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State of the
.NET Performance
Adam Sitnik
About myself
Work:
• Energy trading (.NET Core)
• Energy Production Optimization
• Balance Settlement
• Critical Events Detection
Open Source:
• BenchmarkDotNet (.NET Core)
• Core CLR (Spans)
• corefxlab (optimizations)
• & more
2
Agenda
• C# 7
• ValueTuple
• ref returns and locals
• .NET Core
• Span (Slice)
• ArrayPool
• ValueTask
• Pipelines (Channels)
• Unsafe
• Supported frameworks
• Questions
3
ValueTuple: sample
4
(double min, double max, double avg, double sum) GetStats(double[] numbers)
{
double min = double.MaxValue, max = double.MinValue, sum = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < numbers.Length; i++)
{
if (numbers[i] > max) max = numbers[i];
if (numbers[i] < min) min = numbers[i];
sum += numbers[i];
}
double avg = numbers.Length != 0 ? sum / numbers.Length : double.NaN;
return (min, max, avg, sum);
}
ValueTuple
5
• Tuple which is Value Type:
• less space
• better data locality
• NO GC
• deterministic deallocation for stack-allocated Value Types
You need reference to System.ValueTuple.dll
Value Types: the disadvantages?!
• Are expensive to copy!
• You need to study CIL and profiles to find out when it happens!
int result = readOnlyStructField.Method();
is converted to:
var copy = readOnlyStruct;
int result = copy.Method();
6
ref returns and locals: sample
7
ref int Max(
ref int first, ref int second, ref int third)
{
ref int max = ref first;
if (first < second) max = second;
if (second < third) max = third;
return ref max;
}
ref locals: Benchmarks: initialization
public void ByValue() {
for (int i = 0; i < array.Length; i++) {
BigStruct value = array[i];
value.Int1 = 1;
value.Int2 = 2;
value.Int3 = 3;
value.Int4 = 4;
value.Int5 = 5;
array[i] = value;
}
}
public void ByReference(){
for (int i = 0; i < array.Length; i++) {
ref BigStruct reference = ref array[i];
reference.Int1 = 1;
reference.Int2 = 2;
reference.Int3 = 3;
reference.Int4 = 4;
reference.Int5 = 5;
}
}
8
struct BigStruct { public int Int1, Int2, Int3, Int4, Int5; }
Benchmark
results
9
How can old JITs
support it?
What about unsafe?!
void ByReferenceUnsafeExplicitExtraMethod()
{
unsafe
{
fixed (BigStruct* pinned = array)
{
for (int i = 0;
i < array.Length; i++)
{
Init(&pinned[i]);
}
}
}
}
unsafe void Init(BigStruct* pointer)
{
(*pointer).Int1 = 1;
(*pointer).Int2 = 2;
(*pointer).Int3 = 3;
(*pointer).Int4 = 4;
(*pointer).Int5 = 5;
}
10
Safe vs Unsafe with RyuJit
Method Jit Mean Scaled
ByValue RyuJit 742.4910 ns 4.56
ByReference RyuJit 162.8368 ns 1.00
ByReferenceOldWay RyuJit 170.0255 ns 1.04
ByReferenceUnsafeImplicit RyuJit 201.4584 ns 1.24
ByReferenceUnsafeExplicit RyuJit 200.7698 ns 1.23
ByReferenceUnsafeExplicitExtraMethod RyuJit 171.3973 ns 1.05
11
Executing Unsafe code requires full trust. It can be a „no go” for Cloud!
No need for pinning!
Stackalloc is
the fastest
way to
allocate small
chunks of
memory in
.NET
12
13
Allocation Deallocation Usage
Managed < 85 KB Very cheap
(NextObjPtr)
• non-deterministic
• Expensive!
• GC: stop the world • Very easy
• Common
• Safe
Managed: LOH Acceptable cost
(free list
management)
The same as above &:
• Fragmentation (LOH)
• LOH = Gen 2 = Full GC
Native:
Stackalloc
Very cheap • Deterministic
• Very cheap • Unsafe
• Not
common
• Limited
Native: Marshal Acceptable cost
(free list
management)
• Deterministic
• Very cheap
• On demand
Span (Slice)
It provides a uniform API for working with:
• Unmanaged memory buffers
• Arrays and subarrays
• Strings and substrings
It’s fully type-safe and memory-safe.
