G325b: Theorists, Theories, Case Studies and Key Issues Section B:  Media and Collective Identity A2 Revision Session
Key Issues <ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Wider issues of representation </li></ul><ul><li>Wider issues of identity </...
Case studies <ul><li>Cover two media </li></ul><ul><li>Past and present/ contemporary (last few years) </li></ul><ul><li>F...
Key questions <ul><li>How do the contemporary media represent nations, regions and ethnic / social / collective groups of ...
Collective Identity <ul><li>How are groups of people represented? </li></ul><ul><li>How are these representations construc...
Identity <ul><li>Is identity something we construct or something we discover? </li></ul><ul><li>Is identity something we s...
Collective Identity Theorists <ul><li>Jacques Lacan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mirror stage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laura Mu...
Collective Identity Theories <ul><li>What impact/ effects do media texts have on audiences? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypoderm...
Magazines and Gender Theorists <ul><li>Marjorie Ferguson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The cult of femininity”; “consciously cul...
Useful things to do/ ways to revise <ul><li>Learn your texts </li></ul><ul><li>Read essays about your texts (GoogleBooks/ ...
Mikhail Bakhtin <ul><li>Mikhail Bakhtin agreed individual people cannot be finalised, completely understood, known, or lab...
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G325 b media theory and theorists_sectionb-

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G325 b media theory and theorists_sectionb-

  1. 1. G325b: Theorists, Theories, Case Studies and Key Issues Section B: Media and Collective Identity A2 Revision Session
  2. 2. Key Issues <ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Wider issues of representation </li></ul><ul><li>Wider issues of identity </li></ul><ul><li>Use of theory </li></ul>
  3. 3. Case studies <ul><li>Cover two media </li></ul><ul><li>Past and present/ contemporary (last few years) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on a specific representation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. youth/ gender </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify key themes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How is this text about the construction of identity? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does this text say about the construction of identity? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does it deal with the construction of identity? What are the key narratives and discourses? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coming of age/ rites of passage/ youth and protest/ adolescence versus adulthood or childhood/ blah blah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does it represent youth/ gender? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do audiences respond to these representations? What are the effects of these representations? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Key questions <ul><li>How do the contemporary media represent nations, regions and ethnic / social / collective groups of people in different ways? </li></ul><ul><li>How does contemporary representation compare to previous time periods? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the social implications of different media representations of groups of people? </li></ul><ul><li>To what extent is human identity increasingly ‘mediated’? </li></ul><ul><li>How do your texts represent a specific group? What themes/ narratives/ discourses are constructed for this group? </li></ul><ul><li>Compare your text to past texts in terms of question 1. </li></ul><ul><li>What effect do these representations have on the audience? What effect do they have on society? </li></ul><ul><li>Is media increasingly important in the way we understand our own identity and the identity of others? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Collective Identity <ul><li>How are groups of people represented? </li></ul><ul><li>How are these representations constructed? </li></ul><ul><li>How do these representations impact upon our sense of identity? </li></ul><ul><li>How do audiences use these representations to create/ understand their identity? </li></ul>There are two separate but related issues in this exam:
  6. 6. Identity <ul><li>Is identity something we construct or something we discover? </li></ul><ul><li>Is identity something we share with others? </li></ul><ul><li>How do media texts impact on our sense of identity? </li></ul><ul><li>Is identity fixed or does it change? </li></ul><ul><li>Is identity something we are or something we do? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Collective Identity Theorists <ul><li>Jacques Lacan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mirror stage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laura Mulvey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Male Gaze </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Michel Maffesoli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Time of Tribes” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>David Gauntlett </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Identities are not ‘given’ but are constructed and negotiated.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mikhail Bakhtin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the unfinalised self” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judith Butler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender is what you do, not what you are. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Collective Identity Theories <ul><li>What impact/ effects do media texts have on audiences? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypodermic Needle Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses and Gratification Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active vs passive audiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antonio Gramsci </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hegemony/ shifting nature of dominant ideology </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Magazines and Gender Theorists <ul><li>Marjorie Ferguson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The cult of femininity”; “consciously cultivated female bond” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Angela McRobbie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ a kind of false sisterhood that assumes a common definition of womanhood or girlhood” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Janice Winship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The gaze between cover model and women readers marks the complicity between women seeing themselves in the image masculine culture has defined.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ a magazine is like a club. Its first function is to provide readers with a comfortable sense of community and pride in their identity” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paul Messaris </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Female models addressed to women… appear to imply a male point of view.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judith Butler </li></ul><ul><li>David Gauntlett: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;These [male] magazines are all about the social construction of masculinity. That is, if you like, their subject-matter.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.theory.org.uk/gay-id.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// theoryhead.com/gender/discuss.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// theoryhead.com/gender/extract.htm </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Useful things to do/ ways to revise <ul><li>Learn your texts </li></ul><ul><li>Read essays about your texts (GoogleBooks/ GoogleScholar/ library) </li></ul><ul><li>Read reviews/ analysis of your texts (Guardian/ BBC/ Daily Mail!) </li></ul><ul><li>Read reports about youth/ gender and identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Dr Linda Papadopolous ‘The Sexualisation of Young People’ Report – read articles on BBC; investigate objections to the report </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learn a few quotes/ applicable ideas from relevant theorists/ critics </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure you can apply and comment on/ evaluate/ criticise the theories/ reports </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure you can answer the four key questions on an earlier slide </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mikhail Bakhtin <ul><li>Mikhail Bakhtin agreed individual people cannot be finalised, completely understood, known, or labelled. He saw identity as the ‘unfinalised self’, meaning a person is never fully revealed or known. Many icons of the postmodern age change and adapt their identity and consequently can be seen in these terms: Marilyn Manson’s manipulations of traditional binary oppositions such as male/ female, beauty/ grotesque; Lady Gaga’s manipulations of femininity; or Madonna’s consistent reinventions of herself can all be seen as examples of the ‘unfinalisable self.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From ‘Media Magazine’ April 2010 </li></ul></ul>

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