SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 28
Download to read offline
• Deyaa Ahmed Shaaban
• Omar Adel
• Omar Hisham
• Ahmed Roushdy Saleh
Before we know what
Femtocell is, we must
know Why we
searched for it …..!!!
The growing number of cellular network users raises issues about
coverage extension in some areas such as indoor or underground
locations.
Why is there a need for such small cells?
The most efficient way to increase network capacity in a cellular
network is to shrink the cell size– ok, there are other ways, including
getting new spectrum, sectorization, adaptive algorithms for
scheduling but all are semi-disruptive and cannot compete with a
smaller cell size. However, in an archetypal mobile network, the cost to
deploy a network with many small cells in data hungry areas is
prohibitive. Femto cells piggyback on broadband connections and are
relatively inexpensive and can effectively form a distributed high
capacity network. On a much simpler usage case, femto cells can
provide coverage where ordinary cells cannot, in highly populated areas
where propagation issues are a concern.
Femtocell is a low-power wireless base station for cellular access
indoor in areas with limited or no cellular provider. The access point
operates in a licensed spectrum and is designed to route mobile
phone traffic through a home or corporate IP network. A femtocell is
connected to a broadband (cable modem or Digital Subscriber Line)
and provides complete voice and data service to standard mobile
devices such as cell phones with al limited number and within
a limited range.
It supports 2 to 5 mobiles.
Unique Characteristics of Femtocells
• Designed for the home environment
– Might get deployed in small-office/home-office or business
situations, but this is not the primary design target
• Operate in licensed spectrum
– E.g., WiFi-based fixed mobile convergence solutions are not
femtocells
– Therefore, femtocells must be operated or associated with a
spectrum license holder
• Designed to connect to the operator’s network via an
untrusted broadband IP-based network, typically
public
– E.g., Cable, DSL, or other home broadband service
– Does not preclude usage over private IP networks or even
non-IP networks, but that is not the design target
Capabilities and Services
High level goal: The end user has access to all
capabilities of his/her mobile device.
• Voice calling (outbound and inbound)
• Additional services such as 3-way calling, call hold, caller-ID,
etc.
• Messaging (such as Text and picture messages or other multimedia
messaging services)
• Data services (such as mobile broadband access)
• Broadcast services
• Location services (and location-based services, navigation
applications, etc.)
• Emergency services (such as E911)
Potential End User Benefits
• Improved coverage in their home
• Possibly just providing coverage where there is
none!
• Enhanced availability of services
• Possible incentives from carriers (e.g., reduced
rates or flat-rate services in the “home zone”)
• Ability to use mobile device as primary “phone”
• Availability of richer cellular services while at
home
• Improved battery life while at home
We will handle two challenges :
• RF interference (inter-femto, macro-femto)
• Handoff
RF Interference
• Areas of concern:
– Femtocell to macrocells
– Femtocell to femtocell
• May be partially avoided if femtocells can be
deployed in different radio channels from macro
system
• Unlikely that femtocell to femtocell interference can
be managed via unique radio channel assignments
– Eventually femtocell density will make this impossible
• In general, standards must provide ways to operate
femtocells in common radio channels with macro
Solutions for RF Interference
• Most aspects of RF interference mitigation will likely be
addressed by proprietary solutions
• Radio resources must be assigned using centralized
planning
– Radio channel for operation of each technology
– PN codes
– Power control parameters, transmission power limits, etc.
– Requires accurate knowledge of deployed femtocell locations,
capabilities, and other feedback information from all femtocells
to the centralized femtocell management system
• Femtocells must utilize techniques to reduce
interference autonomously and continuously
– Based on feedback and measurements about the RF
environment
– Based on feedback from MS/ATs (e.g., pilot reports)
Handoff
• Types of handoff:
– Handout from femtocell to macro system
– Handin from macro system to femtocell
– Inter-femtocell handoff between femtocells
• Inter-femtocell handoff is generally not required for home-based
femtocells (at least for early deployments)
– May be required as the technology involves to be used in enterprises
(e.g., picocells)
• Packet data service handoff follows normal packet data mobility
procedures (e.g., Mobile IP)
Solutions for Handoff
• Handout from femtocell to macro system is fairly
straightforward:
– MS reports macro system pilots to the femtocell
– Femtocell triggers handoff to macro system via standard
ANSI-41 IS handoff signaling to target MSC
• For legacy circuit architecture, A1p triggers controller to initiate
ANSI-41 IS handoff
• For SIP/IMS architecture, SIP signaling triggers CSRV to
initiate ANSI-41 IS handoff
– When target MSC responds with handoff parameters, the
information is passed back to the femtocell
– Femtocell sends handoff direction message to mobile
directing it to the macro system directly
– Call continues
Radio health issues research
A very large amount of research has been undertaken into discovering any links between
low level radio frequency radiation and health issues. If any major links had been found,
then it should be a safe assumption that legislation would have been altered and the use
of low power radio changed.
Much of the research that has been undertaken has been statistical in nature. Research
would look at users of radio equipment and those who have a much lower level of usage,
or no usage at all. The results have to be interpreted in a statistical nature, because
some people who are not exposed to radiation will fall ill anyway. Therefore it is
necessary to look at the illnesses that occur in the two groups of people. Even with large
samples, it appears that most research projects have found little or no evidence of major
health risks and therefore the health organisations have been willing to allow the
current levels of radiation in and around the home.
Although no direct links to cancer have been found, it is a
recognised fact that radio frequency radiation does heat up local
tissue - in the same way as a microwave oven works, although the
power levels for microwave ovens are much higher. As a result a
phenomenon known as "hot ear" can occur when a cell phone held
close to the ear is used for an extended period of time. It is therefore
recommended that cellphones are not used for extended periods of
the day. However, it is current thinking that in view of the 1/d^2 law
where power reduces as the square of the distance, means that
femtocells should not pose any form of risk.
Femtocells are cellular base stations roughly the size of a Wi-Fi
router. Their diminutive size belies the market opportunity for apps
that use femtos to enable services that otherwise would be difficult
or impossible with other technologies.
Many mobile operators and vendors believe that small cells will be
key for delivering the multi-megabit speeds that customers expect
from 4G/LTE while reducing traffic loads on the outdoor sites.
The market opportunity for femto apps depends partly on the
installed base of femtos. Currently there are more than 6
million femtocells and other small cells installed worldwide
Although that’s already more than the number of macrocells,
collectively it’s still a tiny addressable market because each
small cell serves only a handful of potential mobile app
customers.
That will change as small cell deployments continue to mushroom,
according to analyst predictions. In the meantime, finding the market
opportunities for app development means focusing on what specific
operators are doing.
“I’d say maybe half a dozen to a dozen commercial apps today,”
Germano says. “We’re at the early stage of the market where what
we’ll see is a little more mobile operator involvement in new small-
cell-based applications. Some of these applications will be unique to
specific operators or for specific enterprise customers.”
• http://www.airvana.com/technology/femtocell-network-
architecture/#Intro
• http://www.radio-
electronics.com/info/cellulartelecomms/femtocells/femto-cells-health-
issues.php
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Femtocell