Almost no overhead.
It’s a Value Type.
15
Supports any memory
byte* pointerToStack = stackalloc byte[256];
Span<byte> stackMemory = new Span<byte>(pointerToStack, 256);
Span<byte> stackMemory = stackalloc byte[256]; // C# 8.0?
IntPtr unmanagedHandle = Marshal.AllocHGlobal(256);
Span<byte> unmanaged = new Span<byte>(unmanagedHandle.ToPointer(), 256);
Span<byte> unmanaged = Marshal.AllocHGlobal(256); // C# 8.0?
char[] array = new char[] { 'D', 'O', 'T', ' ', 'N', 'E', 'X', 'T' };
Span<char> fromArray = new Span<char>(array);
16
Single method in the API is enough
unsafe void Handle(byte* buffer, int length) { }
void Handle(byte[] buffer) { }
void Handle(Span<T> buffer) { }
17
Uniform access to any kind of contiguous memory
public void Enumeration<T>(Span<T> buffer)
{
for (int i = 0; i < buffer.Length; i++)
{
Use(buffer[i]);
}
foreach (T item in buffer)
{
Use(item);
}
}
18
Span for new runtimes
• CoreCLR 1.2
• CLR 4.6.3? 4.6.4?
19
Span for existing runtimes
20
.NET 4.5+, .NET Standard 1.0
Make subslices without allocations
ReadOnlySpan<char> subslice =
".NET Core: Performance Storm!"
.Slice(start: 0, length: 9);
21
22
Subslice
benchmarks
Possible usages
• Formatting
• Base64/Unicode encoding
• HTTP Parsing/Writing
• Compression/Decompression
• XML/JSON parsing/writing
• Binary reading/writing
• & more!!
23
GC Pauses
24
.NET Managed Heap*
25
G
e
n
0
G
e
n
1
Gen 2 LOH
* - simplified, Workstation mode or view per logical processor in Server mode
FULL GC
ArrayPool
• System.Buffers package
• Provides a resource pool that enables reusing instances of T[]
• Arrays allocated on managed heap with new operator
• The default maximum length of each array in the pool is 2^20
(1024*1024 = 1 048 576)
26
ArrayPool: Sample
var pool = ArrayPool<byte>.Shared;
byte[] buffer = pool.Rent(minLength);
try
{
Use(buffer);
}
finally
{
pool.Return(buffer);
}
27
10 KB
29
1 MB
30
1 MB
31
Method Median StdDev Scaled Delta Gen 0 Gen 1 Gen 2
stackalloc 51,689.8611 ns 3,343.26 ns 3.76 275.9% - - -
New 13,750.9839 ns 974.0229 ns 1.00 Baseline - - 23 935
NativePool.Shared 186.1173 ns 12.6833 ns 0.01 -98.6% - - -
ArrayPool.Shared 61.4539 ns 3.4862 ns 0.00 -99.6% - - -
SizeAware 54.5332 ns 2.1022 ns 0.00 -99.6% - - -
32
10 MB
Async on hotpath
Task<T> SmallMethodExecutedVeryVeryOften()
{
if(CanRunSynchronously()) // true most of the time
{
return Task.FromResult(ExecuteSynchronous());
}
return ExecuteAsync();
}
33
Async on hotpath: consuming method
while (true)
{
var result = await SmallMethodExecutedVeryVeryOften();
Use(result);
}
34
ValueTask<T>: the idea
• Wraps a TResult and Task<TResult>, only one of which is used
• It should not replace Task, but help in some scenarios when:
• method returns Task<TResult>
• and very frequently returns synchronously (fast)
• and is invoked so often that cost of allocation of
Task<TResult> is a problem
37
Sample implementation of ValueTask usage
ValueTask<T> SampleUsage()
{
if (IsFastSynchronousExecutionPossible())
{
return ExecuteSynchronous(); // INLINEABLE!!!
