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Linux PV on HVM


paravirtualized interfaces in HVM guests




            Stefano Stabellini
Linux as a guests: problems

Linux PV guests have limitations:
- difficult “different” to install
- some performance issue on 64 bit
- limited set of virtual hardware

Linux HVM guests:
- install the same way as native
- very slow
Linux PV on HVM: the solution

- install the same way as native

- PC-like hardware

- access to fast paravirtualized devices

- exploit nested paging
Linux PV on HVM: initial feats
Initial version in Linux 2.6.36:


- introduce the xen platform device driver
- add support for HVM hypercalls, xenbus and
  grant table
- enables blkfront, netfront and PV timers
- add support to PV suspend/resume
- the vector callback mechanism
Old style event injection
Receiving an interrupt


do_IRQ
   handle_fasteoi_irq
         handle_irq_event
             xen_evtchn_do_upcall
         ack_apic_level ←   >=3 VMEXIT
The new vector callback
Receiving a vector callback




xen_evtchn_do_upcall
Linux PV on HVM: newer feats

Later enhancements (2.6.37+):
- ballooning
- PV spinlocks
- PV IPIs
- Interrupt remapping onto event channels
- MSI remapping onto event channels
Interrupt remapping
MSI remapping
PV spectrum

             HVM guests      Classic          Enhanced        Hybrid PV     PV guests
                           PV on HVM         PV on HVM        on HVM
Boot          emulated      emulated          emulated                    paravirtualized
sequence
Memory        hardware      hardware          hardware                    paravirtualized

Interrupts    emulated      emulated        paravirtualized               paravirtualized

Timers        emulated      emulated        paravirtualized               paravirtualized

Spinlocks     emulated      emulated        paravirtualized               paravirtualized

Disk          emulated    paravirtualized   paravirtualized               paravirtualized

Network       emulated    paravirtualized   paravirtualized               paravirtualized

Privileged    hardware      hardware          hardware                    paravirtualized
operations
Benchmarks: the setup

Hardware setup:
Dell PowerEdge R710
CPU: dual Intel Xeon E5520 quad core CPUs @ 2.27GHz
RAM: 22GB

Software setup:
Xen 4.1, 64 bit
Dom0 Linux 2.6.32, 64 bit
DomU Linux 3.0 rc4, 8GB of memory, 8 vcpus
PCI passthrough: benchmark
PCI passthrough of an Intel Gigabit NIC
CPU usage: the lower the better:
 200


 180


 160


 140


 120


 100
                                                        CPU usage domU
  80
                                                        CPU usage dom0

  60


  40


  20


   0

         interrupt remapping   no interrupt remapping
Kernbench
      Results: percentage of native, the lower the better
140

135

130

125

120

115

110

105

100

 95

 90
                         PV on HVM 32 bit                HVM 32 bit               PV 32 bit
      PV on HVM 64 bit                      HVM 64 bit                PV 64 bit
Kernbench
  Results: percentage of native, the lower the better
140

135

130

125

120

115

110

105

100

 95

 90
                   PV on HVM 32 bit              HVM 64 bit                PV 64 bit
      PV on HVM 64 bit              KVM 64 bit                HVM 32 bit               PV 32 bit
PBZIP2
Results: percentage of native, the lower the better
 160


 150


 140


 130


 120


 110


 100
       PV on HVM 64 bit   PV 64 bit   PV on HVM 32 bit   PV 32 bit
PBZIP2
Results: percentage of native, the lower the better
 160


 150


 140


 130


 120


 110


 100
       KVM 64 bit   PV on HVM 64 bit   PV 64 bit   PV on HVM 32 bit   PV 32 bit
SPECjbb2005
Results: percentage of native, the higher the better
 100

  90

  80

  70

  60

  50

  40

  30

  20

  10

   0
                PV 64 bit                  PV on HVM 64 bit
SPECjbb2005
Results: percentage of native, the higher the better
 100

  90

  80

  70

  60

  50

  40

  30

  20

  10

   0
           PV 64 bit        PV on HVM 64 bit      KVM 64 bit
Iperf tcp
    Results: gbit/sec, the higher the better
8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0
      PV 64 bit   PV on HVM 64 bit PV on HVM 32 bit   PV 32 bit   HVM 64 bit   HVM 32 bit
Iperf tcp
    Results: gbit/sec, the higher the better
8


7


6


5


4


3


2


1


0
     PV 64 bit   PV on HVM 64 bit KVM 64 bit PV on HVM 32 bit   PV 32 bit   HVM 64 bit   HVM 32 bit
Conclusions


PV on HVM guests are very close to PV guests
in benchmarks that favor PV MMUs


PV on HVM guests are far ahead of PV guests
in benchmarks that favor nested paging
Questions?