More Related Content

What's hot

Femtocell Technologies By Vipin
Femtocell Technologies By VipinFemtocell Technologies By Vipin
Femtocell Technologies By VipinVipin Mundayad
 
Seminar presentation On Femtocell Technology
Seminar presentation On Femtocell TechnologySeminar presentation On Femtocell Technology
Seminar presentation On Femtocell Technologyjit1994roy
 
cognitive femtocell network by nisha menon k
cognitive femtocell network by nisha menon kcognitive femtocell network by nisha menon k
cognitive femtocell network by nisha menon kNisha Menon K
 
“Design of Efficient Mobile Femtocell by Compression and Aggregation Technolo...
“Design of Efficient Mobile Femtocell by Compression and Aggregation Technolo...“Design of Efficient Mobile Femtocell by Compression and Aggregation Technolo...
“Design of Efficient Mobile Femtocell by Compression and Aggregation Technolo...Virendra Uppalwar
 
A 3G Femtocell Radio - Analog Devices VON Boston Networking Conference Oct 29...
A 3G Femtocell Radio - Analog Devices VON Boston Networking Conference Oct 29...A 3G Femtocell Radio - Analog Devices VON Boston Networking Conference Oct 29...
A 3G Femtocell Radio - Analog Devices VON Boston Networking Conference Oct 29...ddslideshare99
 
Seminar for Femtocell
Seminar for FemtocellSeminar for Femtocell
Seminar for Femtocellsai pranay
 