}
return new ValueTask<T>(ExecuteAsync());
}
T ExecuteSynchronous() { }
Task<T> ExecuteAsync() { }
38
How to consume ValueTask
var valueTask = SampleUsage(); // INLINEABLE
if(valueTask.IsCompleted)
{
Use(valueTask.Result);
}
else
{
Use(await valueTask.AsTask()); // NO INLINING
}
39
ValueTask<T>: usage && gains
• Sample usage:
• Sockets (already used in ASP.NET Core)
• File Streams
• ADO.NET Data readers
• Gains:
• Less heap allocations
• Method inlining is possible!
• Facts
• Skynet 146ns for Task, 16ns for ValueTask
• Tech Empower (Plaintext) +2.6%
40
ValueTask
vs
Task:
Creation
41
Web Request
42
Pipelines (Channels)
• „ high performance zero-copy buffer-pool-managed asynchronous message
pipes” – Marc Gravell from Stack Overflow
• Pipeline pushes data to you rather than having you pull.
• When writing to a pipeline, the caller allocates memory from the pipeline
directly.
• No new memory is allocated. Only pooled memory buffer is used.
43
Simplified Flow
Asks for a memory buffer.
Writes the data to the buffer.
Returns pooled memory.
Starts awaiting for the data.
Reads the data from buffer.
Uses low-allocating Span based
apis (parsing etc).
Returns the memory to the pool
when done.
44
System.Runtime.CompilerServices.Unsafe
T As<T>(object o) where T : class;
void* AsPointer<T>(ref T value);
void Copy<T>(void* destination, ref T source);
void Copy<T>(ref T destination, void* source);
void CopyBlock(void* destination, void* source, uint byteCount);
void InitBlock(void* startAddress, byte value, uint byteCount);
T Read<T>(void* source);
int SizeOf<T>();
void Write<T>(void* destination, T value);
45
Supported frameworks
46
Package name .NET
Standard
.NET
Framework
Release Nuget feed
System.Slices 1.0 4.5 1.2? Clr/fxlab
System.Buffers 1.1 4.5.1 1.0 nuget.org
System.Threading.Task.Extensions 1.0 4.5 1.0 nuget.org
System.Runtime.CompilerServices.Unsafe 1.0 4.5 1.0 corefx
Questions?
Contact:
@SitnikAdam
Adam.Sitnik@gmail.com
You can find the benchmarks at
https://github.com/adamsitnik/DotNetCorePerformance
https://github.com/adamsitnik/CSharpSevenBenchmarks

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Adam Sitnik "State of the .NET Performance"

  • 1. State of the .NET Performance Adam Sitnik
  • 2. About myself Work: • Energy trading (.NET Core) • Energy Production Optimization • Balance Settlement • Critical Events Detection Open Source: • BenchmarkDotNet (.NET Core) • Core CLR (Spans) • corefxlab (optimizations) • & more 2
  • 3. Agenda • C# 7 • ValueTuple • ref returns and locals • .NET Core • Span (Slice) • ArrayPool • ValueTask • Pipelines (Channels) • Unsafe • Supported frameworks • Questions 3
  • 4. ValueTuple: sample 4 (double min, double max, double avg, double sum) GetStats(double[] numbers) { double min = double.MaxValue, max = double.MinValue, sum = 0; for (int i = 0; i < numbers.Length; i++) { if (numbers[i] > max) max = numbers[i]; if (numbers[i] < min) min = numbers[i]; sum += numbers[i]; } double avg = numbers.Length != 0 ? sum / numbers.Length : double.NaN; return (min, max, avg, sum); }
  • 5. ValueTuple 5 • Tuple which is Value Type: • less space • better data locality • NO GC • deterministic deallocation for stack-allocated Value Types You need reference to System.ValueTuple.dll
  • 6. Value Types: the disadvantages?! • Are expensive to copy! • You need to study CIL and profiles to find out when it happens! int result = readOnlyStructField.Method(); is converted to: var copy = readOnlyStruct; int result = copy.Method(); 6
  • 7. ref returns and locals: sample 7 ref int Max( ref int first, ref int second, ref int third) { ref int max = ref first; if (first < second) max = second; if (second < third) max = third; return ref max; }
