• This is often the case in homes and buildings where coverage
decreases considerably as soon as you go indoors
• People are ditching their landlines in favor of mobile phones
• It has become necessary to work on new technology that will facilitate
calling coverage both indoor and outdoor
• Femtocell technology could be the answer
• In addition to facilitating better indoor call coverage, this emerging
technology reduces the drain that advanced mobile services (such as
mobile broadband) are placing on the capacity offered by phone
• Femtocell working
• System architecture
• Handover operation
• Design of femtocell
• Future scope
CONCEPT OF FEMTOCELL
• A femtocell is a very small base station.
• Femtocells are low-power wireless access points.
• It can be placed in a customer’s residence.
• This will allow improved coverage & capacity.
• The femtocell concept aims to combine fixed line broadband access
with cellular telephony.
• One of the main design challenges of the femtocell is that the
hierarchical architecture and manual cell planning.
CONCEPT OF FEMTOCELL
• Third generation cellular technology suffers from inadequate indoor signal penetration.
• For that reason to improve accessing, we developed cells femtocell.
• Femtocells poor coverage diminishes the quality of voice and video applications, and slow
down high speed data services.
• Femtocells are important because mobile operators need to seize residential minutes from
fixed provider,& respond to emerging Wi-Fi offerings
• Femtocells solves problems like when a device that employs power and backhaul via user’s
• It also enables capacity equivalent full 3G network sector at indoor environment
NEED FOR FEMTOCELL
• Femtocells from part of the mobile operation’s network, although they are located at home or
in the business.
• Femtocells operate at very low radiation power levels i.e. 50 mw
• Femtocells typically range of 200 meters.
• A femtocell is installed at home and connected to mains power and a standard broadband IP
connection through to the mobile operator’s core network.
• Generally femtocells provided by voice calls , text messages and data services.
The architecture defines two network
elements they are:
• The HNB
• The HNB Gateway
• Connected to an existing residential broadband service.
• HNB provides radio coverage for standard 3G handsets within a home.
HNB GATEWAY (HNB-GW):
• Installed within an operator’s network.
• The HNB Gateway aggregates traffic from a large no of HNBs back into an
existing core service network through the standard Iu-cs and Iu-ps interfaces.
• The Iu-h interface is in between the HNB and HNB Gateway.
Handover in mobile phone systems:
• A mobile phone switches between different call sites during a phone call.
• Femtocell do not implement soft handover
• All calls are switching instantly from femtocell & external outdoor cellular network.
• This is known as hard Handover.
• The 2G & 3G systems co-exist, it automatically select 3G where good reception.
Optimizing Handover into a Femtocell:
• There are 3 approaches
• Adding femtocells to the neighbor lists
• Adding some smarts into mobile phone
• Making the femtocell as clever as possible
DESIGN OF FEMTOCELL
The following key features are in the implementation of femtocell
• Low RF power
• Energy offset
• Easy end user installation
• Backhaul via broadband
• Worldwide cellular network standards support
• Support for 3G existing devices
• Operator controlled
• New services and applications
• Service assurance
• Better coverage and capacity
• Improved macro reliability
• Cost benefit
• Reduced subscriber turnover
• Capacity benefits of femtocell
• Lower transmit power
• Higher SINR
• Difficult to install
• Requires broadband connection
• It does not provide good coverage in outdoors
• No additional external connections are needed
• The modem will already have power& data connectivity
• Many mobile operators have started offering DSL broadband
• More households in USA receive their broadband internet service from their cable
TV supplier than from the phone company.
• The modem can be separate from the TV Set-top box or a combined unit.
• A wired local network is basically a group of devices connected to one another using
By 2012, there will be 36 million shipments with an installed base of 70 million femtocell
serving 150 million users.
• Femtocells are on a road to nowhere
• Unsatisfactory coverage and the increasing number of high-data rate application are two
driving forces for femtocell development
• Femtocells have the potential to provide high quality network access to indoor users at
• Improve coverage