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Aa report

belum resort aa report

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Aa report

  1. 1. Tropical Passive design strategies in Belum Rainforest Resort to achieve Thermal Comfort . 1 Asian Architecture (ARC 2234 / ARC60403) Project 1 : Case Study Tropical Passive design strategies in Belum Rainforest Resort to achieve Thermal Comfort . NAME : YUAN KHAI SHIEN STUDENT ID : 0314818 LECTURER : SHAHRIANNE MOHAMAD SHAH
  2. 2. Tropical Passive design strategies in Belum Rainforest Resort to achieve Thermal Comfort . 2 Table of Content Page 1. Abstract ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3-4 2. Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5-6 2.1 Overview of Passive Design ------------------------------------------------------- 7 2.2 Overview of Thermal Comfort ------------------------------------------------------- 8 3. Factors of passive design strategies to achieve thermal comfort -------------------------- 9 3.1 Material ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9-10 3.2 Orientation ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11 3.3 Type of shading device ---------------------------------------------------------------- 11-12 4. Natural ventilation -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13 5. Natural Vegetation --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14 6. Problem that occur when having shading device ------------------------------------ 15 7. Conclusion ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16
  3. 3. Tropical Passive design strategies in Belum Rainforest Resort to achieve Thermal Comfort . 3 Abstract Malaysia is a tropical climate country which almost experience hot and humid weather throughout the year. This is because Malaysia is sits along the equilibrium of the earth. The previous temperature of Malaysia was 27 Celcius, thus due to many effect such as global warming, temperature of Malaysia become higher than usual which maximum can reach 32 Celcius. Due to all this reason, and as a tropical climate country, proper passive design and shading device should install in the building in Malaysia to achieve thermal comfort. To enhance and increase the efficiency, literature reviews based on sources regarding passive design were conducted. The major thing that need to consider in passive design is the shading devices that used in the building. There are many different types of shading device such as egg crate, overhang roof and pitch roof. Belum Rainforest Resort considers three different phases and each of the phases has their own different kind of shading device to solve the solar radiation problem. For phase 1, natural elements timber and bamboo can see everywhere surrounded the whole opening and window of the building. Besides the main purpose, act as the shading device, these nature elements are also bring the aesthetic value to the whole building. Besides for phase 2, egg crate shading device can see at the opening and window for every zone. Architect also design mesh shelter to allow creeper to plant on it, prevent the sunlight to penetrate inside. The huge trees near the resort are also arranging base on the path. Tall and large span of trees provide good shelter and shading for the people. However for phase 3, which also call Villa, majority of the roof used in Belum Rainforest resort are gable roof to
  4. 4. Tropical Passive design strategies in Belum Rainforest Resort to achieve Thermal Comfort . 4 withstand the hot climate. Gable roof has been categories that it is one of the best heat insulators that could reduce heat radiation. In addition the gable roof has also build in overhang concept. Overhang roof’s purpose is to shade the exterior space for example balcony and the path outside the house. Besides of all these, architect of Belum Rainforest resort has also use nature ventilation such as cross ventilation to enhance the interior ventilation and achieve thermal comfort. Hence, it has come to a conclusion that both of these terms of passive design are useful for Belum resort to achieve thermal comfort. The architecture’s wise decision on choosing the passive design to enhance the sustainability of the building had a clear valid reason because of the advantages. By the way, Belum Rainforest resort has also shown man and nature can combine completely to achieve thermal comfort which makes provide a success architecture.
