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The endocrine system


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The endocrine system

  1. 1. THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Its Parts and Functions
  2. 2. <ul><li>Nervous System - body control </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine System - body regulator </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is a GLAND ? <ul><li>It is an organ that develops a secretion which performs specific functions. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Endocrine System <ul><li>Is made up of ductless glands. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ductless ” means without tubes </li></ul>
  5. 5. HORMONES <ul><li>Comes from the Greek word which means “ to arouse ” </li></ul><ul><li>Are chemical messengers formed from substances taken from the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>They circulate throughout the body & exert specific effects on tissues, organs or other glands located some distance away from the cells that secrete them. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Our body needs a certain hormone at one time , but not at all times. </li></ul><ul><li>(ex. Fireman’s adrenaline rush) </li></ul><ul><li>Your endocrine glands does not release hormones continuously. There are signals within the body that tell each gland to secrete hormones. There are also some signals that tell the gland to stop. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Pituitary Gland <ul><li>LOCATION: found at the base of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIPTION: called the “master gland” because it controls most of the other endocrine glands. </li></ul>
  8. 10. The pituitary gland has two lobes: The Anterior and Posterior
  9. 11. Hormones Released by the Anterior Pituitary HORMONE TARGET TISSUES FUNCTION 1. Growth Hormone (GH) Most tissues Stimulates cell division & growth of the muscles and bones 2. Thyroid- Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Thyroid Gland Increases the secretion of Thyroxine 3. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Adernal Cortex Increases the secretion of the medulla 4. Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Ovaries/Testis Promotes ovulation & progesterone production 5. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Follicles in ovary Seminiferous Tubules in Testis Promotes follicle maturation & estrogen secretion in ovary ; sperm cell production in testis 6. Prolactin Ovary & Mammary Gland in females, testis in males Stimulates milk production & prolongs progesterone secretion following ovulation & during pregnancy
  10. 12. Hormones Secreted by the Posterior Pituitary HORMONE TARGET TISSUES FUNCTION <ul><li>Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) </li></ul>Kidney Increases water reabsorption (less H 2 O) is lost as urine 2. Oxytocin -Uterus -Mammary Gland -Increases uterine contractions ­-increases milk “let-down” from mammary glands
  11. 13. Pineal Glands <ul><li>LOCATION: found near the base of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIPTION: outgrowth of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>HORMONE SECRETED: </li></ul><ul><li>Melatonin -regulates the body’s day & night cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>TARGET TISSUES – at least the hypothalamus </li></ul>
  12. 15. Thyroid Gland <ul><li>LOCATION: at the base of the neck (just below the larynx </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIPTION: soft, brownish-red organ shaped like a butterfly. </li></ul><ul><li>HORMONES SECRETED: </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroxine -increases metabolic rates, essential for the normal process of growth & maturation . </li></ul><ul><li>Calcitonin -decreases the rate of bone breakdown. </li></ul><ul><li>TARGET TISSUES – </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroxine - most tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Calcitonin – primarily bone </li></ul>
  13. 17. Parathyroid Gland <ul><li>LOCATION: attached to the back of the thyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIPTION: 2 pairs of pea-sized glands </li></ul><ul><li>HORMONE SECRETED: </li></ul><ul><li>Parathormone(Parathyroid Hormone) -helps control the level of calcium in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>TARGET TISSUES – bone & kidney </li></ul>
  14. 19. Thymus Glands <ul><li>LOCATION: located in the upper part of the chest, below the neck </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIPTION: consists of 2 lobes </li></ul><ul><li>HORMONE SECRETED: </li></ul><ul><li>Thymosin -promotes immune system development & function </li></ul><ul><li>TARGET TISSUES – immune tissues </li></ul>
  15. 21. Adrenal Glands <ul><li>LOCATION: found above the kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIPTION: cone-shaped glands </li></ul><ul><li>HORMONE SECRETED: </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenaline (Epinephrine) -also called “the emergency hormone”. It prepares the body for physical activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Cortisol(Glucocorticoids) -increase fat & protein breakdown </li></ul><ul><li>TISSUES – immune tissues </li></ul>
  16. 23. Pancreatic Glands <ul><li>LOCATION: lies behind the stomach </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIPTION: elongated & tapers at one end </li></ul><ul><li>HORMONE SECRETED: </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin -lowers blood sugar level </li></ul><ul><li>Glucagon -raises blood sugar level </li></ul><ul><li>TARGET TISSUES – </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin -liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Glucagon -liver </li></ul>
  17. 26. Ovaries <ul><li>LOCATION: located on one side of the uterus </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIPTION: pair of glands that functions to produce egg cells/ova. </li></ul><ul><li>HORMONE SECRETED: </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogen -stimulate the dev’t of secondary female sex characteristics (pubic hair, enlargement of breasts, etc). It is also responsible for the growth & dev’t of the external genitalia structure </li></ul><ul><li>Progesterone -it promotes growth of the uterine lining.Responsible also for sexual behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>TARGET TISSUES – </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogen -most tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Progesterone -most tissues </li></ul>
  18. 28. Testes <ul><li>LOCATION: near the penis </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIPTION: pair of glands that functions to produce sperm cells. </li></ul><ul><li>HORMONE SECRETED: </li></ul><ul><li>Testosterone -Responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics (pubic hair, growth of beard, changes in voice quality, etc.). It also aids in sperm cell production. </li></ul><ul><li>TARGET TISSUES – </li></ul><ul><li>Testosterone -most tissues </li></ul>
  19. 30. Summary <ul><li>Some endocrine glands perform only hormonal functions. Others are mixed glands. They produce hormones and perform other functions as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Each part of the endocrine system produces different hormones that affect other parts of the body. </li></ul>
  20. 31. Quiz <ul><li>Write TRUE if the statement is true . If the statement is FALSE, change the underlined word or phrase to make it true. </li></ul><ul><li>______1. The parts of the endocrine system are not connected to one another. </li></ul><ul><li>______2. Endocrine glands are ductless glands. </li></ul><ul><li>______3. The endocrine system controls the body through nerve impulses . </li></ul><ul><li>______4. Oversecretion of the growth hormone causes dwarfism . </li></ul><ul><li>______5. Insulin lowers the amount of calcium in the blood. </li></ul>
  21. 32. <ul><li>______6. When blood sugar level is low, glucagon raises it. </li></ul><ul><li>______7. The testes produces estrogen . </li></ul><ul><li>______8. The hormone that stimulates the body for fight or flight is thymosin. </li></ul><ul><li>______9. The body’s biological clock is stimulated by melatonin produced by the pineal gland. </li></ul><ul><li>______10. The menstrual cycle in females is stimulated by testosterone and progesterone. </li></ul>
  22. 33. ASSIGNMENT <ul><li>Research for pictures of people who have DISORDERS of Endocrine System. Name the disorder and paste it on your notebook. </li></ul>