Presentation on Femtocell technology
Presentation on Femtocell technologyPresentation on Femtocell technology
Presentation on Femtocell technologyvijay rastogi
 
Macrocell Femtocell LTE Network Handover Decision Algorithm by Umar Danjuma M...
Macrocell Femtocell LTE Network Handover Decision Algorithm by Umar Danjuma M...Macrocell Femtocell LTE Network Handover Decision Algorithm by Umar Danjuma M...
Macrocell Femtocell LTE Network Handover Decision Algorithm by Umar Danjuma M...umardanjumamaiwada
 

What's hot (20)

Femtocell Seminar
Femtocell Seminar Femtocell Seminar
Femtocell Seminar
 
Femtocell Technologies By Vipin
Femtocell Technologies By VipinFemtocell Technologies By Vipin
Femtocell Technologies By Vipin
 
Femtocells
FemtocellsFemtocells
Femtocells
 
FEMTOCELL
FEMTOCELLFEMTOCELL
FEMTOCELL
 
Seminar presentation On Femtocell Technology
Seminar presentation On Femtocell TechnologySeminar presentation On Femtocell Technology
Seminar presentation On Femtocell Technology
 
cognitive femtocell network by nisha menon k
cognitive femtocell network by nisha menon kcognitive femtocell network by nisha menon k
cognitive femtocell network by nisha menon k
 
Femtocell
FemtocellFemtocell
Femtocell
 
ppt on femtocell
ppt on femtocellppt on femtocell
ppt on femtocell
 
CTIA 2010 LTE Femtocell
CTIA 2010 LTE FemtocellCTIA 2010 LTE Femtocell
CTIA 2010 LTE Femtocell
 
Femtocell ppt
Femtocell pptFemtocell ppt
Femtocell ppt
 
MWC 2010 Femtocell
MWC 2010 FemtocellMWC 2010 Femtocell
MWC 2010 Femtocell
 
Femtocell
FemtocellFemtocell
Femtocell
 
“Design of Efficient Mobile Femtocell by Compression and Aggregation Technolo...
“Design of Efficient Mobile Femtocell by Compression and Aggregation Technolo...“Design of Efficient Mobile Femtocell by Compression and Aggregation Technolo...
“Design of Efficient Mobile Femtocell by Compression and Aggregation Technolo...
 
A 3G Femtocell Radio - Analog Devices VON Boston Networking Conference Oct 29...
A 3G Femtocell Radio - Analog Devices VON Boston Networking Conference Oct 29...A 3G Femtocell Radio - Analog Devices VON Boston Networking Conference Oct 29...
A 3G Femtocell Radio - Analog Devices VON Boston Networking Conference Oct 29...
 
Seminar for Femtocell
Seminar for FemtocellSeminar for Femtocell
Seminar for Femtocell
 
Femtocell
FemtocellFemtocell
Femtocell
 
Small cells I : Femto cell
Small cells I :  Femto cellSmall cells I :  Femto cell
Small cells I : Femto cell
 
Presentation on Femtocell technology
Presentation on Femtocell technologyPresentation on Femtocell technology
Presentation on Femtocell technology
 
Femtocells presentation
Femtocells presentationFemtocells presentation
Femtocells presentation
 
Macrocell Femtocell LTE Network Handover Decision Algorithm by Umar Danjuma M...
Macrocell Femtocell LTE Network Handover Decision Algorithm by Umar Danjuma M...Macrocell Femtocell LTE Network Handover Decision Algorithm by Umar Danjuma M...
Macrocell Femtocell LTE Network Handover Decision Algorithm by Umar Danjuma M...
 

Viewers also liked

Text mining 101 what you should know
Text mining 101 what you should knowText mining 101 what you should know
Text mining 101 what you should knowNASIG
 
Rysavy spectrum
Rysavy spectrumRysavy spectrum
Rysavy spectrumpbrysavy
 
Overview of handover decision strategies in heterogeneous networks by narendr...
Overview of handover decision strategies in heterogeneous networks by narendr...Overview of handover decision strategies in heterogeneous networks by narendr...
Overview of handover decision strategies in heterogeneous networks by narendr...Narendra Prajapati
 
Ambient Intelligence
Ambient IntelligenceAmbient Intelligence
Ambient IntelligenceRam Inamdar
 