  • 8. ref locals: Benchmarks: initialization public void ByValue() { for (int i = 0; i < array.Length; i++) { BigStruct value = array[i]; value.Int1 = 1; value.Int2 = 2; value.Int3 = 3; value.Int4 = 4; value.Int5 = 5; array[i] = value; } } public void ByReference(){ for (int i = 0; i < array.Length; i++) { ref BigStruct reference = ref array[i]; reference.Int1 = 1; reference.Int2 = 2; reference.Int3 = 3; reference.Int4 = 4; reference.Int5 = 5; } } 8 struct BigStruct { public int Int1, Int2, Int3, Int4, Int5; }
  • 10. What about unsafe?! void ByReferenceUnsafeExplicitExtraMethod() { unsafe { fixed (BigStruct* pinned = array) { for (int i = 0; i < array.Length; i++) { Init(&pinned[i]); } } } } unsafe void Init(BigStruct* pointer) { (*pointer).Int1 = 1; (*pointer).Int2 = 2; (*pointer).Int3 = 3; (*pointer).Int4 = 4; (*pointer).Int5 = 5; } 10
  • 11. Safe vs Unsafe with RyuJit Method Jit Mean Scaled ByValue RyuJit 742.4910 ns 4.56 ByReference RyuJit 162.8368 ns 1.00 ByReferenceOldWay RyuJit 170.0255 ns 1.04 ByReferenceUnsafeImplicit RyuJit 201.4584 ns 1.24 ByReferenceUnsafeExplicit RyuJit 200.7698 ns 1.23 ByReferenceUnsafeExplicitExtraMethod RyuJit 171.3973 ns 1.05 11 Executing Unsafe code requires full trust. It can be a „no go” for Cloud! No need for pinning!
  • 12. Stackalloc is the fastest way to allocate small chunks of memory in .NET 12
  • 13. 13 Allocation Deallocation Usage Managed < 85 KB Very cheap (NextObjPtr) • non-deterministic • Expensive! • GC: stop the world • Very easy • Common • Safe Managed: LOH Acceptable cost (free list management) The same as above &: • Fragmentation (LOH) • LOH = Gen 2 = Full GC Native: Stackalloc Very cheap • Deterministic • Very cheap • Unsafe • Not common • Limited Native: Marshal Acceptable cost (free list management) • Deterministic • Very cheap • On demand
  • 14. Span (Slice) It provides a uniform API for working with: • Unmanaged memory buffers • Arrays and subarrays • Strings and substrings It’s fully type-safe and memory-safe. Almost no overhead. It’s a Value Type. 15
  • 15. Supports any memory byte* pointerToStack = stackalloc byte[256]; Span<byte> stackMemory = new Span<byte>(pointerToStack, 256); Span<byte> stackMemory = stackalloc byte[256]; // C# 8.0? IntPtr unmanagedHandle = Marshal.AllocHGlobal(256); Span<byte> unmanaged = new Span<byte>(unmanagedHandle.ToPointer(), 256); Span<byte> unmanaged = Marshal.AllocHGlobal(256); // C# 8.0? char[] array = new char[] { 'D', 'O', 'T', ' ', 'N', 'E', 'X', 'T' }; Span<char> fromArray = new Span<char>(array); 16
  • 16. Single method in the API is enough unsafe void Handle(byte* buffer, int length) { } void Handle(byte[] buffer) { } void Handle(Span<T> buffer) { } 17
  • 17. Uniform access to any kind of contiguous memory public void Enumeration<T>(Span<T> buffer) { for (int i = 0; i < buffer.Length; i++) { Use(buffer[i]); } foreach (T item in buffer) { Use(item); } } 18
  • 18. Span for new runtimes • CoreCLR 1.2 • CLR 4.6.3? 4.6.4? 19
  • 19. Span for existing runtimes 20 .NET 4.5+, .NET Standard 1.0
  • 20. Make subslices without allocations ReadOnlySpan<char> subslice = ".NET Core: Performance Storm!" .Slice(start: 0, length: 9); 21
  • 22. Possible usages • Formatting • Base64/Unicode encoding • HTTP Parsing/Writing • Compression/Decompression • XML/JSON parsing/writing • Binary reading/writing • & more!! 23
  • 24. .NET Managed Heap* 25 G e n 0 G e n 1 Gen 2 LOH * - simplified, Workstation mode or view per logical processor in Server mode FULL GC