  5. 5. Tropical Passive design strategies in Belum Rainforest Resort to achieve Thermal Comfort . 5 2.0 Introduction Belum Rainforest Resort is one of Malaysia's premier ecotourism holiday destinations. Cover with tropical rainforest in Pulau Banding, Belum Rainforest Resort, is every nature lovers favourite and also famous point for people to getaway during. This place is completely relaxation and peaceful, fill with full of beautiful scenery around Pulau Banding, and last but not least, the main thing, chance to get close to nature. As we know that the place is very eco- friendly and also BelumRainforest Resort can integrate well on the site ,at the same time providing a comfortable environment for the users as it is situated in a tropical forest which is hot and humid all the time. To achieve all of these, architects of Belum rainforest resort had spent much energy and time to design a wonderful place for users. Based on what architecture term was introduce, there are many important thing that we need to care about to achieve thermal comfort for the interior spaces. One of the point is shading devices of the building. Human created shelter to keep them from rain, heat from sun and danger, basically a safety and comfortable zone for them. In the earliest Stone age, nature for example trees, stones and etc act as their own protection or shelter and slowly develop to use clay create brick and stack become a hard wall. All these evolutions and development from ancient civilization to current period have brought us so far until passive design which mean shading devices were introduce. Shading devices have the same function as shelter which target to achieve thermal comfort for the interior and the user. There are many kind of shading devices, such as egg crate, overhang roof and so on. Some of them are develop from the older civilization and some of them are created based on current whether changes. For example, the overhang roof that basically used in Japan or India are basically develop from the Greek and Roman
  6. 6. Tropical Passive design strategies in Belum Rainforest Resort to achieve Thermal Comfort . 6 Figure 2.1 location of Belum Resort For the point below, we will discuss about Tropical Passive design strategies used in Belum Rainforest Resort to achieve Thermal Comfort based on these following question:- 1) What is passive design and thermal comfort? 2) What are the passive strategies used in designing Belum Resort? 3) How does the building design affect the natural air ventilation inside the building? 4) How does the natural vegetation of Belum Resort affect to the sustainability of thermal comfort? 5) What are the problem that encountered by having shading devices in Belum Rain Forest?
  7. 7. Tropical Passive design strategies in Belum Rainforest Resort to achieve Thermal Comfort . 7 2.1 Passive Design Passive design refers to a design approach that uses natural elements, often sunlight, to heat, cool, or light a building. Passive solar or passive cooling designs take advantage of the sun’s energy to maximize heating or cooling based on a building’s sun exposure. Systems that employ passive design require very little maintenance and reduce a building’s energy consumption by minimizing or eliminating mechanical systems used to regulate indoor temperature and lighting. The passive design approach can include the structure of the building itself, including building orientation, window placement, skylight installation, insulation and building materials, or specific elements of a building, such as windows and window shades. For example, installing operable windows, or windows that can be manually opened and closed, allows residents to control the amount of air entering a space, and placing operable windows directly across from each other can direct breezes into a building, creating natural ventilation. Figure 2.1.2 Example strategies of passive design
  8. 8. Tropical Passive design strategies in Belum Rainforest Resort to achieve Thermal Comfort . 8 2.2 Thermal Comfort Thermal comfort can define as" a condition of mind that expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment and is assessed by subjective evaluation." The temperature that optimizes indoor thermal comfort is around the range of 19 Celcius to 28 Celcius. This thermal comfort level will affect by each person body response him/herself. There are two different factor will affect the thermal comfort, personal and measurable environment. But then in architecture term, the measurable environment will be emphasize more compare to the personal. Measurable environment factor is affected by the air temperature, radiant temperature, air velocity and humidity. Figure 2.2.1 Diagram of thermal comfort
