Aya Sofya Hagia Sophia


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A tour in the 1st masterpiece of Byzantine architecture; Aya Sofya/ Hagia Sophia

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Aya Sofya Hagia Sophia

  1. 1. By Zeynep Cancelik
  2. 2. Architecture
  3. 3. The Great Roman Empire
  4. 4. Art History
  5. 5. Istanbul
  6. 6. The Church of Holly Wisdom God
  8. 8. <ul><li>Former church, </li></ul><ul><li>later a mosque , </li></ul><ul><li>now a museum in Istanbul, Turkey. </li></ul>THE TOUR IS ABOUT…
  9. 11. Emperor Justinian <ul><li>Desire to be ever lasting </li></ul><ul><li>Year 532 </li></ul><ul><li>Architects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physicist Isidore of Miletus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mathematician Anthemius of Tralles </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Interesting Facts About the Construction <ul><li>Material from all over the empire; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hellenistic columns from the temple of Artemis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>large stones were brought from far-away quarries: porphyry from Egypt, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>green marble from Thessaly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>black stone from the Bosporus region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>yellow stone from Syria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>10,000 people </li></ul><ul><li>Interior height of 55.6 m </li></ul><ul><li>Completed in 562. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Architecture <ul><li>1 st masterpiece of Byzantine architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Remained the largest cathedral for 1,000 years </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural achievement of late antiquity </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced; the Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Muslim </li></ul>
  12. 14. The Groundplan
  13. 16. The Dome, exterior view
  14. 17. The Dome, interior view
  15. 18. Central Dome <ul><li>Dia: 31.24 m </li></ul><ul><li>Height from floor level of 55.6 m </li></ul><ul><li>Seems rendered weightless by the unbroken arcade of 40 arched windows </li></ul>
  16. 19. 56.5 m
  17. 20. Dome <ul><li>Supported by pendentives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>never been used before </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aesthetic quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>circular base of a dome on a rectangular base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allow the weight of the dome to flow downward. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><ul><li>Between them the dome seems to float upon four great arches. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>Windows: help flood the colorful interior with light. </li></ul>
  20. 25. A Section Of The Architecture <ul><li>extended by half domes carried on smaller semi-domed </li></ul><ul><li>a hierarchy of unexampled in antiquity </li></ul>
  21. 27. The largest columns <ul><li>19 or 20 meters tall </li></ul><ul><li>Dia:1.5 meters diameter </li></ul><ul><li>Made out of granite </li></ul><ul><li>Weighing well over 70 tons </li></ul>
  22. 28. One of the mighty stone columns with metal clasps
  23. 29. Imperial Gate
  24. 30. Marble Jar From Pergamon The Reign Of Sultan Murad 3 rd Originally from the Hellenistic period carved from a single block of marble.
  25. 31. 19th Century marker of the tomb of Enrico Dandolo, the Doge of Venice who commanded the Sack of Constantinople in 1204
  26. 32. Upper Gallery <ul><li>an area for the empress and her court. </li></ul><ul><li>laid out in a horseshoe shape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>encloses the nave until the apse. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Several mosaics are preserved </li></ul>
  27. 33. Interior view from the upper gallery
  28. 36. Loge of the Empress <ul><li>Located in centre of the upper gallery </li></ul><ul><li>The empress and the court-ladies would watch the proceedings down below. </li></ul>
  29. 38. Decorations <ul><li>the interior decorations consisted of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>abstract designs of the marble slabs on the walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mosaics on the curving vaults. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crosses,angels, saints, patriarchs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 39. Marble Door <ul><li>Used by the participants in synods </li></ul><ul><li>Entered & left the meeting chamber through this door </li></ul>
  31. 40. Capital with monogramm
  32. 41. Mosaics <ul><li>Close-up view of a mosaic </li></ul>Mosaic cubes
  33. 42. Mosaics <ul><li>Depicted : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virgin Mother, Jesus, Saints, or emperors and empresses. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sack of Constantinople 1204 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin Crusaders vandalization </li></ul></ul>
  34. 45. The Virgin and Child <ul><li>1 st post-iconoclastic mosaics. </li></ul>
  35. 47. <ul><li>&quot; Peace be with you. I am the light of the world&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Archangel Gabriel (founder of the church and Mother Mary. </li></ul><ul><li>Express the timeless power bestowed by Christ on the Byzantine emperors. </li></ul>
  36. 48. <ul><li>Emperor Constantine: a model of the city </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Great emperor Constantine of the Saints&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor Justinian I, offering a model of the Hagia Sophia. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; Mētēr &quot; and &quot; Theou &quot;, meaning &quot;Mother of God&quot;. </li></ul>
  37. 49. <ul><li>Constantine IX Monomachus and Empress Zoe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>offering a purse/scroll, as symbol of the donation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>&quot;Constantine, pious emperor in Christ the God, king of the Romans, Monomachus&quot;. </li></ul>
  38. 51. Conversion to the a Mosque <ul><li>Conquered in 1453 </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthened with structural supports by the great Ottoman architect Sinan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one of the world's first earthquake engineer </li></ul></ul>
  39. 52. Names of Allah& Prophet Muhammed
  40. 53. Built a new Minaret
  41. 54. The Mihrab located in the apse where the altar used to stand, pointing towards Mecca
  42. 56. Loggia for a muezzin
  43. 57. A Minbar Decorated With Marble
  44. 58. Transformation into a kullive: a social complex <ul><ul><li>added a medrese (Koranic school) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a soup kitchen (for the poor) and a library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a fountain for ritual ablutions ( Şadirvan) </li></ul></ul>
  45. 59. Museum <ul><li>(1935) Mustafa Kemal Ataturk transformation </li></ul><ul><li>The carpets were removed; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The marble floor decorations reappeared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The white plaster covering the mosaics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>removed by expert restorers. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 60. 20th-century Restoration <ul><li>The interior of the dome </li></ul><ul><li>BALANCE between </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian iconographic mosaics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic calligraphy </li></ul></ul>
  47. 61. <ul><li>SINAN </li></ul><ul><li>Süleymaniye </li></ul><ul><li>Istanbul, 1550-1557 </li></ul>
  48. 62. Resources <ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hagia_Sophia </li></ul></ul>
  49. 63. Suggestions <ul><li>http://mosaicartsource.wordpress.com/category/mosaic/mosaic-resources/mosaic-travel/hagia-sophia </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GILOelsqghg&feature=related </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F_Mp6cxkCwo&feature=related </li></ul>