Sentiment analysis using naive bayes classifier
Sentiment analysis using naive bayes classifier Sentiment analysis using naive bayes classifier
Sentiment analysis using naive bayes classifier Dev Sahu
 
Innovations In Burglar Alarms Ppt
Innovations In Burglar Alarms PptInnovations In Burglar Alarms Ppt
Innovations In Burglar Alarms PptColloquium
 
Laser security system
Laser security systemLaser security system
Laser security systemSuman Singha
 
Burglar alarm ppt
Burglar alarm pptBurglar alarm ppt
Burglar alarm pptAmena Islam
 
Handoff management
Handoff managementHandoff management
Handoff managementMounika Uade
 

Viewers also liked (15)

Pimrc 2010 sniri
Pimrc 2010 sniriPimrc 2010 sniri
Pimrc 2010 sniri
 
Text mining 101 what you should know
Text mining 101 what you should knowText mining 101 what you should know
Text mining 101 what you should know
 
Rysavy spectrum
Rysavy spectrumRysavy spectrum
Rysavy spectrum
 
Overview of handover decision strategies in heterogeneous networks by narendr...
Overview of handover decision strategies in heterogeneous networks by narendr...Overview of handover decision strategies in heterogeneous networks by narendr...
Overview of handover decision strategies in heterogeneous networks by narendr...
 
smart glasses
smart glassessmart glasses
smart glasses
 
Ambient Intelligence
Ambient IntelligenceAmbient Intelligence
Ambient Intelligence
 
Oculus Rift
Oculus RiftOculus Rift
Oculus Rift
 
Sentiment analysis using naive bayes classifier
Sentiment analysis using naive bayes classifier Sentiment analysis using naive bayes classifier
Sentiment analysis using naive bayes classifier
 
Innovations In Burglar Alarms Ppt
Innovations In Burglar Alarms PptInnovations In Burglar Alarms Ppt
Innovations In Burglar Alarms Ppt
 
Laser security system
Laser security systemLaser security system
Laser security system
 
Mobile data offloading
Mobile data offloadingMobile data offloading
Mobile data offloading
 
Laser security system
Laser security systemLaser security system
Laser security system
 
Laser Security System
Laser Security SystemLaser Security System
Laser Security System
 
Burglar alarm ppt
Burglar alarm pptBurglar alarm ppt
Burglar alarm ppt
 
Handoff management
Handoff managementHandoff management
Handoff management
 

Similar to Femto_cells

Small Cell @ IT Telkom
Small Cell @ IT TelkomSmall Cell @ IT Telkom
Small Cell @ IT TelkomArief Gunawan
 
a detailed study on femtocell,
a detailed study on femtocell,a detailed study on femtocell,
a detailed study on femtocell,Ali Ali
 
Het nets up close - Webinar with ThinkSmallCell and IXIA
Het nets up close - Webinar with ThinkSmallCell and IXIAHet nets up close - Webinar with ThinkSmallCell and IXIA
Het nets up close - Webinar with ThinkSmallCell and IXIADavid Chambers
 
Interference Aware & SINR Estimation in Femtocell Networks
Interference Aware & SINR Estimation in Femtocell NetworksInterference Aware & SINR Estimation in Femtocell Networks
Interference Aware & SINR Estimation in Femtocell NetworksIOSR Journals
 
Comm scope anixter-vision nyc das combined
Comm scope anixter-vision nyc das combinedComm scope anixter-vision nyc das combined
Comm scope anixter-vision nyc das combinedVision_Tech_Inc
 
Interference Analysis of Femtocells
Interference Analysis of FemtocellsInterference Analysis of Femtocells
Interference Analysis of Femtocellsikeshav86
 
Recent advance in communications
Recent advance in communicationsRecent advance in communications
Recent advance in communicationsPraveen Kumar
 
TopologicalPlanningandDesignofHeterogeneousMobileNetworksinDenseAreas.pdf
TopologicalPlanningandDesignofHeterogeneousMobileNetworksinDenseAreas.pdfTopologicalPlanningandDesignofHeterogeneousMobileNetworksinDenseAreas.pdf
TopologicalPlanningandDesignofHeterogeneousMobileNetworksinDenseAreas.pdfBrianJanAdela3
 