  9. 9. Tropical Passive design strategies in Belum Rainforest Resort to achieve Thermal Comfort . 9 3) Anintrofor Shading Devices In tropical climates, designing a shading device can be very complicated to prevent solar radiation penetrate through window and reduce direct heat gain to the indoor. With today's technology, computer software are able to identify the shadow of building accurately for architects and create a suitable shading device for the entire building. Besides, architects can also know the sun path through all these programs. External shading devices and also solar radiation are always the considered compare to the interior because it is more effectively effect to the whole building . 3.1 Materiality Materials of the building are always the key and one of the main things to achieve thermal comfort. High thermal capacity material such as concrete and bricks are the common material that used by current society. But then there has also some of other way to achieve thermal comfort besides using high capacity material to construct the whole building. As what I see in Belum resort, for the windows and opening of the resort in Phase 1 is shaded and cover by tree branches or bamboo stick which they have low thermal conductivity and good heat insulator. Looking for the whole building that cover with nature elements, it also provide high aesthetic value to the exterior. The roof of the phase 1 resort builds with aluminum which has shiny surface and it is a good reflector that can reflect heat away from the building. Shading glass can also found in phase 1 resort to protect the excessive heat from entering the interior spaces. By using shading glass, the building can achieve thermal comfort due to shading glass can prevent the heat to pass through and also it can act as nature light for the interior Figure 3.1.1 Phase1 hotel
  10. 10. Tropical Passive design strategies in Belum Rainforest Resort to achieve Thermal Comfort . 10 Moreover, move to phase 2 and villa in Belum resort , the architect has chosen to use bricks and concrete as the main material to construct the building which can brings out different kind of feeling and by the way it has high thermal capacity to slow down the heat to penetrate into the building. For the corridor of the rooms in the resort is built by polycarbonate which made of plastic based and as we know that plastic is a very good heat insulator. So it can diffuse the sunlight and solar radiation and reduce the heat gain. Figure 3.1.2 Phase 2 hotel Figure 3.1.3 Resort of phase 2
  11. 11. Tropical Passive design strategies in Belum Rainforest Resort to achieve Thermal Comfort . 11 3.2 Orientation A good or proper orientation of a building is important and it is also the first stage that architect need to consider to design building. This can reduce much energy use of the building itself. Good orientation of building can benefit the building to accept the morning warm sunlight as natural lighting to reduce energy consumption such as electric and also it can avoid the hot sunlight during afternoon. Base on the term, building should be orientated within 15 degrees of east-west axis due to the area that will expose to sun and let hot sunlight penetrate in. The openings or window at north and south should be larger compare to the east and west. These can allow the building to accept the natural lighting from outdoor and also reduce the heat gain that will penetrate from east and west. Besides, natural features can also act as a natural shading for the building as well such as trees, plant and hill. For Belum itself, the facade of most buildings are west facing. In this case, opening and window have big opportunity to let sun penetrate in but then the best part is evening sun is not hot compare to afternoon and also users can enjoy the sunset by looking out the building. Figure 3.2.1 Example diagram of orientation for building 3.3 Type of shading devices Types of roof are also important to act as shading device for the building. One of the most obvious shading devices that visitors can see once enter to Belum resort is the overhang roof used at Hornbill Restaurant in Phase 1. The function of the overhang roof is to protect the pathway and wall around the building. Besides these, it can also control the sunlight to penetrate in. The overhang roof is designed to deflect high angle afternoon sun light. The oldern malay house has the similiar overhang roof as well and it influenced today architecture. Figure 3.3.1 Overhang roof of hornbill restaurant in Belum Rainforest Resort and the diagram
  12. 12. Tropical Passive design strategies in Belum Rainforest Resort to achieve Thermal Comfort . 12 By the way, in Phase 2 of Belum Rainforest resort is build with contemporary material. The architect designs the building with egg crate shading device in it which made up of concrete. Egg crate methods are always build facing north and south because the purpose of egg crate is to prevent the light from east and west. Figure 3.3.2 Egg-crate shading device for phase 2
