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Biology Chapter 1


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Biology Chapter 1

  1. 1. Biology Chapter 1 The Science of Life
  2. 2. The first organisms <ul><li>Evidence suggests that the first organisms arose about 3.5 billions years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>It was single celled floating in the seas. </li></ul><ul><li>Over time the organisms changed. </li></ul><ul><li>Biology is the study of life and their changes. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 6 Themes of Biology <ul><li>Cell Structure and Function </li></ul><ul><li>Stability and Homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction and Inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Interdependence of Organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Matter, Energy and Organization </li></ul>
  4. 4. Group Activity/Assignment <ul><li>In groups of 4 do the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Using the piece of paper you are given and the theme you are given, read about that theme in chapter 1. </li></ul><ul><li>List the important information you find about that theme including vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>How is this information important to the study of biology? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cell Structure and Function <ul><li>Unicellular-single celled </li></ul><ul><li>Multicellular-many cells </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation-cells have different jobs and different structures, cells became different from one another </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cell Structure and Function <ul><li>The cell is the basic unit of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Some organisms are unicellular, or composed of only one cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Other organisms are multicellular or composed of many cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Multicellular organisms have differentiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Their cells are different from one another and have specific jobs. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Stability and Homeostasis <ul><li>Homeostasis-stable level of internal conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Living things from single cells to entire organisms, maintain very stable internal conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal and plant bodies have systems that maintain internal conditions such as temperature, water content and even food intake at very stable levels. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reproduction and Inheritance <ul><li>Reproduction-organisms transmit hereditary information to offspring </li></ul><ul><li>DNA-deoxyribonucleic acid is the hereditary information </li></ul><ul><li>Gene-a short segment of DNA that develops and single trait </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual reproduction- hereditary from two parents is combined </li></ul><ul><li>Asexual reproduction-hereditary information comes from one source; cloning </li></ul>
  9. 9. Reproduction and Inheritance <ul><li>All organisms must produce new organisms like themselves in a process called reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms transmit hereditary information called DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA forms genes which control the traits of organisms. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Reproduction and Inheritance <ul><li>In sexual reproduction, hereditary information from two parents is combined. </li></ul><ul><li>An egg and sperm join in sexual reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>In asexual reproduction, hereditary information from only one organism is used. </li></ul><ul><li>It is like cloning. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Evolution <ul><li>Evolve-change over time </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution-scientific theory that helps us understand how organisms have changed over time </li></ul><ul><li>Natural selection-organisms with more favorable traits are able to successfully reproduce and pass on their genes. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Evolution <ul><li>Populations of organisms evolve or change over time. </li></ul><ul><li>The study of evolution helps us understand how that change has occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps us explore the relationships between many organisms on Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural selection is the driving force of evolution </li></ul>
  13. 13. Evolution <ul><li>According to natural selection, organisms that have more favorable traits will survive better and pass along those traits. </li></ul><ul><li>Over time, those favorable traits become dominant in the population. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural selection is driven by competition for food and other resources. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Interdependence of Organisms <ul><li>Ecology-a branch of biology that studies how organisms interact with their environments </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem-environmental communities or places where organisms live </li></ul>
  15. 15. Interdependence of Organisms <ul><li>The study of individual organisms is important in biology but to fully understand the biological world, scientists study the interactions of organisms with each other and their environment. </li></ul><ul><li>This is called ecology. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Interdependence of Organisms <ul><li>Scientists can also study large environments called ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists now recognize the enormous impact humans have of the environment by studying ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of the environment impacts all organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>When the environment changes, the organisms are deeply affected. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Matter, Energy and Organization <ul><li>Photosynthesis-a process in which plants use the sun’s energy and water to make sugars or food. </li></ul><ul><li>Autotrophs- organisms that obtain their energy from the sun and make their own food, plants </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs-organisms that must eat other organisms to obtain energy, animals </li></ul>
  18. 18. Matter, Energy and Organization <ul><li>Living things must obtain energy to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of energy is a major topic in biology. </li></ul><ul><li>The process of photosynthesis starts the transfer of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants take the sunlight with water and combine it into chemicals like sugars for use. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Matter, Energy and Organization <ul><li>Organisms that make their own food or sugars are called autotrophs. </li></ul><ul><li>Most plants are autotrophs because they make their own food from the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs must take in food to meet their energy needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs must consume autotrophs, other heterotrophs or both to meet their energy needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Most animals, fungi some unicellular creatures and a few plants are heterotrophs. </li></ul>