LTE & Wi-Fi: Options for Uniting Them for a Better User Experience
LTE & Wi-Fi: Options for Uniting Them for a Better User ExperienceLTE & Wi-Fi: Options for Uniting Them for a Better User Experience
LTE & Wi-Fi: Options for Uniting Them for a Better User ExperienceAricent
 
LTE & Wi-Fi: Options for Uniting Them for a Better User Experience
LTE & Wi-Fi: Options for Uniting Them for a Better User Experience LTE & Wi-Fi: Options for Uniting Them for a Better User Experience
LTE & Wi-Fi: Options for Uniting Them for a Better User Experience Aricent
 
Wireless sensing wireless_sensing_femtocells
Wireless sensing wireless_sensing_femtocellsWireless sensing wireless_sensing_femtocells
Wireless sensing wireless_sensing_femtocellsParthSaarthi Aggarwal
 
Mobile Computing Complete Introduction
Mobile Computing Complete IntroductionMobile Computing Complete Introduction
Mobile Computing Complete IntroductionDenis R
 

Similar to Femto_cells (20)

Small Cell @ UI
Small Cell @ UISmall Cell @ UI
Small Cell @ UI
 
Small Cell @ IT Telkom
Small Cell @ IT TelkomSmall Cell @ IT Telkom
Small Cell @ IT Telkom
 
Hetnet ppt
Hetnet pptHetnet ppt
Hetnet ppt
 
a detailed study on femtocell,
a detailed study on femtocell,a detailed study on femtocell,
a detailed study on femtocell,
 
Het nets up close - Webinar with ThinkSmallCell and IXIA
Het nets up close - Webinar with ThinkSmallCell and IXIAHet nets up close - Webinar with ThinkSmallCell and IXIA
Het nets up close - Webinar with ThinkSmallCell and IXIA
 
Interference Aware & SINR Estimation in Femtocell Networks
Interference Aware & SINR Estimation in Femtocell NetworksInterference Aware & SINR Estimation in Femtocell Networks
Interference Aware & SINR Estimation in Femtocell Networks
 
Comm scope anixter-vision nyc das combined
Comm scope anixter-vision nyc das combinedComm scope anixter-vision nyc das combined
Comm scope anixter-vision nyc das combined
 
Interference Analysis of Femtocells
Interference Analysis of FemtocellsInterference Analysis of Femtocells
Interference Analysis of Femtocells
 
Femtocellppt 433
Femtocellppt 433Femtocellppt 433
Femtocellppt 433
 
Recent advance in communications
Recent advance in communicationsRecent advance in communications
Recent advance in communications
 
FEMTOCELLSreport
FEMTOCELLSreportFEMTOCELLSreport
FEMTOCELLSreport
 
Noticias TIC marzo 2013
Noticias TIC marzo  2013Noticias TIC marzo  2013
Noticias TIC marzo 2013
 
TopologicalPlanningandDesignofHeterogeneousMobileNetworksinDenseAreas.pdf
TopologicalPlanningandDesignofHeterogeneousMobileNetworksinDenseAreas.pdfTopologicalPlanningandDesignofHeterogeneousMobileNetworksinDenseAreas.pdf
TopologicalPlanningandDesignofHeterogeneousMobileNetworksinDenseAreas.pdf
 
Femtocell
FemtocellFemtocell
Femtocell
 
Femtocell Technology
Femtocell TechnologyFemtocell Technology
Femtocell Technology
 
LTE & Wi-Fi: Options for Uniting Them for a Better User Experience
LTE & Wi-Fi: Options for Uniting Them for a Better User ExperienceLTE & Wi-Fi: Options for Uniting Them for a Better User Experience
LTE & Wi-Fi: Options for Uniting Them for a Better User Experience
 
LTE & Wi-Fi: Options for Uniting Them for a Better User Experience
LTE & Wi-Fi: Options for Uniting Them for a Better User Experience LTE & Wi-Fi: Options for Uniting Them for a Better User Experience
LTE & Wi-Fi: Options for Uniting Them for a Better User Experience
 
Wireless lan
Wireless lanWireless lan
Wireless lan
 
Wireless sensing wireless_sensing_femtocells
Wireless sensing wireless_sensing_femtocellsWireless sensing wireless_sensing_femtocells
Wireless sensing wireless_sensing_femtocells
 
Mobile Computing Complete Introduction
Mobile Computing Complete IntroductionMobile Computing Complete Introduction
Mobile Computing Complete Introduction
 