  • 25. ArrayPool • System.Buffers package • Provides a resource pool that enables reusing instances of T[] • Arrays allocated on managed heap with new operator • The default maximum length of each array in the pool is 2^20 (1024*1024 = 1 048 576) 26
  • 26. ArrayPool: Sample var pool = ArrayPool<byte>.Shared; byte[] buffer = pool.Rent(minLength); try { Use(buffer); } finally { pool.Return(buffer); } 27
  • 29. 1 MB 31 Method Median StdDev Scaled Delta Gen 0 Gen 1 Gen 2 stackalloc 51,689.8611 ns 3,343.26 ns 3.76 275.9% - - - New 13,750.9839 ns 974.0229 ns 1.00 Baseline - - 23 935 NativePool.Shared 186.1173 ns 12.6833 ns 0.01 -98.6% - - - ArrayPool.Shared 61.4539 ns 3.4862 ns 0.00 -99.6% - - - SizeAware 54.5332 ns 2.1022 ns 0.00 -99.6% - - -
  • 31. Async on hotpath Task<T> SmallMethodExecutedVeryVeryOften() { if(CanRunSynchronously()) // true most of the time { return Task.FromResult(ExecuteSynchronous()); } return ExecuteAsync(); } 33
  • 32. Async on hotpath: consuming method while (true) { var result = await SmallMethodExecutedVeryVeryOften(); Use(result); } 34
  • 33. ValueTask<T>: the idea • Wraps a TResult and Task<TResult>, only one of which is used • It should not replace Task, but help in some scenarios when: • method returns Task<TResult> • and very frequently returns synchronously (fast) • and is invoked so often that cost of allocation of Task<TResult> is a problem 37
  • 34. Sample implementation of ValueTask usage ValueTask<T> SampleUsage() { if (IsFastSynchronousExecutionPossible()) { return ExecuteSynchronous(); // INLINEABLE!!! } return new ValueTask<T>(ExecuteAsync()); } T ExecuteSynchronous() { } Task<T> ExecuteAsync() { } 38
  • 35. How to consume ValueTask var valueTask = SampleUsage(); // INLINEABLE if(valueTask.IsCompleted) { Use(valueTask.Result); } else { Use(await valueTask.AsTask()); // NO INLINING } 39
  • 36. ValueTask<T>: usage && gains • Sample usage: • Sockets (already used in ASP.NET Core) • File Streams • ADO.NET Data readers • Gains: • Less heap allocations • Method inlining is possible! • Facts • Skynet 146ns for Task, 16ns for ValueTask • Tech Empower (Plaintext) +2.6% 40
  • 39. Pipelines (Channels) • „ high performance zero-copy buffer-pool-managed asynchronous message pipes” – Marc Gravell from Stack Overflow • Pipeline pushes data to you rather than having you pull. • When writing to a pipeline, the caller allocates memory from the pipeline directly. • No new memory is allocated. Only pooled memory buffer is used. 43
  • 40. Simplified Flow Asks for a memory buffer. Writes the data to the buffer. Returns pooled memory. Starts awaiting for the data. Reads the data from buffer. Uses low-allocating Span based apis (parsing etc). Returns the memory to the pool when done. 44
  • 41. System.Runtime.CompilerServices.Unsafe T As<T>(object o) where T : class; void* AsPointer<T>(ref T value); void Copy<T>(void* destination, ref T source); void Copy<T>(ref T destination, void* source); void CopyBlock(void* destination, void* source, uint byteCount); void InitBlock(void* startAddress, byte value, uint byteCount); T Read<T>(void* source); int SizeOf<T>(); void Write<T>(void* destination, T value); 45
  • 42. Supported frameworks 46 Package name .NET Standard .NET Framework Release Nuget feed System.Slices 1.0 4.5 1.2? Clr/fxlab System.Buffers 1.1 4.5.1 1.0 nuget.org System.Threading.Task.Extensions 1.0 4.5 1.0 nuget.org System.Runtime.CompilerServices.Unsafe 1.0 4.5 1.0 corefx
  • 43. Questions? Contact: @SitnikAdam Adam.Sitnik@gmail.com You can find the benchmarks at https://github.com/adamsitnik/DotNetCorePerformance https://github.com/adamsitnik/CSharpSevenBenchmarks