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Biodiversity and Evolution.pptx

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Biodiversity and Evolution.pptx
At the end of this lessons, you will be able to:
define biodiversity and evolution;
cite the contributions of Charles Darwin to the theory
of evolution;
account for the evidence of evolution;
explain how biodiversity and evolution affect life;
demonstrate how biodiversity and evolution help an
ecosystem to function;
explain the role of natural selection in the
evolutionary process; and
relate evolution and speciation.
Assess Your Prior Knowledge
What is biodiversity?
What is evolution?
How is biodiversity and evolution related to each other?
Questions……….
Where did the first
forms of life arise?
How did the first
forms of life change?
Charles Darwin
and Evolution
In the early 1800s, French naturalist Jean-
Baptiste Lamarck developed a more concrete
theory about organic evolution. He stressed
two important theme in his work.
First, he stated that animals adapt to the
changes in the environment. He cited that
giraffes’ necks elongate as a result of them
trying to reach leaves in higher places.
Second, bodies and all their different parts
make it probable for the “organic movement”
in animals, and that life (as how it came to be)
is organized and structured in an orderly
manner.
Charles Darwin and Evolution
Lamarck’s ideas about the relationship of environment and
evolution helped set the stage for Darwin’s theory of evolution.
Charles Darwin was born in 1809, the same year that Lamarck
published his ideas on evolution. At the age of 22, Darwin
ventured on an expedition collecting thousands of specimens,
fossils, and other living animals and plants.
After five years of voyage, Darwin strongly questioned the
belief that Earth and organisms are unchanging and have been
specifically created a few thousands of years prior.

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Biodiversity and Evolution.pptx

