The Representation of Gender


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The Representation of Gender

  1. 1. G322 TV Drama Exam January 2012
  2. 2. Overview of Exam <ul><li>G322: Key Media Concepts Examination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Section A - The purpose of these units is first to assess your media textual analysis skills and your understanding of the concept of representation using a short unseen moving image extract. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Section B - Second to assess your knowledge and understanding of media institutions and their production processes, distribution strategies, use of technologies and related issues concerning audience reception and consumption of media texts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examination: 2 hours (including 30 minutes for viewing and making notes on the moving image extract; which you will watch 4 times) </li></ul><ul><li>Questions: Candidates are required to answer two compulsory questions . The unit is marked out of a total of 100, with each question marked out of 50. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>There are two sections to this paper: </li></ul><ul><li>Section A: Textual Analysis and Representation (50 marks) </li></ul><ul><li>Section B: Institutions and Audiences (50 marks) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Section A: Textual Analysis and Representation <ul><li>You will be shown an ‘unseen’ moving image extract with one compulsory question dealing with textual analysis. You will be asked to focus this analysis on the creation of a specific representation that you will be given in the exam (see below*). </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of Focus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Camera Angle, Shot, Movement and Composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mise-en-Scène </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Editing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*Areas of representation (only one representation will be covered in the exam): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexuality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class and status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical ability/disability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional identity </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Section B: Institutions and Audiences <ul><li>One compulsory question to be answered based upon a case study of a specific media industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Through a specific case study, you should be prepared to demonstrate understanding of contemporary institutional processes of production, distribution, marketing and exchange/exhibition at a local, national or international level as well as British audiences’ reception and consumption. There should also be some emphasis on your own experiences of being audiences of a particular medium. </li></ul><ul><li>The media industry you will study is: Music Magazines </li></ul>
  5. 5. Marking Criteria (Section A and B) <ul><li>Explanation/analysis/argument (20 marks) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of examples (20 marks) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of terminology (10 marks) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Gender Representation Cont.
  7. 7. Feminism & The Male Gaze Laura Mulvey
  8. 8. Introduction <ul><li>Laura Mulvey – Male Gaze </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Freud & Jacques Lucan, Mulvey sees the representation of woman in film & literature (and therefore society in general) as being dominated by a male point of view. Her belief is that the world is a patriarchy and that men have the ‘active’ roles and woman ‘passive’ </li></ul><ul><li>To look is seen as active </li></ul>
  9. 9. Traditionally <ul><li>Men play active roles which drive the narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Women play passive roles and are seen as erotic objects which slow the narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Men far outnumber women </li></ul><ul><li>Female roles are sidelined </li></ul><ul><li>Lead roles for women scarce </li></ul>
  10. 10. Stereotypes <ul><li>Bimbo </li></ul><ul><li>Female’s physical attractions such as figure and breasts to overpower the male </li></ul><ul><li>Easy </li></ul><ul><li>House wife </li></ul><ul><li>Mother </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent yet willing to settle down </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul>
  11. 11. Male Gaze <ul><li>Two distinct modes of the male gaze of this era: voyeuristic and fetishistic </li></ul><ul><li>Mulvey argued that women where given two characters types - sexually active female & powerless female </li></ul><ul><li>Films presented images of women that were produced simply for the gratification of male viewers </li></ul><ul><li>Various studies in the 1970s found men to be the dominant characters and decision makers in film and TV production </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul>
  12. 12. Importance? <ul><li>Where women had important roles they were far more likely to be shown as… </li></ul><ul><li>- frightened </li></ul><ul><li>- in need of protection and direction </li></ul><ul><li>- offering support to the male lead character(s) </li></ul><ul><li>- not independent or self driven </li></ul><ul><li>- generally weaker </li></ul><ul><li>- still objectified sexually </li></ul><ul><li>“ Women, in any fully human form, have almost completely been left out of film….” L Mulvey </li></ul>
  13. 13. Fighting Back <ul><li>Ripleys role is reflective of feminist ideology. Throughout the Alien series, we see her character grow, change, develop and mature to meet and tackle each situation placed before her. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges cultural norms </li></ul><ul><li>Lt Ellen Ripley introduced viewers to their first self-reliant and successful science-fiction heroine </li></ul><ul><li>Ripley encounters difficult situations which challenge her femininity </li></ul><ul><li>Still shown as sexual object to both audience and characters </li></ul><ul><li>She has to fight against the patriarchal ideology of the Company, different kinds of male figures and of course, against the Alien </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctive references to gender roles, especially to women's status in the world and to motherhood </li></ul>
  14. 14. Changes in society <ul><li>As women's roles change so does media representation. Still objectified but also likely to be… </li></ul><ul><li>Career driven </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent </li></ul><ul><li>Confident </li></ul><ul><li>Empowered </li></ul><ul><li>Able (violent) </li></ul><ul><li>Remember changes may be made cynically and in order to make money rather than change ideologies </li></ul><ul><li>How many female action stars who are not attractive? </li></ul>
  15. 15. A Terminators Feminist Timeline <ul><li>T1 – Sarah Connor is hysterical, screaming, in need of rescue </li></ul><ul><li>T2 – Strong, empowered, able to hold her own against Arnie </li></ul><ul><li>T3 – We have female terminator TX (uses femininity to advantage) </li></ul><ul><li>Terminator: Sarah Connor chronicles – save the world </li></ul>
  16. 16. A Modern Representation?
  17. 17. <ul><li>Uma Thurman represented as powerful and dominant and independent </li></ul><ul><li>Sword stands in for and castrates phallus </li></ul><ul><li>Adopts male characteristics of aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Not masculinised yet in masculine roles </li></ul><ul><li>Use of low angles, and a masculine performance </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Conforms to Mulvey’s theory - job of seeking revenge family is given to the female character thus conforming to stereotypes where women are seen to be possessed with family and emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Tight outfit allows objectification </li></ul><ul><li>Voyeuristic pleasures by watching Thurman on her killing rampage </li></ul><ul><li>Remember male director/industry may still mean male ideologies </li></ul>
  19. 19. Other Examples…. Evidence of the female gaze? Vs Vs
  20. 20. Misogyny <ul><li>What is it? …. </li></ul>
  21. 21. TV Drama Example <ul><li>Gene Hunt (TV Detective from Life on Mars, set in 1970’s Britain) talking about politics: </li></ul>'THERE WILL NEVER BE A WOMAN PRIME MINISTER AS LONG AS I HAVE A HOLE UP MY A**E.'
  22. 24. Misogyny <ul><li>How would you define the term misogyny based on what you have just seen? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of any other examples of misogyny that you may have seen in any media text or simply experienced in everyday life? </li></ul><ul><li>Misogyny – the contempt or hatred of women and girls </li></ul>
  23. 25. H/W Activities <ul><li>Find examples of both male and female characters in TV Dramas that follow stereotypes and ones that challenge stereotypes. Using images to support and discuss how they have been represented through clothing, location, narrative, dialogue, camera angle etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Then choose a character from a TV Drama that you feel most closely relates to you (someone you feel has similar character traits to you…this is not about looks), upload an image of them into your blog and then discuss/justify why you have chosen them </li></ul>