+ Analysing Representation – Richard Dyer Dyer identifies four questions to ask of a representation: What is represented to us? How is it re-presenting the world to us (through technical codes)? What does it suggest is typical and what is not? Who is speaking? For whom?
+ The Male Gaze – Laura Mulvey Mulvey identifies three ways of looking associated with cinema: The look of the camera that records the film The look of the audience that views the film The look of the characters in the film
+ Mulvey Cinema offers voyeuristic pleasures – visual pleasures. Men look, women are looked at. Men are active women are passive. The camera assumes a male perspective. Powerful female characters are ‘fetishised’
+ Criticisms of Mulvey Theoretical not empirical model. Focuses on heterosexual male spectators. Assumes mass audience responding to a text in a uniform way. Kathleen Rowe argues that being the object of the gaze is a position of power. Richard Dyer questions the association of looking (subject of the gaze) with being active, and being looked at (object of the gaze) as being passive. Ann Kaplan argues women can possess the look and make men the object of the gaze.
+ Analysing the Male Gaze Watch the trailer for Charlie’s Angels: Full Throttle. How are women represented in this trailer? To what extent are powerful female characters ‘fetishised’? In pairs screen grab key images from the trailer that could be used to either support Mulvey’s theory or challenge it. Then do the same for your own trailer. Explain how your trailer’s representation is influenced by the process of construction using Dyer’s four key questions. Make sure your powerpoint is uploaded to your blog.
+ The Bechdel Test The Bechdel test derives from an Alison Bechdel comic strip called Dykes to Watch Out For. The test is designed to assess whether a film has the following: 1. at least two named women who; 2. talk to one another. 3. talk about something other than men. The test has it’s own website http://bechdeltest.com . At present of the nearly 3000 films ‘tested’ 52.1% have ‘passed’ Does your trailer pass the Bechdel test? Refer to examples to support your answer.