  13. 13. Tropical Passive design strategies in Belum Rainforest Resort to achieve Thermal Comfort . 13 4) Natural ventilationthat usedinBelumresort toachieve thermal comfort As a tropical country and we know that current temperature is always higher than previous time. Besides of shading devices, natural ventilation is also important in a building to cool the interior. Nature ventilation can also reduce energy consumption for the building and reduce the amount of air condition and fans used in the building to cool the interior. There are also many type of nature ventilation stack ventilation, cross ventilation and others. The common type that used in Belum Resort is cross ventilation that quite similiar to the older Malay house. A big example that can show `is the pathway in the Phase 1 resort. It doesnt contain any contemporary electric device to cool down the temperature but then used cross ventilation to achieve it. Figure 4.1 both openings of the corridor to achieve cross ventilation Figure 4.2 Diagram showing cross ventilation
  14. 14. Tropical Passive design strategies in Belum Rainforest Resort to achieve Thermal Comfort . 14 5) Nature vegetationas shading devices inachieving thermal comfort Nature vegetation is part of the design intention in Belum Rain Forest Resort. As you walk through Belum resort, visitor can see there is always building cover or surround by creeper, trees and plant. The existing trees and plant not only provide harmonies feeling toward users but then also act as a shading device for the resort. Beside, nature tree can cools the environment by releasing fresh air to the environment, increasing the humidity of the building and providing a fresh surrounding to users and thermal comfort can achieve through this. Architect has also designed different kind of way for the plant to grow on it act as a wall or roof, even the pathway also fill with trees. Sunlight and radiation very difficult to penetrate through all these plant and plant itself will absorb the sunlight for photosynthesis. Meanwhile in Belum rainforest resort, there has few different kind of vegetation which included vines, trees, shrubs and creeper. Figure 5.1 Outer nature shading device at phase 2 Figure 5.2 Roof nature vegetation act as roof
  15. 15. Tropical Passive design strategies in Belum Rainforest Resort to achieve Thermal Comfort . 15 6) Problemand how tosolve For every method or mechanism, there always has the advantage and problem behind it. Through this passive design of shading device also brought out some problem on it. First, as we know that shading devices are usually construct or install at the opening or windows. Although it brings advantage of thermal comfort toward the interior spaces but that will obstruct the view of the exterior. Besides that, shading device that install in the building doesn’t 100% can work on it. Sometime it still needs adding other shading device to reduce the heat gain. These not only interrupt the original intention of the architect yet it also increases the energy consumption toward the place or the building. These is because people will add on air condition and fans to reduce the heat in the interior. Figure 6.1 Example of window opening that block the view of exterior
  16. 16. Tropical Passive design strategies in Belum Rainforest Resort to achieve Thermal Comfort . 16 7) CONCLUSION Malaysia is a country which place at the equilibrium line of the earth and no doubt, we as a citizen are experiencing hot and humid weather throughout the year. The implement of Passive Design in every single phase have cause BelumResort to implied dense of strategies to achieve thermal comfort for the interior. For the other side, there are also have the pros and cons effect after installing all the strategies for Belum Resort such as blocking view of opening and so on. However through this process, Belum Resort has taught me much or even more information about Passive design strategies to the building and enhance for the design. By visiting and staying in Belum Rainforest Resort, me as a user can experience comfortable and hope to stay there more not really because of the passive strategies design yet the surrounding that fill with plant and nature. Based on the passive design strategies and nature element that implant in Belum Rainforest Resort, this can be a strong reference to the future architect and help them to solve when considering a sustainable way to approach thermal comfort.
  17. 17. Tropical Passive design strategies in Belum Rainforest Resort to achieve Thermal Comfort . 17 Reference ,. (2015). Belum Rainforest Resort, Pulau Banding C'ARCH ARCHITECTURE + DESIGN | Architects Malaysia. Retrieved 8 October 2015, from  Architizer,. (2015). Belum Rainforest Resort. Retrieved 13 October 2015, from ,. (2015). Malaysia Accommodation | About Belum Rainforest Resort | Gerik Perak Hotel. Retrieved 17 October 2015, from ,. (2015). MALAY VERNACULAR ARCHITECTUREb. Retrieved 20 October 2015, from ,. (2015). Passive Design Strategies | Sustainability Workshop. Retrieved 22 October 2015, from
  18. 18. Tropical Passive design strategies in Belum Rainforest Resort to achieve Thermal Comfort . 18