Endocrine System


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These are just some basic information about the Endocrine System.

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Endocrine System

  1. 1. THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM  Is in charge of body processes that happen slowly, such as cell growth.  It is separated to the nervous system, they often work together to help the body function properly.  Is a system of glands involving the release of extra-cellular signaling molecules known as hormones.  Is instrumental in regulating metabolism, growth, development, puberty, tissue function and also plays a part in determining mood.
  2. 2. FUNCTIONS OF ENDOCRINE  Is to secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream to target cells designed to receive its message.  Hormones are chemical substances that affect the activity of another part of the body (target site)  It serves as messengers, controlling and coordinating activities throughout the body
  3. 3. GLAND  It is a group of cells that produces and secretes, or gives off chemicals  It selects and removes materials from the blood, processes them and secretes the finished chemical product for use somewhere in the body
  4. 4. ENDOCRINE GLANDS  Are ductless glands that release hormones directly into the blood  Are also parts of other body systems 1. The Pineal Gland 2. The Hypothalamus 3. The Pituitary Gland 4. The Thyroid and Parathyroid Gland 5. The Thymus Gland 6. The Adrenal Gland 7. The Pancreas 8. The Gonads (Ovary and Testes)
  5. 5. PROBLEMS WITH THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM  Too much or too little of any hormone can be harmful  Controlling the production of or replacing specific hormones can treat many endocrine disorders: 1. ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY: decreased function of the adrenal cortex & the consequent underproduction of adrenal corticosteroid hormones. Symptoms- weakness, fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, dehydration and skin changes.
  6. 6. 2. CUSHING SYNDROME: excessive amounts of glucocorticoid hormones in the body. Symptoms- may take years to develop and include obesity, growth failure, muscle weakness, easy bruising of the skin, acne, high blood pressure and psychological changes. 3. TYPE 1 DIABETES: when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin, it is previously known as juvenile diabetes. Symptoms- excessive thirst, hunger, urination, and weight loss. It can cause long-term complications, including kidney problems, nerve damage, blindness and early coronary heart disease and stroke.
  7. 7. 4. TYPE 2 DIABETES: the body is unable to respond to insulin normally. The symptoms and possible complications of type 2 diabetes are basically the same as those of type 1. 5. GROWTH HORMONE PROBLEMS: too much growth hormone in children will make their bones and other body parts grow excessively, resulting in gigantism. This rare condition is usually caused by a pituitary tumor and can be treated by removing the tumor. In contrast, when the pituitary gland fails to produce adequate amounts of growth hormone, a child’s growth in height is impaired.
  8. 8. 6. HYPERTHYROIDISM: is a condition in which the levels of thyroid hormones in the blood are excessively high. Symptoms- weight loss, nervousness, tremors, excessive sweating, increased heart rate and blood pressure, protruding eyes, and goiter. 7. HYPOTHYROIDISM: is when the levels of thyroid hormones in the blood are abnormally low. Symptoms- slows body processes and may lead to fatigue, a slow heart rate, dry skin, weight gain, constipation. 8. PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY: body changes associated with puberty may occur at an abnormally young age in some kids if the pituitary hormones rise prematurely.
  9. 9. THYMUS GLAND  Is positioned in the upper part of the chest cavity, directly behind the sternum  It is pinkish grey in color and blends with the surrounding color and age.  It’s role is to process lymphocytes which are white blood cells that travel to the body through the bloodstream.  They stop at lymph nodes to ensure everything us working properly, and if not, it is believed that they jump into action o fix any tissues.
  10. 10. THE PANCREAS  Has 2 important hormones, insulin and glucagon.  It serves as a ducted gland, secreting digestive enzymes into the small intestine.  It serves as a ductless gland in the Islets of Langerhans that secrete insulin and glucagon.
  11. 11. PINEAL GLAND  Lies on the upper surface of the midbrain  Secretes the hormone melatonin, a modified amino acid that may help regulate the wake-sleep cycle.  Contains light-sensitive cells or has nervous connections from the eyes  Melatonin production is a link between a biological clock (sleeping) and daily or seasonal activities, such as
  12. 12. HYPOTHALAMUS  A collection of specialized cells that is located in the lower central part of the brain  The primary link between the endocrine and nervous systems  Relays information sensed by the brain (such as environmental, temperature, light exposure, patterns and feelings) to the pituitary gland
  13. 13. PITUITARY GLAND  Produces chemicals that either stimulate or suppress hormone secretions  Located at the base of the brain just beneath the hypothalamus  Most important part of endocrine system  Often called the “master gland”  It is divided into 2 parts: anterior lobe & posterior lobe.
  14. 14. ANTERIOR LOBE  Regulates the activity of the thyroid, adrenals and reproductive glands  Is the most active part secreting at least 6 distinct hormones, all are proteins 1. Growth Hormone – which stimulates the growth of bone and other body tissues and plays a role in the body’s handling of nutrients and minerals. 2. Prolactin – which activates milk production in women who are breastfeeding 3. Thyrotropin – which stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones
  15. 15. 2. Corticotropin – which stimulates the adrenal gland to produce certain hormones 3. Endorphins – chemicals that act on nervous system to reduce sensitivity to pain 4. Gonadotropins – controls the ovulation and the menstrual cycle in women.
  16. 16. POSTERIOR LOBE  Releases antidiuretic hormone, which helps control body water balance through its effect on the kidneys and urine output; and oxytocin which triggers the contractions of the uterus that occur during labor.  Develops as an out- pocketing of the lower surface of the brain.
  17. 17. THYROID GLAND  It is located in the front part of the lower neck  Shaped like a bow tie or butterfly and produces the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine. These hormones control the rate at which cells burn fuels from food to produce energy  Also play a key role in bone growth and the development of the brain & nervous system in children.  The production & release of thyroid hormones is controlled by thyrotropin which is secreted by the pituitary gland..
  18. 18. PARATHYROID GLAND  Attached to the thyroid gland  4 tiny glands that functions together  Releases parathyroid hormone (parathormone(PTH)), which regulates the level of calcium in the blood with the help of calcitonin, which is produced in the thyroid  When it is enlarged or if tumors grow in them, an excess of PTH is secreted. Defects in skeletal system may be observed
  19. 19. ADRENAL GLANDS  Are pair of glands that sit on top of kidneys.  It has 2 parts (medulla & cortex); each of which produces a set of hormones and has a different function ◦ Medulla produces catecholamines, such as epinephrine. Also called adrenaline, epinephrine increases blood pressure & heart rate when the body experiences stress. ◦ Cortex produces hormones called corticosteriods that influence or regulate salt and water balance in the body, the body’s response to stress, metabolism, the immune system and sexual development and function.
  20. 20. THE GONADS  Are the main source of sex hormones  These hormones regulate body changes associated with sexual development  In males, they are located in the scrotum. Male gonads or testes, secrete hormones called androgens, the most important of which is testosterone. The female gonads or ovaries, produce eggs and secrete the female hormones estrogen and progesterone.