Recently uploaded

The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...Wes McKinney
 
A Glance At The Java Performance Toolbox
A Glance At The Java Performance ToolboxA Glance At The Java Performance Toolbox
A Glance At The Java Performance ToolboxAna-Maria Mihalceanu
 
MuleSoft Online Meetup Group - B2B Crash Course: Release SparkNotes
MuleSoft Online Meetup Group - B2B Crash Course: Release SparkNotesMuleSoft Online Meetup Group - B2B Crash Course: Release SparkNotes
MuleSoft Online Meetup Group - B2B Crash Course: Release SparkNotesManik S Magar
 
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)Kaya Weers
 
Digital Tools & AI in Career Development
Digital Tools & AI in Career DevelopmentDigital Tools & AI in Career Development
Digital Tools & AI in Career DevelopmentMahmoud Rabie
 
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdfGenerative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdfIngrid Airi González
 
QCon London: Mastering long-running processes in modern architectures
QCon London: Mastering long-running processes in modern architecturesQCon London: Mastering long-running processes in modern architectures
QCon London: Mastering long-running processes in modern architecturesBernd Ruecker
 
All These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDF
All These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDFAll These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDF
All These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDFMichael Gough
 
Genislab builds better products and faster go-to-market with Lean project man...
Genislab builds better products and faster go-to-market with Lean project man...Genislab builds better products and faster go-to-market with Lean project man...
Genislab builds better products and faster go-to-market with Lean project man...Farhan Tariq
 
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)Mark Simos
 
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyesHow to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyesThousandEyes
 
Arti Languages Pre Seed Pitchdeck 2024.pdf
Arti Languages Pre Seed Pitchdeck 2024.pdfArti Languages Pre Seed Pitchdeck 2024.pdf
Arti Languages Pre Seed Pitchdeck 2024.pdfwill854175
 
Bitdefender-CSG-Report-creat7534-interactive
Bitdefender-CSG-Report-creat7534-interactiveBitdefender-CSG-Report-creat7534-interactive
Bitdefender-CSG-Report-creat7534-interactivestartupro
 
Which standard is best for your content?
Which standard is best for your content?Which standard is best for your content?
Which standard is best for your content?Rustici Software
 
Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks and Compliance Requirements i...
Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks  and Compliance Requirements i...Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks  and Compliance Requirements i...
Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks and Compliance Requirements i...itnewsafrica
 
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdf
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdfLandscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdf
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdfAarwolf Industries LLC
 
A PowerPoint Presentation on Vikram Lander pptx
A PowerPoint Presentation on Vikram Lander pptxA PowerPoint Presentation on Vikram Lander pptx
A PowerPoint Presentation on Vikram Lander pptxatharvdev2010
 
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and Insights
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and InsightsPotential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and Insights
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and InsightsRavi Sanghani
 
Software Security in the Real World w/Kelsey Hightower
Software Security in the Real World w/Kelsey HightowerSoftware Security in the Real World w/Kelsey Hightower
Software Security in the Real World w/Kelsey HightowerAnchore
 
2024 April Patch Tuesday
2024 April Patch Tuesday2024 April Patch Tuesday
2024 April Patch TuesdayIvanti
 

Recently uploaded (20)

The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...
 
A Glance At The Java Performance Toolbox
A Glance At The Java Performance ToolboxA Glance At The Java Performance Toolbox
A Glance At The Java Performance Toolbox
 
MuleSoft Online Meetup Group - B2B Crash Course: Release SparkNotes
MuleSoft Online Meetup Group - B2B Crash Course: Release SparkNotesMuleSoft Online Meetup Group - B2B Crash Course: Release SparkNotes
MuleSoft Online Meetup Group - B2B Crash Course: Release SparkNotes
 
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
 
Digital Tools & AI in Career Development
Digital Tools & AI in Career DevelopmentDigital Tools & AI in Career Development
Digital Tools & AI in Career Development
 
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdfGenerative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
 
QCon London: Mastering long-running processes in modern architectures
QCon London: Mastering long-running processes in modern architecturesQCon London: Mastering long-running processes in modern architectures
QCon London: Mastering long-running processes in modern architectures
 
All These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDF
All These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDFAll These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDF
All These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDF
 
Genislab builds better products and faster go-to-market with Lean project man...
Genislab builds better products and faster go-to-market with Lean project man...Genislab builds better products and faster go-to-market with Lean project man...
Genislab builds better products and faster go-to-market with Lean project man...
 