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Linux PV on HVM

  • 1. Linux PV on HVM paravirtualized interfaces in HVM guests Stefano Stabellini
  • 2. Linux as a guests: problems Linux PV guests have limitations: - difficult “different” to install - some performance issue on 64 bit - limited set of virtual hardware Linux HVM guests: - install the same way as native - very slow
  • 3. Linux PV on HVM: the solution - install the same way as native - PC-like hardware - access to fast paravirtualized devices - exploit nested paging
  • 4. Linux PV on HVM: initial feats Initial version in Linux 2.6.36: - introduce the xen platform device driver - add support for HVM hypercalls, xenbus and grant table - enables blkfront, netfront and PV timers - add support to PV suspend/resume - the vector callback mechanism
  • 5. Old style event injection
  • 6. Receiving an interrupt do_IRQ handle_fasteoi_irq handle_irq_event xen_evtchn_do_upcall ack_apic_level ← >=3 VMEXIT
  • 7. The new vector callback
  • 8. Receiving a vector callback xen_evtchn_do_upcall
  • 9. Linux PV on HVM: newer feats Later enhancements (2.6.37+): - ballooning - PV spinlocks - PV IPIs - Interrupt remapping onto event channels - MSI remapping onto event channels
  • 12. PV spectrum HVM guests Classic Enhanced Hybrid PV PV guests PV on HVM PV on HVM on HVM Boot emulated emulated emulated paravirtualized sequence Memory hardware hardware hardware paravirtualized Interrupts emulated emulated paravirtualized paravirtualized Timers emulated emulated paravirtualized paravirtualized Spinlocks emulated emulated paravirtualized paravirtualized Disk emulated paravirtualized paravirtualized paravirtualized Network emulated paravirtualized paravirtualized paravirtualized Privileged hardware hardware hardware paravirtualized operations
  • 13. Benchmarks: the setup Hardware setup: Dell PowerEdge R710 CPU: dual Intel Xeon E5520 quad core CPUs @ 2.27GHz RAM: 22GB Software setup: Xen 4.1, 64 bit Dom0 Linux 2.6.32, 64 bit DomU Linux 3.0 rc4, 8GB of memory, 8 vcpus
  • 14. PCI passthrough: benchmark PCI passthrough of an Intel Gigabit NIC CPU usage: the lower the better: 200 180 160 140 120 100 CPU usage domU 80 CPU usage dom0 60 40 20 0 interrupt remapping no interrupt remapping
  • 15. Kernbench Results: percentage of native, the lower the better 140 135 130 125 120 115 110 105 100 95 90 PV on HVM 32 bit HVM 32 bit PV 32 bit PV on HVM 64 bit HVM 64 bit PV 64 bit
  • 16. Kernbench Results: percentage of native, the lower the better 140 135 130 125 120 115 110 105 100 95 90 PV on HVM 32 bit HVM 64 bit PV 64 bit PV on HVM 64 bit KVM 64 bit HVM 32 bit PV 32 bit
  • 17. PBZIP2 Results: percentage of native, the lower the better 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 PV on HVM 64 bit PV 64 bit PV on HVM 32 bit PV 32 bit
  • 18. PBZIP2 Results: percentage of native, the lower the better 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 KVM 64 bit PV on HVM 64 bit PV 64 bit PV on HVM 32 bit PV 32 bit
  • 19. SPECjbb2005 Results: percentage of native, the higher the better 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PV 64 bit PV on HVM 64 bit
  • 20. SPECjbb2005 Results: percentage of native, the higher the better 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PV 64 bit PV on HVM 64 bit KVM 64 bit
  • 21. Iperf tcp Results: gbit/sec, the higher the better 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 PV 64 bit PV on HVM 64 bit PV on HVM 32 bit PV 32 bit HVM 64 bit HVM 32 bit
  • 22. Iperf tcp Results: gbit/sec, the higher the better 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 PV 64 bit PV on HVM 64 bit KVM 64 bit PV on HVM 32 bit PV 32 bit HVM 64 bit HVM 32 bit
  • 23. Conclusions PV on HVM guests are very close to PV guests in benchmarks that favor PV MMUs PV on HVM guests are far ahead of PV guests in benchmarks that favor nested paging