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Impact of Globalization

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Regional Architecture and Identity in the Age of Globalization
CSAAR 2007

The International Conference of
The Center for the Study of Architecture in the Arab Region
In Collaboration with
National School of Architecture and Urbanism
Tunis, Tunisia, 13-15 November, 2006
This paper argues that the world regions, according to their traditional definitions as isolated distinctive entities, do not exist any more.

Globalization has created “a virtual region” that is influencing the life of the individual more than the physical geographic regions.
This paper investigates how the process of globalization has taken place in the Arabian Gulf region since the middle of the 20th century and its impact on the formation of contemporary built environment identity.
It traces the origins of globalization and investigates its current “tides” at the beginning of the 21st century.

Published in: Design

Impact of Globalization

  1. 1. Session 2A: Architecture of the South: Colonial & Post Colonial Impacts Impact of Globalization On The Built-Environment Identity In The Arabian Gulf Region Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Department of Architecture Kuwait University, Kuwait Regional Architecture and Identity in the Age of Globalization CSAAR 2007 The International Conference of The Center for the Study of Architecture in the Arab Region In Collaboration with National School of Architecture and Urbanism Tunis, Tunisia, 13-15 November, 2006
  2. 2. Thank you <ul><li>First, I would like to thank the organizers of the CSAAR2007. </li></ul><ul><li>I especially would like to thank Samer Taweel for his dedication and sincere cooperation in answering my “endless” emails and requests.  </li></ul>
  3. 3. Argument <ul><li>This paper argues that the world regions, according to their traditional definitions as isolated distinctive entities , do not exist any more. </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization has created “ a virtual region ” that is influencing the life of the individual more than the physical geographic regions. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>This paper investigates how the process of globalization has taken place in the Arabian Gulf region since the middle of the 20th century and its impact on the formation of contemporary built environment identity . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>It traces the origins of globalization and investigates its current “ tides ” at the beginning of the 21st century. </li></ul><ul><li>2001 9/11 events </li></ul><ul><li>2003 Third Gulf war </li></ul><ul><li>Post-Globalization: Economic – Political – Communication – Cultural .. </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture of Globalization </li></ul>2001 to Date Fourth Wave <ul><li>1990 Iraqi invasion to Kuwait </li></ul><ul><li>1991 Second Gulf War </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid economic and urbanization development of Gulf countries </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization: Economic – Political – Communication – Cultural - … </li></ul><ul><li>Identity crisis and revival of traditional style architecture </li></ul>1991 to 2001 Third Wave <ul><li>1973 ME War and the rise of oil prices </li></ul><ul><li>1980s First Gulf War between Iraq and Iran </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid urban development, post-modern and high-tech architecture </li></ul>1973 to 1990 Second Wave <ul><li>Discovery of oil and wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Modernization: planning, construction systems, materials </li></ul><ul><li>Urban development plans </li></ul><ul><li>Modern/International style architecture </li></ul>1950 to 1973 First Wave <ul><li>Poor economy and lack of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional nomadic/Bedouin societies </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional/Vernacular Architecture </li></ul>Before 1950 Pre-oil Period Manifestations Period Phase
  6. 6. Theoretical Model <ul><li>The paper adopts the theoretical model which considers that the construction of identities is fundamental to the dynamic of societies and that cultural identity is the process by which social actors build their own meaning according to cultural attributes . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Case Study <ul><li>This paper focuses on the case of Kuwait as an example of the globalization process currently taking place in the Gulf region . </li></ul><ul><li>The case of Kuwait illustrates the impact of globalization on the formation of other cities around the world , especially other Gulf cities that are going through similar transformations. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Case Study <ul><li>The city-state of Kuwait is located at the northern tip of the Arabian Gulf, occupying 17,818 square kilometers . </li></ul><ul><li>It is bordered by Iraq to the north and Saudi Arabia to the south. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Case Study <ul><li>The city-state of Kuwait has evolved during the second half of the 20th century under influences of economic, international and global changes. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Pre-Oil Ear Before 1950
  11. 11. The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The Pre-Oil Ear: Before 1950 <ul><li>Before the discovery of oil during the 1930s, Kuwait was an isolated traditional settlement beside a small creek, overlooking the Arabian Gulf. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The First Wave 1950 to 1973
  13. 13. The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The First Wave: 1952 to 1973 <ul><li>The process of globalization started to occur in Kuwait since 1950s. </li></ul><ul><li>The British firm Minoprio, Spencely and Macfarlane was invited to develop the First Master Plan for the city of Kuwait in 1952. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>The First Kuwait Master Plan of the 1952 called for the demolition of the old city and replace it by a modern city based on standard city planning of post-war Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>It tore down old houses and walls and replaced them with modern buildings and structures. </li></ul>The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The First Wave: 1952 to 1973
