Chapter 13 Public speaking-Structuring the message


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Chapter 13 Public speaking-Structuring the message

  1. 1. Public Speaking Structuring the Message
  2. 2. Introduction
  3. 3. Introduction – PART I <ul><li>Attention-getter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal references </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humor / Play-on-words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhetorical or action questions (ALWAYS follow-up) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual or dramatic devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quotes related to topic </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>“ So, I’m going to be speaking about...” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is not a good introduction </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Introductions: An exercise <ul><li>You are giving a speech about </li></ul><ul><li>_______________ </li></ul><ul><li>Come up with: </li></ul>A GOOD ATTENTION-GETTING INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT A BAD ATTENTION-GETTING INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT
  6. 6. Introduction PART II <ul><li>Orienting Material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition of terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal history of tie to the topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are you qualified to present the information? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How does this topic affect the audience? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Back to our exercise <ul><li>What would be appropriate orienting material for your speech? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Introduction – PART II <ul><li>Central idea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicates you purpose and what you want from your listeners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should always be part of the introduction </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Body
  10. 10. Structure <ul><li>Spatial </li></ul><ul><li>Set a point of reference at a specific location and follow a geographic pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX: Financial tax base of the state of Maryland </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Structure <ul><li>Time / Chronological </li></ul><ul><li>Order information from a beginning point to an ending one with all the steps developed in a numerical or time sequence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX: Development of mobile technology </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Structure <ul><li>Topical </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas are organized on the basis of their similarities or other relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX: Board games – multi-player elimination, multi-player no elimination, economics and strategy, physical skills, children ’s </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Structure <ul><li>Causal </li></ul><ul><li>Shows how two or more events are connected in such a way that if one occurs, the other will necessarily follow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX: How a well-developed resume can get you your dream job </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Structure <ul><li>Comparison-contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Shows difference and similarities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX: Community colleges vs. Four-year institutions </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Structure <ul><li>Problem-solution </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker identifies a problem and attempts to determine how to solve it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX: Local shelters are the way to eradicatie homelessness </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. YOUR SPEECH <ul><li>How could we best arrange the body of your speech? What makes the most sense? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Transitions (a.k.a. the thing I might most grill you on) <ul><li>Summarize/restate the previous statement (exception: First transition) and forecast the next one </li></ul>
  18. 18. Transitions (examples) <ul><li>Now that you know what I ’ll be talking about, let me begin with my first main point. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Transitions (examples) <ul><li>There are many health issues caused by smoking. I plan to discuss two of them. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Transitions (examples) <ul><li>When I began this speech, I told you the story about my immigrant grandfather. Now that I ’m about to conclude my remarks, I want to tell you of his motto. “He always said…” </li></ul>
  21. 21. Transitions (examples) <ul><li>While the problem of American dependence of foreign oil is large and significant, I believe that there is a solution that we can easily implement. My proposal will reduce oil consumption while also promoting a sense of community. We should provide tax incentives for those who carpool. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Transitions (examples) <ul><li>Thus far we have seen that the second World War was fought on the air and on the land. Now I ’d like to turn out attention to the war on the sea. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Transitions (examples) <ul><li>Before I conclude my speech, are there any questions? </li></ul>
  24. 24. Conclusion
  25. 25. Conclusion <ul><li>Summary of major points </li></ul><ul><li>Clincher </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Last line of the speech, make it memorable… but NOT FLUFF! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ That’s it” or “I’m done” are not good clinchers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A good technique is to tie your clincher back to your attention-getting introductory statement </li></ul></ul>