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
 
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyesHow to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
 
Arti Languages Pre Seed Pitchdeck 2024.pdf
Arti Languages Pre Seed Pitchdeck 2024.pdfArti Languages Pre Seed Pitchdeck 2024.pdf
Arti Languages Pre Seed Pitchdeck 2024.pdf
 
Bitdefender-CSG-Report-creat7534-interactive
Bitdefender-CSG-Report-creat7534-interactiveBitdefender-CSG-Report-creat7534-interactive
Bitdefender-CSG-Report-creat7534-interactive
 
Which standard is best for your content?
Which standard is best for your content?Which standard is best for your content?
Which standard is best for your content?
 
Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks and Compliance Requirements i...
Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks  and Compliance Requirements i...Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks  and Compliance Requirements i...
Abdul Kader Baba- Managing Cybersecurity Risks and Compliance Requirements i...
 
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdf
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdfLandscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdf
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdf
 
A PowerPoint Presentation on Vikram Lander pptx
A PowerPoint Presentation on Vikram Lander pptxA PowerPoint Presentation on Vikram Lander pptx
A PowerPoint Presentation on Vikram Lander pptx
 
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and Insights
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and InsightsPotential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and Insights
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and Insights
 
Software Security in the Real World w/Kelsey Hightower
Software Security in the Real World w/Kelsey HightowerSoftware Security in the Real World w/Kelsey Hightower
Software Security in the Real World w/Kelsey Hightower
 