  15. 15. The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The First Wave: 1952 to 1973 <ul><li>The city center , once a place where families lived, shopped, worked and played, was foreordained a commercial district . </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Residents were shifted to Western-style family villas and apartments in the new neighborhoods that replaces their traditional courtyard houses . </li></ul>The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The First Wave: 1952 to 1973
  17. 17. <ul><li>The planning of new neighborhoods was influenced by models and strategies of urban planning and architecture borrowed from other cultures and introduced through master plans and design schemes. </li></ul>The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The First Wave: 1952 to 1973
  18. 18. The Second Wave 1973 to 1990
  19. 19. The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The Second Wave: 1973 to 1990 <ul><li>Another important stage followed the implementation of the first master plan. </li></ul><ul><li>The architecture produced during that era was completely alien . </li></ul>
  20. 23. The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The Second Wave: 1973 to 1990 <ul><li>It required the development of architectural landmarks that attempt to relate architecture to its region. </li></ul><ul><li>A panel of four advisors was formed to find solutions for the emerging problems. </li></ul>
  21. 24. The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The Second Wave: 1973 to 1990 <ul><li>They invited the “ starchitects ” of that era to design its landmark buildings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jorn Utzon was invited to design the National Assembly building, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arne Jacobsen to design the Central Bank, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kenzo Tange to design the International Airport and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reima Pietila to design the Ministry of Foreign affairs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other big names also participated in this process including; Marcel Breuer, SOM, I.M.Pei, Egnell and Bjorn and Arthur Erickson. </li></ul>
  22. 25. Kuwait Towers By: Reima Pietila
  23. 26. Kuwait National Assembly By: Jorn Utzon
  24. 27. Kuwait International Airport By: Kenzo Tange
  25. 28. Kuwait Central Bank By: Arne Jacobsen
  26. 29. Banks Complex By: SOM
  27. 30. <ul><li>This period was followed by other transformations resulting from global economic and political challenges. </li></ul><ul><li>The stock market crash of the 80’s was followed by the dramatic experience of invasion and liberation during the 90’s. </li></ul>The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The Second Wave: 1973 to 1990
  28. 31. The Third Wave 1991 to 2001 Post-Modernism
  29. 32. <ul><li>This period witnessed efforts to reconstruct </li></ul>The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The Third Wave: 1991 to 2001
  30. 33. Down Town View
  31. 34. Souq Sharq
  32. 35. The Scientific Center
  33. 36. Salmiya Palace
  34. 37. Salmiya Palace
  35. 38. Al Zumuruda at Al Bidaa
  36. 39. ” The Spanish Villas” at Jabriyah
  37. 40. ” Le Notre” Gulf Road
  38. 41. Fourth Wave The 3 rd Millennium Contemporary Globalization
  39. 42. The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The Fourth Wave: The 3rd Millennium <ul><li>The </li></ul>
  40. 43. Hard Rock Cafe
  41. 44. Hard Rock Cafe
  42. 45. Hard Rock Cafe
  43. 46. Diabetes Hospital
  44. 47. Burj Al Hamam
  45. 48. Downtown Environment
  46. 49. Downtown Towers
  47. 50. Downtown Towers
  48. 51. Downtown Towers
  49. 52. The Future
  50. 53. 360 ° Shopping Center
  51. 54. The Heritage Village, Revival of Past Memories A romantic attempt to “rebuild that past” in the form of a “traditional village” is currently under construction.
  52. 55. Future Downtown Towers
  53. 56. The Silk City At the center of the city stands Burj Mubarak Al Kabir, “the Tower of a Thousand and One Nights ” as a symbol that stands as an icon for the world to know.
  54. 57. The Silk City
  55. 58. <ul><li>The New University City will have three affiliated campuses, including one for female students, one for male students, and a medical campus. </li></ul>The New University City
  56. 59. Conclusions
  57. 60. Downtown Towers
  58. 61. Clash of Styles
  59. 62. Clash of Styles
  60. 63. Clash of Styles
  61. 64. Salmiya Palace: Althahir Wa Albatin
  62. 65. Global and Local Building Types
  63. 66. TYPOLOGY OF HYPERIDENTITY IN KUWAITI ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Identities of Legitimization </li></ul><ul><li>State and governmental institutions are utilizing Islamic and traditional Kuwaiti architecture elements and principles in the design of their buildings. These styles provide them with the required reference and identities of legitimization. </li></ul>Al Sief Palace The grand Mosque
  64. 67. TYPOLOGY OF HYPERIDENTITY IN KUWAITI ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Identities of Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Architects who attempt to resist the “ invasion ” of the modern style are utilizing elements and principles of traditional Kuwaiti architecture in their design . </li></ul>Al Salmiya Palace Al Zmuruda Restaurant
  65. 68. TYPOLOGY OF HYPERIDENTITY IN KUWAITI ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>New Identities </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing “ new identities ” through the design of buildings that incorporate new functions that did not exist in the past with traditional design principles and elements to satisfy contemporary cultural needs and in completely new ways . </li></ul>Shopping Center Office Building
  66. 69. TYPOLOGY OF HYPERIDENTITY IN KUWAITI ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>New Identities </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings using a completely different approach, attempt to create a new cultural identity that blends the past and the present in one single entity. It has many references to traditional architecture using modern materials and technology. Users do not detect easily the many references to the past that are provided by the building design and details. </li></ul>Le Notre Restaurant Entrance
  67. 70. TYPOLOGY OF HYPERIDENTITY IN KUWAITI ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Individual Identities </li></ul><ul><li>Individual identities are found in villas and houses built by Kuwaiti citizens on lots of lands given by the government as part of plot and loan housing program. The owners hire architects to design their houses and villas according to their specific needs and desires. </li></ul>Individual Villas
  68. 71. Thank You

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