of looking (subject of the gaze) with being active, and being looked at (object of the gaze) as being passive.  Ann Kaplan argues women can possess the look and make men the object of the gaze.
  6. 6. + Analysing the Male Gaze  Watch the trailer for Charlie’s Angels: Full Throttle.  How are women represented in this trailer?  To what extent are powerful female characters ‘fetishised’?  In pairs screen grab key images from the trailer that could be used to either support Mulvey’s theory or challenge it. Then do the same for your own trailer.  Explain how your trailer’s representation is influenced by the process of construction using Dyer’s four key questions.  Make sure your powerpoint is uploaded to your blog.
  7. 7. + The Bechdel Test The Bechdel test derives from an Alison Bechdel comic strip called Dykes to Watch Out For. The test is designed to assess whether a film has the following: 1. at least two named women who; 2. talk to one another. 3. talk about something other than men. The test has it’s own website http://bechdeltest.com . At present of the nearly 3000 films ‘tested’ 52.1% have ‘passed’ Does your trailer pass the Bechdel test? Refer to examples to support your answer.

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