2024 April Patch Tuesday
2024 April Patch Tuesday2024 April Patch Tuesday
2024 April Patch Tuesday
 

Femto_cells

  • 1.
  • 2. • Deyaa Ahmed Shaaban • Omar Adel • Omar Hisham • Ahmed Roushdy Saleh
  • 3.
  • 4. Before we know what Femtocell is, we must know Why we searched for it …..!!!
  • 5. The growing number of cellular network users raises issues about coverage extension in some areas such as indoor or underground locations. Why is there a need for such small cells? The most efficient way to increase network capacity in a cellular network is to shrink the cell size– ok, there are other ways, including getting new spectrum, sectorization, adaptive algorithms for scheduling but all are semi-disruptive and cannot compete with a smaller cell size. However, in an archetypal mobile network, the cost to deploy a network with many small cells in data hungry areas is prohibitive. Femto cells piggyback on broadband connections and are relatively inexpensive and can effectively form a distributed high capacity network. On a much simpler usage case, femto cells can provide coverage where ordinary cells cannot, in highly populated areas where propagation issues are a concern.
  • 6.
  • 7. Femtocell is a low-power wireless base station for cellular access indoor in areas with limited or no cellular provider. The access point operates in a licensed spectrum and is designed to route mobile phone traffic through a home or corporate IP network. A femtocell is connected to a broadband (cable modem or Digital Subscriber Line) and provides complete voice and data service to standard mobile devices such as cell phones with al limited number and within a limited range. It supports 2 to 5 mobiles.
  • 8.
  • 9. Unique Characteristics of Femtocells • Designed for the home environment – Might get deployed in small-office/home-office or business situations, but this is not the primary design target • Operate in licensed spectrum – E.g., WiFi-based fixed mobile convergence solutions are not femtocells – Therefore, femtocells must be operated or associated with a spectrum license holder • Designed to connect to the operator’s network via an untrusted broadband IP-based network, typically public – E.g., Cable, DSL, or other home broadband service – Does not preclude usage over private IP networks or even non-IP networks, but that is not the design target
  • 10. Capabilities and Services High level goal: The end user has access to all capabilities of his/her mobile device. • Voice calling (outbound and inbound) • Additional services such as 3-way calling, call hold, caller-ID, etc. • Messaging (such as Text and picture messages or other multimedia messaging services) • Data services (such as mobile broadband access) • Broadcast services • Location services (and location-based services, navigation applications, etc.) • Emergency services (such as E911)
  • 11. Potential End User Benefits • Improved coverage in their home • Possibly just providing coverage where there is none! • Enhanced availability of services • Possible incentives from carriers (e.g., reduced rates or flat-rate services in the “home zone”) • Ability to use mobile device as primary “phone” • Availability of richer cellular services while at home • Improved battery life while at home
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15. We will handle two challenges : • RF interference (inter-femto, macro-femto) • Handoff
  • 16. RF Interference • Areas of concern: – Femtocell to macrocells – Femtocell to femtocell • May be partially avoided if femtocells can be deployed in different radio channels from macro system • Unlikely that femtocell to femtocell interference can be managed via unique radio channel assignments – Eventually femtocell density will make this impossible • In general, standards must provide ways to operate femtocells in common radio channels with macro
  • 17. Solutions for RF Interference • Most aspects of RF interference mitigation will likely be addressed by proprietary solutions • Radio resources must be assigned using centralized planning – Radio channel for operation of each technology – PN codes – Power control parameters, transmission power limits, etc. – Requires accurate knowledge of deployed femtocell locations, capabilities, and other feedback information from all femtocells to the centralized femtocell management system • Femtocells must utilize techniques to reduce interference autonomously and continuously – Based on feedback and measurements about the RF environment – Based on feedback from MS/ATs (e.g., pilot reports)
  • 18. Handoff • Types of handoff: – Handout from femtocell to macro system – Handin from macro system to femtocell – Inter-femtocell handoff between femtocells • Inter-femtocell handoff is generally not required for home-based femtocells (at least for early deployments) – May be required as the technology involves to be used in enterprises (e.g., picocells) • Packet data service handoff follows normal packet data mobility procedures (e.g., Mobile IP)
  • 19. Solutions for Handoff • Handout from femtocell to macro system is fairly straightforward: – MS reports macro system pilots to the femtocell – Femtocell triggers handoff to macro system via standard ANSI-41 IS handoff signaling to target MSC • For legacy circuit architecture, A1p triggers controller to initiate ANSI-41 IS handoff • For SIP/IMS architecture, SIP signaling triggers CSRV to initiate ANSI-41 IS handoff – When target MSC responds with handoff parameters, the information is passed back to the femtocell – Femtocell sends handoff direction message to mobile directing it to the macro system directly – Call continues
  • 20. Radio health issues research A very large amount of research has been undertaken into discovering any links between low level radio frequency radiation and health issues. If any major links had been found, then it should be a safe assumption that legislation would have been altered and the use of low power radio changed. Much of the research that has been undertaken has been statistical in nature. Research would look at users of radio equipment and those who have a much lower level of usage, or no usage at all. The results have to be interpreted in a statistical nature, because some people who are not exposed to radiation will fall ill anyway. Therefore it is necessary to look at the illnesses that occur in the two groups of people. Even with large samples, it appears that most research projects have found little or no evidence of major health risks and therefore the health organisations have been willing to allow the current levels of radiation in and around the home.
  • 21. Although no direct links to cancer have been found, it is a recognised fact that radio frequency radiation does heat up local tissue - in the same way as a microwave oven works, although the power levels for microwave ovens are much higher. As a result a phenomenon known as "hot ear" can occur when a cell phone held close to the ear is used for an extended period of time. It is therefore recommended that cellphones are not used for extended periods of the day. However, it is current thinking that in view of the 1/d^2 law where power reduces as the square of the distance, means that femtocells should not pose any form of risk.
  • 22.
  • 23. Femtocells are cellular base stations roughly the size of a Wi-Fi router. Their diminutive size belies the market opportunity for apps that use femtos to enable services that otherwise would be difficult or impossible with other technologies. Many mobile operators and vendors believe that small cells will be key for delivering the multi-megabit speeds that customers expect from 4G/LTE while reducing traffic loads on the outdoor sites. The market opportunity for femto apps depends partly on the installed base of femtos. Currently there are more than 6 million femtocells and other small cells installed worldwide Although that’s already more than the number of macrocells, collectively it’s still a tiny addressable market because each small cell serves only a handful of potential mobile app customers.
  • 24. That will change as small cell deployments continue to mushroom, according to analyst predictions. In the meantime, finding the market opportunities for app development means focusing on what specific operators are doing. “I’d say maybe half a dozen to a dozen commercial apps today,” Germano says. “We’re at the early stage of the market where what we’ll see is a little more mobile operator involvement in new small- cell-based applications. Some of these applications will be unique to specific operators or for specific enterprise customers.”
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27.