IMPACT OF COAL MINING ON LAND
USE/LAND COVER USING REMOTE
SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES
• LITERATURE REVIEW
• CASE STUDIES
• Land use refers to man’s activities and the various
uses which are carried on land.
• Land covers refers to natural vegetation, water
bodies, rock/soil, artificial cover, and others noticed
to the land.
• Land cover reflects the biophysical state of the earth’s
surface and immediate subsurface.
• Rapid growth of mining activities can also be
attributed as one of the reasons for decrease and
degradation of land
• Mining of coal both surface and subsurface causes
• It causes wide spread landscape destruction.
IMPACT ON LANDUSE/LANDCOVER
• The mining of natural resources is invariably
associated with land use and land cover changes
• Due to mining large pits are left over
• Large amounts of overburden material excavated
during mining is dumped in the vicinity of the mine
• Flow of silt from overburden dumps causes
degradation of land and disruption of water flow.
• Degradation of forests leads to extensive damage and
loss to the forest ecosystem and wildlife habitat.
• The overburden of coal mines when dumped in
unminned areas creates mine spoils affecting the
USE OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS
• The use of remote sensing coupled with geographic
information systems (GIS) provide
1)The most accurate means of measuring extent of
2)Pattern of changes over time
• It offers the most economical means of assessing
• Helps in generation of suitable action plans.
• Tuhin K Mukherjee et.al (1997) have attempted to
map the land use/land cover information using remote
sensing data to find out the changes in land use pattern
in the area of in and around Singrauli Coalfield, Uttar
Pradesh, India, using PAMAP G1S package.
• Imran Khan et.al (2012) the main objective of their
study is to understand land use/land cover change in
time and space, in the coal mining activities using
multi temporal remote sensing data, by which 15 land
use/land cover categories were identified.
• Akshay Kumar and Arvind Chandra Pandey (2013)
Investigated the spatio-temporal land use/land cover changes
in South Karanpura coal mine and surrounding areas during
the period from 1992 to 2009,and they observed that the
majority of changes are identified over agricultural land, coal
mining area and forests.
• Alkan . M et.al (2013) analysed temporal and spatial changes
by Maximum Likelihood Classification technique and the
results were represented in classes of open area, forest,
agricultural, water, mining, urban and pollution in the sea, in
the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey which are active coal
mining and iron fabric areas.
• Sarma .K et.al (2013) analysed the process of human-induced
landscape transformation in the coal mined affected areas by
interpreting temporal remote sensing data using geographic
information system and they found out the change in different
land use/land cover pattern in mine affected areas and it helped
to delineate the vegetation areas under risk due to mining
Spatio-temporal land cover dynamics in open cast
coal mine area of Singrauli, M.P., India
• Authors :- Imran Khan, Akram Javed
• OBJECTIVE: The main objective of their study is to
understand land use/land cover change in time and
space, with special references to the coal mining
activities using multi temporal remote sensing data
• Journal :-Journal of Geographic Information System,
2012, 4, 521-529
• Study Area :- Lies partly in Singrauli district of
Madhya Pradesh and partly in Sonebhadra district of
• Data Used :-
• Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) LISS II geo-coded False
Colour Composite (FCC)
• IRS LISS III (FCC) of 4th May 2010 were used to analyze the
land use/land cover pattern.
• The survey of India topographic sheets No 63L/12 scale
1:50,000 of 1976 for preparation of base map.
• The climate data from Indian Meteorological Department
• Secondary data obtained from (www.ncl.nic.in,
www.ntpc.com, www.singrauli.nic.in) and district statistical
handbook have been also used.
Using map-to-map comparison, images are classified and then
maps are generated to compare LULC changes
The images of both the years (1993 and 2010) were registered
with topographical map to minimize geometric errors.
Land cover were categorized in 15 classes
These categories were identified on the basis of visual
interpretation of satellite data
Digitization of maps were done using ArcMap 10 software for
land use analysis.
Area statistics of each land use/land cover category of 1993
and 2010 were generated in ArcMap 10
• Results and Discussion
• The study revealed that mining and industrial
activities around Singrauli coal field are the main
forces responsible for land use/land cover change.
• Increase in mining activity has resulted in
degradation of dense forest, cultivated land and
water bodies in the area.
• Settlement area has increases due to population
IRS LISS II (1993) IRS P6 LISS III (2010).
Fig3 : comparision maps 19
Evaluating impact of coal mining activity on
landuse/landcover using temporal satellite images in
South Karanpura coalfields and environs, Jharkhand
• Authors:- Akshay Kumar and Arvind Chandra
• OBJECTIVE: Investigate the spatio-temporal land
use/land cover changes in South Karanpura coal mine
and surrounding areas during the period from 1992 to
• Journal :-International Journal of Advanced Remote
Sensing and GIS
• Study Area :- The study area is situated in Patratu
region located in Ramgarh/Hazaribagh districts of
• Data Used :-
• LISS–III data of 2004 and 2009 from National
Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC) Hyderabad.
• ETM+ data for the year 1992 from U.S. Geological
Survey (USGS) website (http://glovis.usgs.gov).
• Topographical map was obtained from Survey of
• ERDAS imagine version 9.2
• Map-to-map comparison was used for land use/ land
cover change detection.
• Temporal satellite images were used for the
preparation of land use/land cover maps.
• Visual interpretation and image analysis techniques
were used to monitor land use land cover change.
• LU/LC categorization was done.
• The five level-I categories were classified.
• The level-II classification were categorized in 17
level-I LU/LC were
Table 3 Details
of Land use
area in 1992,
• The remote sensing techniques proved its potential in
generating accurate spatio- temporal area statistics of LU/LC
and economical way.
• Total destruction of forest cover was noted in certain coal
• There is an urgent need to increase the forest cover of the area
to sustain ecological balance in the region.
• Appropriate rehabilitation measures using those plants which
may grow need to be taken up in the mine-affected areas .
• The findings of such studies could be useful while
formulating the Management Plan for the districts.
• Akshay Kumar and Arvind Chandra Pandey , Department of Remote sensing, Birla
institute of technology, Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India , Evaluating impact of coal
mining activity on landuse/landcover using temporal satellite images in south
karanpura coalfields and environs, Jharkhand State, India, Cloud Publications
International Journal of Advanced Remote Sensing and GIS 2013, Volume 2, Issue
1, pp. 183-197, Article ID Tech-110 .
• Alkan.M & Oruc.M & Yildirim .Y & Seker. D. Z & Jacobsen.K , Monitoring
Spatial and Temporal Land Use/Cover Changes; a Case Study in Western Black Sea
Region of Turkey J Indian Soc Remote Sens (September 2013) 41(3):587–596
• Imran Khan and Akram Javed a paper on Spatio-Temporal Land Cover Dynamics
in Open Cast Coal Mine Area of Singrauli, M.P., India in the Journal of Geographic
Information System, 2012, 4, 521-529
• Sarma, K and Kushwaha. S.P.S , Coal mining impact on land use/land cover in
Jaintia hills district of Meghalaya, India using remote sensing and GIS technique
• Singh N P , Tuhin K Mukherjee and Shrivastava B B P , Monitoring the impact of
coal mining and thermal power industry on landuse pattern in and around Singrauli
coalfield using remote sensing data and GIS Journal of the Indian Society of
Remote Sensing Vol. 25, No. I, 1997 2828