  • 2. At the end of this lessons, you will be able to: define biodiversity and evolution; cite the contributions of Charles Darwin to the theory of evolution; account for the evidence of evolution; explain how biodiversity and evolution affect life; demonstrate how biodiversity and evolution help an ecosystem to function; explain the role of natural selection in the evolutionary process; and relate evolution and speciation.
  • 3. Assess Your Prior Knowledge What is biodiversity? What is evolution? How is biodiversity and evolution related to each other?
  • 4. Questions………. Where did the first forms of life arise? How did the first forms of life change?
  • 5. Charles Darwin and Evolution In the early 1800s, French naturalist Jean- Baptiste Lamarck developed a more concrete theory about organic evolution. He stressed two important theme in his work. First, he stated that animals adapt to the changes in the environment. He cited that giraffes’ necks elongate as a result of them trying to reach leaves in higher places. Second, bodies and all their different parts make it probable for the “organic movement” in animals, and that life (as how it came to be) is organized and structured in an orderly manner.
  • 6. Charles Darwin and Evolution Lamarck’s ideas about the relationship of environment and evolution helped set the stage for Darwin’s theory of evolution. Charles Darwin was born in 1809, the same year that Lamarck published his ideas on evolution. At the age of 22, Darwin ventured on an expedition collecting thousands of specimens, fossils, and other living animals and plants. After five years of voyage, Darwin strongly questioned the belief that Earth and organisms are unchanging and have been specifically created a few thousands of years prior.
  • 7. Charles Darwin and Evolution He believed that Earth was indeed very old and constantly changing. Throughout the years and after writing several essays, Darwin offered a great deal of evidence supporting evolution. He described his theory of natural selection, which supported and provided an explanation of how evolution occurs.
  • 8. Evidence and Evolution Darwin’s “On the origin of Species” paved the way of continuing knowledge and biological research up to date. Most of the evolutionary evidences were grouped in the following categories: fossil records, biochemical evidence, comparative anatomy, and observable events. Fossil records. Darwin collected traces and remains of organisms that lived long ago. Fossils are usually found in the sedimentary layers which means the more the layers, the more evidence there is of different organisms.
  • 9. Evidence and Evolution Biochemical evidence. The nitrogen base sequences in the genetic code are the same in almost all organisms. Comparative anatomy. Comparative anatomy is seen mainly in the biological structure of animals. Most have similar structures but have different functions. Observable events. Changes have been observed in species over time. These observable changes show that evolution is an ongoing process.
  • 10. What is Evolution? Evolution is defined as any change in the inheritable traits within a certain population across generations. These inheritable traits pertain to physical aspects such as color of petals in flowers, spots on the wings of butterflies, or instinctive behaviours like migration patterns of animals, among others. DNA plays an important role in the evolution process. Changes in the genetic code affect the characteristics and traits in the succeeding generations. As the certain traits are manifested and are carried on in the next generations, evolution can be observed.
  • 11. Natural Selection Darwin recognized that all species produced quite a number of offspring. He reasoned that organisms possessing adaptive characteristics have a better chance to survive and reproduce, compared to individuals who do not have such characteristics. Darwin sought the basic and central mechanism of evolution of reproduction in a process called natural selection.
  • 12. Natural Selection The environment plays an important role in filtering changes and variations in traits. Favored traits are being expressed compared to unfavored traits which become less and unlikely expressed in the succeeding generations. Natural selection can be summed up through a famous Filipino line: “Matira ang matibay.” Artificial selection is the selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals with desirable characteristics.
  • 13. Natural Selection Genetic variation is extensive in most populations. It is defined as the difference between cells, individual organisms, and/or groups of organisms of any species. caused by their genotypic and phenotypic variation. Variation may be expressed largely in physical appearance but can also be observed in behavior, metabolism, or mode of reproduction.  Factors that affect genetic variation can be linked to mutation, which is the permanent change in the chemical structure of a gene.
  • 14. Speciation Most of Darwin’s theory of evolution focused on natural selection and the gradual adaptation of a population in a given environment (microevolution). Speciation is the evolutionary process in which new species arise. It is the process wherein a group of one species will acquire new characteristics, and eventually make an entirely species.
  • 15. Related Concepts to Speciation Species Species comes from the Latin word specio for “kind” or “appearance,” as we can easily observe and learn to distinguish between the different kinds of animals and plants. Taxonomy Taxonomy is a branch of biology that deals with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life. Carolus Linneaus, the father of taxonomy, introduced a binomial system of naming organisms – the Linnaean classification which is still used at present.
  • 16. Related Concepts to Speciation The two-word name given to an organism, also known as scientific name, consists of the genus and species where an organism belongs. In Zea mays, the scientific name of corn, Zea is the genus and mays is the species. The species, therefore, occupies the lowest taxonomic rank in the biological classification of living things. Biological Species Concept The biological species concept views species as a population or a group of populations whose members have the ability and potential to interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
  • 17. Related Concepts to Speciation Other Species Concepts Morphological species concept is how scientists were able to identify more than 1.8 million species. Scientists make use of measurable phenotypic rates. Ecological species concept identifies species based on the ecological environments or niche. Polygenic species concept defines organisms and species based on unique genetic history. Biologists compare a species’ genetic code and physical characteristics with other organisms.
  • 18. Related Concepts to Speciation Adaptive radiation is a process wherein the evolution of species from a common ancestor diversify rapidly into different new forms due to changes in the environment. Being exposed to a new environment makes new resources available, creating and opening various opportunities and challenges for the survivors. The final mechanism of speciation is the tempo of speciation. Two models have developed for interpreting and analysing evolutionary patterns. One model indicates that differences in population gradually evolve as a result of organisms adapting to their environments. The formation of new species gradually evolve from their parent or ancestor.
  • 19. Related Concepts to Speciation Gradualism is a slow, gradual accumulation of changes over time. Over a short period of time, it is difficult to notice. In punctuated equilibrium, the change comes on spurts. There may be period of no very little change then all of a sudden huge changes take place through mutations. Mutations are changes in the DNA that can be passed on to succeeding generations.
  • 21. Earth is home to a large number of diverse organisms. Organisms evolve and adapt in many ways to survive in their ever-changing environment. How does the environment influence their evolution and behavior? In this chapter, you will learn how everything in the natural world is connected and how living and nonliving things work together to achieve stability.
  • 22. In this chapter, you will find answers to the following questions: 1. What impact do my actions have in an ecosystem? 2. How do the different interactions of living and nonliving things affect the ecosystem? 3. What role do humans play in an ecosystem?
  • 23. At the end of this chapter, you will be able to: define what an ecosystem is; identify the components of ecological structures in an ecosystem; explain how diversity contributes to stability and survival; cite examples of what helps and what disrupts the interaction in an ecosystem; analyze how the human population affects the different ecosystems; and apply the knowledge of biodiversity in the maintenance of an ecosystem and vice versa.
  • 24. Introduction: Ecosystem Structure The interaction of living things in the physical environment consists an ecosystem. In an ecosystem, the flow of energy and matter moves in one direction. The light coming from the sun is the main source of energy for organisms living on Earth. This radiant energy is used by plants to convert inorganic compounds, such as carbon dioxide, and water, into energy-rich compounds through photosynthesis.
  • 25. Plants and other photosynthetic organisms can manufacture their own food, they are called producers or autotrophs. Examples of producers: phytoplankton in the ocean and algae in the pond Some producers called chemosynthetic autotrophs synthesize organic compounds without the aid of sunlight. They make their own food using the dissolved chemicals from hydrothermal vents found on the ocean floor. Consumers or heterotrophs are organisms that feed mainly on producers because they cannot make their own food. For instance, in a cornfield, corn crops are the producers and the cutworms who feed on the leaves and stems are the consumers.
  • 26. A food chain illustrates the flow of energy and matter in a given ecosystem. For example, a grasshopper mainly feeds on leaves from a cornstalk. The grasshopper in turn is devoured by the maya bird, which is also a consumer. These organisms will die, and their remains are broken down by decomposers like bacteria and fungi. The position an organism occupies in a food chain is called a trophic level. The first trophic level in a food chain are comprised of the producers, and is typically composed of plants and other autotrophic organisms.
  • 27. The second trophic level is mainly composed of herbivores, or organisms that feed only on plants. Since the herbivores feed on producers directly, they are known primary consumers. The third and fourth trophic levels in a food chain are either comprised of carnivores (organisms that only eat meat) or omnivores (organisms that feed on both plants and animals). Depending on which organism they eat, they can either be secondary consumers (those that feed on primary consumers) or tertiary consumer (those that feed on the secondary consumers). Scavengers are consumers that feed on the tissues of dead animals. Their trophic level in a food chain is highly dependent on what they consume.
  • 28. Decomposers such as fungus or bacterium, feed on dead organic matter from all trophic levels. As decomposers feed, dead organic matter is transformed and broken down into simpler nutrients. These nutrients are returned into the soil or water where the producers can cause them again. This recycling process is very important to all members of the food chain.